Lions Gate Entertainment Corp. doing business as Lionsgate, is a Canadian-American entertainment company. It was formed on July 10, 1997, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and is headquartered in Santa Monica, United States. In addition to its flagship Lionsgate Films division, which generated the seventh-highest gross revenue in North America in 2015, the company contains other divisions such as Lionsgate Television and Lionsgate Interactive, it owns a variety of subsidiaries such as Summit Entertainment, Debmar-Mercury, Starz Inc. Lionsgate was formed in 1997 by Frank Giustra with a $16 million investment including another $40 million from other investors which included Keyur Patel and Yorkton Securities' executives such as G. Scott Paterson. Giustra had retired as CEO from Yorkton, an investment bank, Paterson was president. Giustra merged Lionsgate with Toronto Stock Exchange listed Beringer Gold Corp. to take the company public. Beringer's mining assets were soon sold off. Lionsgate began a series of acquisitions to get into the film industry.
The company bought a number of small production facilities and distributors, starting with Montreal-based Cinépix Film Properties and North Shore Studios in Vancouver, British Columbia. Mandalay Television was acquired by Lionsgate from Peter Guber for a 4% Lionsgate stake. In 1998, Lionsgate helped Guber form Mandalay Pictures with a 45% investment in Mandalay. Lionsgate followed that up with a June purchase of International Movie Group, Inc. a bankrupt film distributor invested in by Guber and Yorktown Securities, for its film library. IMG's CEO Peter Strauss became President of Lions Gate Entertainment, Inc. the American parent company for Lionsgate's U. S. interests. The Lions Gate Media subsidiary was formed to produce for television. Completing its first year of operation, Lionsgate had revenue of $42.2 million with loss of $397,000. The company share price dropped to a low of $1.40. This limited the corporation's ability to make acquisitions via stock swaps. Lionsgate instead made its next acquisition of Termite Art Productions, a reality-based television production company, for $2.75 million by issuing three convertible promissory notes.
Giustra had the shareholders vote to move the company's public listing from the Toronto Stock Exchange to the American Stock Exchange, along with a two-for-one stock consolidation to qualify, for greater exposure that might boost share value. In January 1999, Roman Doroniuk was named president and chief operating officers of Lionsgate, which led to the corporation's financial operations being moved in April to Doroniuk's offices in Toronto, Ontario while corporate headquarters remained in Vancouver, British Columbia. Lionsgate created US based Avalanche Films and acquired half of Sterling Home Entertainment, both in video sales. Again, Lionsgate registered losses in its second year of $9.3 million on revenues of $78.3 million with most of the losses were from its stake in Mandalay Pictures. Thus in the summer, Lionsgate placed its studios up for sale with no buyers. TV operations were changed to non-network hourlong series over riskier network shows and ended its relationship with Mandalay Television.
The corporation sought out more capital and cash with a filing of a preliminary prospectus for the sale of preferred stock and common stock warrants and a $13.4 million line of credit. Additional acquisition funding arrived in January 2000 as a $33.1 million investment from an investor group that included Paul Allen, former Sony Pictures executive Jon Feltheimer, German broadcasting company Tele-Munchen, SBS Broadcasting SA. This led to Feltheimer taking over as CEO from Giustra thus the passed over Doroniuk left the company. Feltheimer increased film making including several $1 million films at Avalanche. However, Federgreen still remains one of the major owners of the company and is involved in the making of all their major movies. In June, Lionsgate acquired Trimark Holdings, Inc. for $50 million in stock and cash including taking on $36 million in debt. Lionsgate continued making acquisitions during the decade to boost distribution and its film library. On December 15, 2003, Lionsgate acquired Artisan Entertainment for $220 million.
In 2004, Erik Nelson renamed it to Creative Differences. Lionsgate partnered with Panamax Films in 2005 to make movies for the Latino market which only produced two films. On April 13, 2005, Lionsgate spun off its Canadian distribution unit into a new distribution unit called Maple Pictures under the direction of two former Lionsgate executives, Brad Pelman and Laurie May. On August 1, 2005, Lions Gate Entertainment acquired the entire library of Modern Entertainment, the U. S. film division of the Swedish television company Modern Times Group. On October 17, 2005, Lionsgate acquired UK company Redbus Film Distribution for $35 million and became Lionsgate UK on February 23, 2006. On March 15, 2006, Lionsgate sold Lionsgate Studios to Bosa Development Corporation. On July 12, Lionsgate purchased Debmar-Mercury, an independent television distributor, which has continued operations as a Lionsgate subsidiary; the company agreed in August to lease term with New Mexico State Land Office and the city of Rio Rancho for a new 52.8 acres studio near Rio Rancho's under construction city center and arena.
On July 26, 2007, Lionsgate bought a partial stake in independent film distribution company Roadside Attractions. Lionsgate started up Lionsgate Music by June 2007. On September 10, 2007, Lionsgate bought Mandate Pictures for $56.3 million, $44.3 million in cash and $12 million in stock, taking on $6.6 million of Mandate's debt. Mandate Chief Executive Joe Drake returne
In chronobiology, a circasemidian rhythm is a physiological arousal cycle that peaks twice in a 24-hour day. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human circadian rhythms in many measures of performance and physiological activity have a 2-peak daily pattern; the word, circasemidian, is based upon the Latin words circa and dia. Thus, this is a rhythm that has two cycles per day, some investigators have referred to it as the semicircadian rhythm, it serves to deepen the pre-dawn nadir in body temperature and cognitive performance, create a flat spot during the early afternoon in the daytime increase in body temperature and cognitive performance, heighten the early-evening peak in body temperature and cognitive performance. Broughton was the first to bring this characteristic of human performance to the attention of researchers. No evidence exists to support the presence of a circasemidian rhythm in the rhythmic cells of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the accepted internal timing source for the major circadian rhythms of the body.
Thus, though it falls in the domain of an ultradian rhythm, the circasemidian rhythm may be the first harmonic of the circadian rhythm and not an intrinsic rhythm. However, a number of published data sets have shown a daily two-peak error pattern in industrial and transportation environments; the pattern was obvious in many of the charts shown in the review by Rutenfranz and Colquhoun, though they did not suggest a circasemidian rhythm as a mediator for the pattern. Other investigators have reported a circasemidian rhythm in body temperature and slow-wave sleep; these behavioral and physiological observations support the need to consider a 12-hour rhythmicity in the quantification of daily variations in physiological function and some kinds of cognitive performance in fatigue modeling efforts such as the Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool
The 2014 MNL-2 New Holland League is the second edition of MNL-2. The first round of the season ended on 28 March; the schedule for the second round will be released after completion of the first round. The two guest teams taking part in MNL-2 will not be qualified to either MFF Cup. Promoted fromNo team will be promoted until the introduction of MNL-3 in coming years. Relegated from MNLHantharwady United Rakhine United Promoted to MNLTBDRelegationIt is understood that MFF is in the process of establishing a third-tier league, MNL-3 in coming years; until no team will be relegated. The 2014 MNL-2 season will have 10 teams playing for promotion to the Myanmar National League; the teams are:- Best United FC Horizon FC Hantharwady United Mawyawadi FC Myawady FC Rakhine United Myanmar U-19 Dagon FC Silver Stars FC University FC Matches are planned to play in Salin Stadium and Padonmar Stadium with a League cup format. As of Week-6 2014 Myanmar National League 2014 MFF Cup Myanmar Football Federation:MNL-2 Myanmar Football Federation:Amateur League Myanmar National League:MNL-2 Table Soccer Myanmar