Johann Georg Wagler
Johann Georg Wagler was a German herpetologist and ornithologist. Wagler was assistant to Johann Baptist von Spix, gave lectures in Zoology at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich after, moved to Munich, he worked on the extensive collections brought back from Brazil by Spix, published together with him books on reptiles from Brazil. Wagler wrote Monographia Psittacorum. In 1832, Wagler died of an accidental self-inflicted gunshot wound while out collecting in München-Moosach. Wagler is commemorated in the specific names of three species of reptiles: Atractus wagleri, Podarcis waglerianus, Tropidolaemus wagleri. Wagler described a taxonomic arrangement of psittacine fauna and cockatoos, some of which are recognised in the systematic classification of these birds. Four of Wagler's books and articles are available at the Biodiversity Heritage Library: Monographia Psittacorum. Co-writer: Wetmore, Alexander. Natürliches System der mit vorangehender Classification der Säugethiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie.
Co-writer: Richmond, Charles Wallace. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae ou Histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens, recueillies et observées pendant le voyage dans l'intérieur du Brésil dans les années 1817, 1818, 1819, 1820. Co-writer: Spix, Johann Baptist von. Wagler's Six ornithological memoirs from the'Isis.'. Edt: Sclater, P. L. Adler, editor. Contributions to the History of Herpetology. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 202 pp. ISBN 978-0916984199. Works by or about Johann Georg Wagler at Internet Archive
James R. Dixon
James Ray Dixon was Professor Emeritus and Curator Emeritus of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection at Texas A&M University. He lived in Texas throughout most of his childhood, he published prolifically on the subject of herpetology in his distinguished career, authoring and co-authoring several books, book chapters, numerous peer reviewed notes and articles, describing two new genera, many new species, earning him a reputation as one of the most prominent herpetologists of his generation. His main research focus was morphology based systematics of amphibians and reptiles worldwide with emphasis on Texas, USA, Central America, South America, although bibliographies, ecology, life history and zoogeography have all been the subjects of his extensive publications. A genus of lizards, Dixonius Bauer, Good & Branch, 1997, leaf-toed geckos from Southeast Asia, was named in his honor as well as several species of reptiles and amphibians, e.g. the white-lipped peeping frog, Eleutherodactylus dixoni J.
D. Lynch, 1991. A. Thomas, 2007. Dixon attained his bachelor of science from Howard Payne University, served in the Korean War. Upon returning from the war, he acted as Curator of Reptiles at the Ross Allen Reptile Institute from 1954 to 1955, he earned his master's PhD in from Texas A&M University. He was an Associate Professor of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M from 1959 until 1961. From 1961 until 1965 he was an Associate Professor of Wildlife Management at New Mexico State University and served as a consultant to the New Mexico state Game and Fisheries department, he was on the faculty of the University of Southern California and from 1965 until 1967 he was Curator of Herpetology at the Life Sciences Division at the Los Angeles County Museum in California. In 1967 he returned to Texas to become a professor at Texas A&M University, teaching Wildlife and Fisheries Science, Curator of the Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection or TCWC. Over 20 herpetologists earned Ph. D.s studying under him at Texas A&M University.
He has served as President of several herpetological and naturalist societies including The Herpetologist League, Texas Herpetological Society, Texas Academy of Science. He has served on the faculty of Stephen F. Austin State University and Texas State University. Listed in chronological order. Crenadactylus Dixon & Kluge, 1964 – tiny Australian clawless geckos Asaccus Dixon & S. Anderson, 1973 – Southwest Asian leaf-toed geckos Listed in chronological order. Eleutherodactylus dilatus – Guerreran peeping frog Eleutherodactylus grandis – great peeping frog Coleonyx reticulatus Davis & Dixon, 1958 – reticulate banded gecko Eleutherodactylus rufescens – red peeping frog Phyllodactylus duellmani Dixon, 1960 – Duellman's pigmy leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus insularis Dixon, 1960 – Belize leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus paucituberculatus Dixon, 1960 – Rio Marquez Valley gecko Ambystoma flavipiperatum Dixon, 1963 – yellow-peppered salamander Phyllodactylus davisi Dixon, 1964 – Davis' leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus nocticolus Dixon, 1964 – peninsula leaf-toed gecko Eleutherodactylus nivicolimae – Nevado de Colima chirping frog Phyllodactylus angelensis Dixon, 1966 – Angel Island leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus apricus Dixon, 1966 – Las Animas Island gecko Phyllodactylus bugastrolepis Dixon, 1966 – Catalina Island leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus partidus Dixon, 1966 – Isla Partida Norte leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus santacruzensis Dixon, 1966 – Santa Cruz leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus tinklei Dixon, 1966 – Raza Island leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus palmeus Dixon, 1968 – Honduras leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus angustidigitus Dixon & Huey, 1970 – narrow leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus clinatus Dixon & Huey, 1970 – Cerro Illescas gecko Phyllodactylus interandinus Dixon & Huey, 1970 – Andes leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus johnwrighti Dixon & Huey, 1970 – Rio Huancabamba leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus kofordi Dixon & Huey, 1970 – coastal leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus pumilus Dixon & Huey, 1970 – leaf-toed gecko Phyllodactylus sentosus Dixon & Huey, 1970 – Lima leaf-toed gecko Pseudogonatodes peruvianus Huey & Dixon, 1970 – Peru clawed gecko Sceloporus exsul Dixon, Ketchersid & Lieb, 1972 – Queretaran desert spiny lizard Hypsiglena tanzeri Dixon & Lieb, 1972 – Tanzer's night snake Bachia huallagana Dixon, 1973 – Dixon's bachia Asaccus griseonotus Dixon & S. Anderson, 1973 – gray-marked gecko Rhachisaurus brachylepis – Dixon's antosaura Anotosaura vanzolinia Dixon, 1974 – Vanzolini's antosaura Helicops yacu Rossman & Dixon, 1975 – Peru keelback Bachia guianensis Hoogmoed & Dixon, 1977 – Guyana bachia Erythrolamprus pyburni – Pyburn's tropical forest snake Typhlops minuisquamus Dixon & Hendricks, 1979 – basin worm snake Typhlops paucisquamus Dixon & Hendricks, 1979 – Pernambuco worm snake Kentropyx vanzoi Gallagher & Dixon, 1980 – Gallagher's kentropyx Neusticurus medemi Dixon & Lamar, 1981 – Medem's neisticurus Erythrolamprus andinus – ground snake Liotyphlops argaleus Dixon & Kofron, 1984 – ground snake Erythrolamprus at
Alsophis is a genus of snakes in the colubrid Dipsadinae subfamily. They occur throughout the Caribbean. One species in the genus Alsophis is one of the world’s rarest known snakes. Snakes of the genus Alsophis are small and rear-fanged, they are considered harmless to humans; this genus contains at least eight described species. Several species once included in this genus have been placed in the genera Borikenophis and Pseudalsophis. Alsophis antiguae is the rarest snake in the genus Alsophis; this snake once occurred on Antigua and Barbuda, but by 1995, only 50 individuals remained on Great Bird Island, off the coast of Antigua. Following the removal of invasive alien predators and successful reintroductions to a further three islands, the total population has increased to more than 1,000 individuals. Snakes of the genus Alsophis are all small less than about 1 m in body length. Females tend to be larger than males; these racers are rear-fanged, with enlarged teeth at the rear of their upper jaws.
Alsophis species are harmless to humans and most have a gentle temperament. They are diurnal active from dawn to dusk. Listed alphabetically. Alsophis antiguae Parker, 1933 – Antiguan racer Alsophis antillensis – Antilles racer Alsophis danforthi Cochran, 1938 Alsophis manselli Parker, 1933 – Montserrat racer Alsophis rijgersmaei Cope, 1869 – Anguilla racer, Leeward Islands racer Alsophis rufiventris – Saba racer, orange-bellied racer, red-bellied racer Alsophis sanctonum Barbour, 1915 Alsophis sibonius Cope, 1879 – Antilles racer, Leeward racer Life is Short, but Snakes are Long Antiguan racer at Fauna & Flora International Offshore Islands Conservation Programme
Colubridae is a family of snakes. With 524 genera and 1,760 species, it is the largest snake family, includes just over 51% of all known living snake species; the earliest species of the family date back to the Oligocene epoch. Colubrid snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica. While most colubrids are not venomous and are harmless, a few groups, such as genus Boiga, can produce medically significant bites, while the boomslang, the twig snakes, the Asian genus Rhabdophis have caused human fatalities; some colubrids are described as opisthoglyphous, meaning they have elongated, grooved teeth located in the back of their upper jaws called "rear-fanged". Opisthoglyphous dentition evolved many times in the history of snakes and is an evolutionary precursor to the fangs of vipers and elapids, which are located in the front of the mouth. In the past, the Colubridae were not a natural group, as many were more related to other groups, such as elapids, than to each other; this family was used as a "wastebasket taxon" for snakes that do not fit elsewhere.
Until colubrids were colubroids that were not elapids, viperids, or Atractaspis. However, recent research in molecular phylogenetics has stabilized the classification of "colubrid" snakes and the family as defined is a monophyletic clade, although additional research will be necessary to sort out all the relationships within this group; as of May 2018 eight subfamilies are recognized. Sibynophiinae – 11 species in two genera Natricinae – 236 species in 36 genera Pseudoxenodontinae – 10 species in two genera Dipsadinae – 782 species in 96 genera Grayiinae – 4 species in one genus GrayiaCalamariinae – 89 species in seven genera Ahaetuliinae – 61 species in four genera Colubrinae – 699 species in 95 genera genera incertae sedis These taxa have been at one time or another classified as part of the Colubridae, but are now either classified as parts of other families, or are no longer accepted because all the species within them have been moved to other families. Subfamily Aparallactinae Subfamily Boiginae Subfamily Boodontinae Subfamily Dispholidinae Subfamily Homalopsinae Subfamily Lamprophiinae Subfamily Lycodontinae Subfamily Lycophidinae Subfamily Pareatinae Subfamily Philothamninae Subfamily Psammophiinae Subfamily Pseudoxyrhophiinae Subfamily Xenoderminae Subfamily Xenodontinae Psammophids at Life is Short but Snakes are Long
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere the Americas, Oceania. The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would be called the Americas in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World; the phrase gained prominence after the publication of a pamphlet titled Mundus Novus attributed to Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. The Americas were referred to as the "fourth part of the world"; the terms "Old World" vs. "New World" are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the world's major ecozones, to classify plant and animal species that originated therein. One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g. when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period.
For lack of alternatives, the term is still useful to those discussing issues that concern the Americas and the nearby oceanic islands, such as Bermuda and Clipperton Island, collectively. The term "New World" is used in a biological context, when one speaks of Old World and New World species. Biological taxonomists attach the "New World" label to groups of species that are found in the Americas, to distinguish them from their counterparts in the "Old World", e.g. New World monkeys, New World vultures, New World warblers; the label is often used in agriculture. Asia and Europe share a common agricultural history stemming from the Neolithic Revolution, the same domesticated plants and animals spread through these three continents thousands of years ago, making them indistinct and useful to classify together as "Old World". Common Old World crops, domesticated animals did not exist in the Americas until they were introduced by post-Columbian contact in the 1490s. Conversely, many common crops were domesticated in the Americas before they spread worldwide after Columbian contact, are still referred to as "New World crops".
Other famous New World crops include the cashew, rubber, sunflower and vanilla, fruits like the guava and pineapple. There are rare instances of overlap, e.g. the calabash and yam, the dog, are believed to have been domesticated separately in both the Old and New World, their early forms brought along by Paleo-Indians from Asia during the last glacial period. In wine terminology, "New World" has a different definition. "New World wines" include not only North American and South American wines, but those from South Africa, New Zealand, all other locations outside the traditional wine-growing regions of Europe, North Africa and the Near East. The term "New World" was first coined by the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci, in a letter written to his friend and former patron Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' Medici in the Spring of 1503, published in 1503–04 under the title Mundus Novus. Vespucci's letter contains arguably the first explicit articulation in print of the hypothesis that the lands discovered by European navigators to the west were not the edges of Asia, as asserted by Christopher Columbus, but rather an different continent, a "New World".
Vespucci first approached this realization in June 1502, during a famous chance meeting between two different expeditions at the watering stop of "Bezeguiche" – his own outgoing expedition, on its way to chart the coast of newly discovered Brazil, the vanguard ships of the Second Portuguese India armada of Pedro Álvares Cabral, returning home from India. Having visited the Americas in prior years, Vespucci found it difficult to reconcile what he had seen in the West Indies, with what the returning sailors told him of the East Indies. Vespucci wrote a preliminary letter to Lorenzo, while anchored at Bezeguiche, which he sent back with the Portuguese fleet – at this point only expressing a certain puzzlement about his conversations. Vespucci was convinced when he proceeded on his mapping expedition through 1501–02, covering the huge stretch of coast of eastern Brazil. After returning from Brazil, in the Spring of 1503, Amerigo Vespucci composed the Mundus Novus letter in Lisbon to Lorenzo in Florence, with its famous opening paragraph: In passed days I wrote fully to you of my return from new countries, which have been found and explored with the ships, at the cost and by the command of this Most Serene King of Portugal.
For the opinion of the ancients was, that the greater part of the world beyond the equinoctial line to the south was not land, but only sea, which they have called the Atlantic.