Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
A plug, in the context of body modification, is a short, cylindrical piece of jewellery worn in larger-gauge body piercings. Modern western plugs are called flesh tunnels; because of their size—which is substantially thicker than a standard metal earring—plugs can be made out of any material. Acrylic glass, wood, stone, glass, silicone or porcelain are all potential plug materials. Plugs are and have been worn in the ears, they can, however, be inserted into any piercing. In order for a plug to stay put within a piercing, the ends of its cylindrical shape are "flared out," or the plug is fastened in place by o-rings. Combinations of these two methods may be used. A double-flared plug, flares outward at both ends, is thinner towards the middle. No o-rings are needed to keep the plug in the piercing, but the fistula needs to be wide enough to accommodate the flare when the plug is put in. A single flared plug has one flared end worn on the front of the piercing, one end with no flare; the no flare end may not be grooved.
These plugs give the aesthetic of double-flared plugs without requiring that the wearer's fistulas be large enough to accommodate flares. A straight plug is a typical-looking cylinder, without flares, is kept in place by sliding o-rings against both ends of the plug. A grooved plug is a variation on the straight plug, with grooves carved in the material to hold the o-rings snug. A flesh tunnel is a tube-shaped variety of body piercing jewellery, it is sometimes referred to as a spool, earlet, expander, or eyelet. A flesh tunnel is used in stretched or scalpelled piercings. Flesh tunnels are made in smaller gauges. However, the smaller the gauge the smaller the effect to see through the plug becomes. A person may choose to wear flesh tunnels instead of flesh plugs. Flesh tunnels may be worn with other object passed through them. Flesh tunnels are fashioned from a broad range of materials, including surgical steel, Pyrex glass, acrylic glass, horn, bamboo and wood. Flesh tunnels, like flesh plugs, may feature semi-precious stones.
Some flesh tunnels have flares to keep the jewellery from falling out. If there are no flares, grooves may be cut near the edges to allow rubber or silicone o-rings to hold the jewellery in place; the back of the flesh tunnel may screw off. A flesh tunnel may have an internally threaded backing, as externally threaded pieces can rip freshly stretched ears. Although flesh tunnels are worn in the earlobe, other soft-tissue piercings can be fitted with one of an appropriate length. During the ancient Egyptian New Kingdom, both sexes wore a variety of jewelry, including earplugs and large-gauge hoop-style earrings. An earspool, or an ear tunnel, is an ornament worn inserted into the earlobe, they were used among indigenous cultures of the Americas, including Mesoamerican cultures such as the Maya and the Aztecs. Their use could sometimes stretch the earlobe. In Mesoamerica they were used from as early as the Preclassic Period. Inca men wore silver plugs in the ears, which indicated their nobility, their stretched piercings, which could reach the size of two inches inspired a Spanish nickname for the Inca people: orejones.
Ivory earplugs have been used by the Hmong people. Silver plugs, called rombin, are worn by Aka women
A nose chain is a type of facial jewellery that originated centuries ago as a part of women's fashion in India. Put, the nose chain is a link between a nose piercing and an ear piercing; these "chains" are just that: chain links made of some kind of metal. Yet, besides actual chains, the term "nose chain" can denote other types of connecting materials between nose and ear piercings, such as the common alternative of rosary beads. Other connectors can be used as well; the nose chain has been worn by women in South Asia for centuries. Women in India have been wearing them since the 16th century when Mughal emperors brought them from Central Asia, it is significant during wedding ceremonies. Hindu tradition dictates that on the wedding night, the bride wears a nose chain, hooked by a chain to either the earring or hair; the bridegroom removes the nose chain. Today the nose chain has risen to prevalence as a recent introduction of Gothic fashion and is now known for its use in several different subcultures around the world
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. Human lips are a tactile sensory organ, can be an erogenous zone when used in kissing and other acts of intimacy; the upper and lower lips are referred to as the "Labium superius oris" and "Labium inferius oris", respectively. The juncture where the lips meet the surrounding skin of the mouth area is the vermilion border, the reddish area within the borders is called the vermilion zone; the vermilion border of the upper lip is known as the cupid's bow. The fleshy protuberance located in the center of the upper lip is a tubercle known by various terms including the procheilon, the "tuberculum labii superioris", the "labial tubercle"; the vertical groove extending from the procheilon to the nasal septum is called the philtrum. The skin of the lip, with three to five cellular layers, is thin compared to typical face skin, which has up to 16 layers.
With light skin color, the lip skin contains fewer melanocytes. Because of this, the blood vessels appear through the skin of the lips, which leads to their notable red coloring. With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in this case the skin of the lips contains more melanin and thus is visually darker; the skin of the lip forms the border between the exterior skin of the face, the interior mucous membrane of the inside of the mouth. The lip skin does not have sweat glands. Therefore, it does not have the usual protection layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth, inhibit pathogens, regulate warmth. For these reasons, the lips become chapped more easily; the lower lip is formed from a branch of the first pharyngeal arch. The lower lip covers the anterior body of the mandible, it is lowered by the depressor labii inferioris muscle and the orbicularis oris borders it inferiorly. The upper lip covers the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla, its upper half is of usual skin color and has a depression at its center, directly under the nasal septum, called the philtrum, Latin for lower nose, while its lower half is a markedly different, red-colored skin tone more similar to the color of the inside of the mouth, the term vermillion refers to the colored portion of either the upper or lower lip.
It is raised by the levator labii superioris and is connected to the lower lip by the thin lining of the lip itself. Thinning of the vermilion of the upper lip and flattening of the philtrum are two of the facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome, a lifelong disability caused by the mother's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy; the skin of the lips is stratified squamous epithelium. The mucous membrane is represented by a large area in the sensory cortex, is therefore sensitive; the Frenulum Labii Inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip. The Frenulum Labii Superioris is the frenulum of the upper lip. Trigeminal nerve The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch, it supplies not only the upper lip, but much of the skin of the face between the upper lip and the lower eyelid, except for the bridge of the nose. The mental nerve is a branch of the mandibular branch, it supplies the skin and mucous membrane of labial gingiva anteriorly. The facial artery is one of the six non-terminal branches of the external carotid artery.
This artery supplies both lips by its inferior labial branches. Each of the two branches bifurcate and anastomose with their companion branch from the other terminal; the muscles acting on the lips are considered part of the muscles of facial expression. All muscles of facial expression are derived from the mesoderm of the second pharyngeal arch, are therefore supplied by the nerve of the second pharyngeal arch, the facial nerve; the muscles of facial expression are all specialized members of the panniculus carnosus, which attach to the dermis and so wrinkle, or dimple the overlying skin. Functionally, the muscles of facial expression are arranged in groups around the orbits and mouth; the muscles acting on the lips: Buccinator Orbicularis oris Anchor point for several muscles Modiolus Lip elevation Levator labii superioris levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Levator anguli oris Zygomaticus minor Zygomaticus major Lip depression Risorius Depressor anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Mentalis Because they have their own muscles and bordering muscles, the lips are movable.
Lips are used for eating functions, like holding food. In addition, lips serve to close the mouth airtight shut, to hold food and drink inside, to keep out unwanted objects. Through making a narrow funnel with the lips, the suction of the mouth is increased; this suction is essential for babies to breast feed. Lips can be used to suck in other contexts, such as sucking on a straw to drink liquids; the lips serve for creating different sounds—mainly labial and labiodental consonant sounds as well as vowel rounding—and thus are an important part of the speech apparatus. The lips enable whistling and the performing of wind instruments such as the trumpet, clarinet and saxophone. People who have hearing loss may unconsciously or consciously lip read to understand speech without needing to perceive the actual sounds; the lip reacts as part of the tactile senses. Lips are sensitive to touch and cold, it is therefore
A labret is one form of body piercing. Taken it is any type of adornment, attached to the lip. However, the term refers to a piercing, below the bottom lip, above the chin, it is sometimes referred to as a "tongue pillar" or a "soul patch piercing." The traditional pronunciation of labret in anthropology is LAY-brət. It derives from the diminutive suffix - et. However, many in the body-piercing industry give it the pseudo-French pronunciation lo-BRAY, though the French word is in fact borrowed from the English; the labret was a traditional piercing among the American Northwest Coast Indians, where it was related to status: "access to labrets. After 3,000 BP, a divergence in labret wear in south coasts. In the north from 1500 - 3500 BP, more labrets worn by males. After 1500 BP, labrets worn by females. In the south, between 2000 - 3500 BP, worn by males and females, but from 2000 BP on, labrets disappear and are replaced by cranial deformation by free males and females of whatever class. So, for 4,000 years on the northwest coast, it was important to distinguish certain individuals in a direct manner.
Gender and geographical region may be identified by these methods." When a mask was being made to represent someone of high status, that mask would have a labret. The wearing of labrets was observed among Tlingit women of high status at the time of European and American arrivals in Southeast Alaska; the Russian term for the Tlingit, derived from an Aluutiq word for labret. Based on analysis of the history and social context of the labret on the Northwest Coast of British Columbia over the last 5,000 years, Marina LaSalle asserts that "while simple correlations of the labret with'status' and'gender' are not wrong, nonetheless they betray the complexity of body ornamentation which, though manifested materially, is contextual" and that "the labret is a symbol and expression of social identity that continues to hold significant meaning for the descendants of this heritage." In contemporary styles, there are several different labret variations based on where the piercing is positioned on the lower lip.
These include a vertical labret, snake bites, a lowbret, placed as low as possible toward the chin. The initial piercing is done at 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 mm diameter. After initial healing, the piercing can be further stretched; some people choose to stretch to sizes over 10 mm, the jewelry worn at these larger sizes is a round or oval'labret plug'. Media related to Labret at Wikimedia Commons Body piercing aftercare Lip piercing Lip plate Tembetá BMEZine: Lip Piercing BMEZine: Labret Piercing BMEZine: Labret Stud Plughog.com: Labret Stretching Guide
Nipple shield (jewelry)
A nipple shield is a piece of body jewelry worn on the nipple or covering the areola. The shield encircles the nipple, can be stuck on by various means, including suction and the action of glue, but is most held in place by a nipple piercing, its primary intent is to lift and ornament the nipple, as well as the whole breast, much as other pieces of jewelry do for other parts of the body. A shield the type known as a breast petal, can be worn to smooth the transition between nipple and breast, so as to disguise the protuberant feature and present a smoother clothed profile; as a breast petal covers the whole nipple and areola, it is better considered a type of pasty, an item of clothing designed to do this. A nipple shield was infamously shown on television in the United States, around the world, as part of Janet Jackson's wardrobe malfunction during the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show. Genital jewellery Nipple piercing Pasties Nipple shield Stimulation of nipples
Elizabeth Short, known posthumously as the "Black Dahlia," was an American woman, found murdered in the Leimert Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Her case became publicized due to the graphic nature of the crime, which included her corpse having been mutilated and bisected at the waist. A native of Boston, Short spent her early life in Medford and Florida before relocating to California, where her father lived, it is held that Short was an aspiring actress, though she had no known acting credits or jobs during her time in Los Angeles. She would acquire the nickname of the Black Dahlia posthumously, as newspapers of the period nicknamed lurid crimes. After the discovery of her body on January 15, 1947, the Los Angeles Police Department began an extensive investigation that produced over 150 suspects, but yielded no arrests. Short's unsolved murder and the details surrounding it have had a lasting cultural intrigue, generating various theories and public speculation, her life and death have been the basis of numerous books and films, her murder is cited as one of the most famous unsolved murders in American history, as well as one of the oldest unsolved cases in Los Angeles County.
It has been credited by historians as one of the first major crimes in post-World War II America to capture national attention. Elizabeth Short was born in the Hyde Park section of Boston, the third of five daughters of Cleo and Phoebe May Short. Around 1927, the Short family relocated to Portland, before settling in Medford, Massachusetts the same year; this is where Short was spent most of her life. Short's father built miniature golf courses until the 1929 stock market crash, when he lost most of his savings and the family became broke. In 1930, her father's car was found abandoned on the Charlestown Bridge, it was assumed that he had committed suicide by jumping into the Charles River. Believing her husband to be deceased, Short's mother moved with her five daughters into a small apartment in Medford and worked as a bookkeeper to support them. Troubled by bronchitis and severe asthma attacks, Short underwent lung surgery at age 15, after which doctors suggested she relocate to a milder climate during the winter months to prevent further respiratory problems.
Short's mother sent her to spend winters in Miami, Florida with family friends. During the next three years, Short lived in Florida during the winter months and spent the rest of the year in Medford with her mother and sisters. In her sophomore year, Short dropped out of Medford High School. In late 1942, Short's mother received a letter of apology from her presumed-deceased husband, which revealed that he was in fact alive and had started a new life in California. In December, aged 18, Short relocated to Vallejo to live with her father, whom she had not seen since she was six years old. At the time, he was working at the nearby Mare Island Naval Shipyard on San Francisco Bay. Arguments between Short and her father led to her moving out in January 1943. Shortly after, she took a job at the Base Exchange at Camp Cooke, near Lompoc, living with several friends, with an Army Air Force sergeant who abused her. Short left Lompoc in mid-1943 and moved to Santa Barbara, where she was arrested on September 23, 1943 for underage drinking at a local bar.
The juvenile authorities sent her back to Medford, but she returned instead to Florida, making only occasional visits to Massachusetts. While in Florida, Short met Major Matthew Michael Gordon, Jr. a decorated Army Air Force officer at the 2nd Air Commando Group. He was training for deployment to the China Burma India Theater of Operations of World War II. Short told friends that Gordon had written to propose marriage while he was recovering from injuries from a plane crash in India, she accepted his offer, but Gordon died in a second crash on August 10, 1945, less than a week before the Surrender of Japan ended the war. She relocated to Los Angeles in July 1946 to visit Army Air Force Lieutenant Joseph Gordon Fickling, whom she had known from Florida. Fickling was stationed at the Naval Reserve Air Base in Long Beach. Short spent the last six months of her life in Southern California in the Los Angeles area. Short has been variously depicted as an aspiring or "would-be" actress. According to some sources, she did in fact have aspirations to be a film star, though she had no known acting jobs or credits.
On January 9, 1947, Short returned to her home in Los Angeles after a brief trip to San Diego with Robert "Red" Manley, a 25-year-old married salesman she had been dating. Manley stated that he dropped Short off at the Biltmore Hotel located at 506 South Grand Avenue in downtown Los Angeles, that Short was to meet her sister, visiting from Boston, that afternoon. By some accounts, staff of the Biltmore recalled having seen Short using the lobby telephone. Shortly after, she was seen by patrons of the Crown Grill Cocktail Lounge at 754 South Olive Street one-half mile away from the Biltmore Hotel. On the morning of January 15, 1947, Short's half-naked body was found severed into two pieces on a vacant lot on the west side of South Norton Avenue, midway between Coliseum Street and West 39th Street (at 34.0164°N 118.333°W / 34.0164.