In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule, soluble in nonpolar solvents. Non-polar solvents are hydrocarbons used to dissolve other occurring hydrocarbon lipid molecules that do not dissolve in water, including fatty acids, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, diglycerides and phospholipids; the functions of lipids include storing energy and acting as structural components of cell membranes. Lipids have applications in the food industries as well as in nanotechnology. Scientists sometimes define lipids as amphiphilic small molecules. Biological lipids originate or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl and isoprene groups. Using this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and polyketides. Although the term "lipid" is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides. Lipids encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives, as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol.
Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways both to break down and to synthesize lipids, some essential lipids can't be made this way and must be obtained from the diet. Lipid may be regarded as organic substances insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents or related to fatty acid and utilized by the living cells. In 1815, Henri Braconnot classified lipids in two categories and huiles. In 1823, Michel Eugène Chevreul developed a more detailed classification, including oils, tallow, resins and volatile oils; the first successful synthesis of a triglyceride molecule was by Théophile-Jules Pelouze in 1844, when he produced tributyrin by reacting butyric acid with glycerin in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. Several years Marcellin Berthelot, one of Pelouze's students, synthesized tristearin and tripalmitin by reaction of the analogous fatty acids with glycerin in the presence of gaseous hydrogen chloride at high temperature. In 1827, William Prout recognized fat, along with protein and carbohydrate, as an important nutrient for humans and animals.
For a century, chemists regarded "fats" as only simple lipids made of fatty acids and glycerol, but new forms were described later. Theodore Gobley discovered phospholipids in mammalian brain and hen egg, called by him as "lecithins". Thudichum discovered in human brain some phospholipids and sphingolipids; the terms lipoid, lipin and lipid have been used with varied meanings from author to author. In 1912, Rosenbloom and Gies proposed the substitution of "lipoid" by "lipin". In 1920, Bloor introduced a new classification for "lipoids": simple lipoids, compound lipoids, the derived lipoids; the word "lipid", which stems etymologically from the Greek lipos, was introduced in 1923 by Gabriel Bertrand. Bertrands included in the concept not only the traditional fats, but the "lipoids", with a complex constitution. In 1947, T. P. Hilditch divided lipids with greases and waxes. Lipids have been classified into eight categories by the Lipid MAPS consortium as follows: Fatty acids, or fatty acid residues when they are part of a lipid, are a diverse group of molecules synthesized by chain-elongation of an acetyl-CoA primer with malonyl-CoA or methylmalonyl-CoA groups in a process called fatty acid synthesis.
They are made of a hydrocarbon chain. The fatty acid structure is one of the most fundamental categories of biological lipids, is used as a building-block of more structurally complex lipids; the carbon chain between four and 24 carbons long, may be saturated or unsaturated, may be attached to functional groups containing oxygen, halogens and sulfur. If a fatty acid contains a double bond, there is the possibility of either a cis or trans geometric isomerism, which affects the molecule's configuration. Cis-double bonds cause the fatty acid chain to bend, an effect, compounded with more double bonds in the chain. Three double bonds in 18-carbon linolenic acid, the most abundant fatty-acyl chains of plant thylakoid membranes, render these membranes fluid despite environmental low-temperatures, makes linolenic acid give dominating sharp peaks in high resolution 13-C NMR spectra of chloroplasts; this in turn plays an important role in the function of cell membranes. Most occurring fatty acids are of the cis configuration, although the trans form does exist in some natural and hydrogenated fats and oils.
Canadian Forces Auxiliary Vessel Grizzly was one of ten wooden YAG 300 vessels built for the Royal Canadian Navy between 1953 and 1955. Built for use as auxiliary craft, Grizzly served as an at-sea training platform for junior naval officers, reserve personnel and Sea Cadets at Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt, her name was reused for PTC 60 Grizzly Orca-class Patrol Craft Training tender that replaced the YAG 300 vessels as the RCN training tenders in 2008. Like other YAG 300 vessels, Grizzly was 75′ long overall, 18′6″ wide, had a draft of 4′6″, measured 70 tonnes, was powered by twin 6-71 Detroit Diesel engines. Grizzly was arranged in typical naval fashion with officer’s housed forward with the galley and their own head, an engine room midships, cadet room aft with 12-14 bunks in double tiers; the heads are equipped with a pump-action lever, that can be used to pump sewage into the black water treatment tanks held aboard or into the ocean water. Above decks was the wheelhouse mounted on the forward cabin's coaming.
Above the wheelhouse was an open bridge, fitted with a gyrocompass repeater. A second gyro repeater was fitted on the quarterdeck. Grizzly was equipped with the display located in the wheelhouse. In 1954 she was served as a harbour ferry boat. Re-designated as YFP 306 in 1960, she was transferred to reserve status due to defence budget cuts. Returned to service in the mid-1960s, Grizzly was re-designated as a YAG and in 1976 she was assigned to HMCS Discovery Naval Reserve Division as a tender. Grizzly served as a training vessel for regular and reserve forces until she was removed from service in 2007, she was sold in 2011 to private interests
Utah known as Utah Beach, was the code name for one of the five sectors of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June 6, 1944, during World War II. The westernmost of the five code-named landing beaches in Normandy, Utah is on the Cotentin Peninsula, west of the mouths of the Douve and Vire rivers. Amphibious landings at Utah were undertaken by United States Army troops, with sea transport, mine sweeping, a naval bombardment force provided by the United States Navy and Coast Guard as well as elements from the British and other Allied navies; the objective at Utah was to secure a beachhead on the Cotentin Peninsula, the location of important port facilities at Cherbourg. The amphibious assault by the US 4th Infantry Division and 70th Tank Battalion, was supported by airborne landings of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Division; the intention was to seal off the Cotentin Peninsula, prevent the Germans from reinforcing Cherbourg, capture the port as as possible.
Utah, along with Sword on the eastern flank, was added to the invasion plan in December 1943. These changes doubled the frontage of the invasion and necessitated a month-long delay so that additional landing craft and personnel could be assembled in England. Allied forces attacking Utah faced two battalions of the 919th Grenadier Regiment, part of the 709th Static Infantry Division. While improvements to fortifications had been undertaken under the leadership of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel beginning in October 1943, the troops assigned to defend the area were poorly equipped non-German conscripts. D-Day at Utah began at 01:30, when the first of the airborne units arrived, tasked with securing the key crossroads at Sainte-Mère-Église and controlling the causeways through the flooded farmland behind Utah so the infantry could advance inland. While some airborne objectives were met, many paratroopers landed far from their drop zones and were unable to fulfill their objectives on the first day. On the beach itself and tanks landed in four waves beginning at 06:30 and secured the immediate area with minimal casualties.
Meanwhile, engineers set to work clearing the area of obstacles and mines, additional waves of reinforcements continued to arrive. At the close of D-Day, Allied forces had only captured about half of the planned area and contingents of German defenders remained, but the beachhead was secure; the 4th Infantry Division landed 21,000 troops on Utah at the cost of only 197 casualties. Airborne troops arriving by parachute and glider numbered an additional 14,000 men, with 2,500 casualties. Around 700 men were lost in engineering units, 70th Tank Battalion, seaborne vessels sunk by the enemy. German losses are unknown. Cherbourg was captured on June 26, but by this time the Germans had destroyed the port facilities, which were not brought back into full operation until September; the decision to undertake a cross-channel invasion of continental Europe within the next year was taken at the Trident Conference, held in Washington in May 1943. The Allies planned to launch the invasion on May 1, 1944, a draft of the plan was accepted at the Quebec Conference in August 1943.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. General Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group, which comprised all of the land forces involved in the invasion. On December 31, 1943, Eisenhower and Montgomery first saw the plan, which proposed amphibious landings by three divisions and two-thirds of an airborne division; the two generals insisted that the scale of the initial invasion be expanded to five divisions, with airborne descents by three divisions, to allow operations on a wider front. The change doubled the frontage of the invasion from 25 miles to 50 miles; this would allow for quicker offloading of men and materiel, make it more difficult for the Germans to respond, speed up the capture of the port at Cherbourg. Eisenhower and Lieutenant General Omar Bradley selected for Utah the VII Corps. Major General J. Lawton Collins, who had experience with amphibious operations in the Pacific Theater of Operations, replaced Major General Roscoe Woodruff as commander of VII Corps.
The coastline of Normandy was divided into seventeen sectors, with codenames using a spelling alphabet—from Able, west of Omaha, to Roger on the east flank of Sword. Utah was designated "Yoke" and Omaha was "X-ray", from the phonetic alphabet; the two names were changed on 3 March 1944. "Omaha" and "Utah" were suggested by Bradley. Eight further sectors were added. Sectors were further subdivided into beaches identified by the colors Green and White. Utah, the westernmost of the five landing beaches, is on the Cotentin Peninsula, west of the mouths of the Douve and Vire rivers; the terrain between Utah and the neighboring Omaha was swampy and difficult to cross, which meant that the troops landing at Utah would be isolated. The Germans had flooded the farmland behind Utah, restricting travel off the beach to a few narrow causeways. To help secure the terrain inland of the landing zone seal off the Cotentin Peninsula, prevent the Germans from reinforcing the port at Cherbourg, two airborne divisions were assigned to airdrop into German territory in the early hours of the invasion.
The need to acquire or produce extra landing craft and troop carrier aircraft for the expanded operation meant that the invasion had to be delayed to June. Production of landing craft was ramped up in late 1943 and continued into early 1944, existing craft were relocated from other theaters. More than 600 Douglas C-47 Skytrai
Douglas Dryburgh is an Olympic curler, retired Royal Air Force Wing Commander and CEO of Viapath llp in central London. Douglas Dryburgh was a successful junior curler in his native Scotland. In his first international tournament and his Scottish team claimed a gold medal at the 1987 World Junior Curling Championships; that year he skipped the Scottish team to a sixth-place finish at the European Curling Championships. Ten years Dryburgh was back at the European Championships where he claimed a bronze medal for Scotland. In 1998 he skipped the British team at the 1998 Winter Olympics, they finished in seventh place. Dryburgh moved to Ireland on, would join up with four other ex-Scots and qualified for the 2006 World Men's Curling Championship by placing seventh at the 2005 European Championships. At the Worlds, Ireland finished in 12th place. Douglas Dryburgh was born in Kirkcaldy, Scotland on 30 January 1966; the family lived in Brighton where his father, Jack Dryburgh, was a professional ice hockey player.
The family moved to Aviemore, Scotland when he was 3 years old, where his father managed Aviemore Ice Rink. Dryburgh' s mother, Jaqueline Dryburgh, a former professional ice skater, was the local Ice skating teacher. After a move to Solihull from 1977/78 and back to Aviemore until 1980, the family settled in Kirkcaldy, where Dryburgh attended Kirkcaldy High School. Dryburgh was educated at Aviemore Primary School, he went on to obtain a BSc in Electrical and Electronic Engineering at West of Scotland University followed by a MSc in Information Technology from Glasgow University. He has an MBA from Henley Management College. Dryburgh started curling at Aviemore Ice Rink when he was 12; when he was 14 he qualified as Lead player, in a team skipped by his brother Stewart and including David Smith at Second, for the 1981 Scottish Junior finals where they finish in third place. He started skipping the team in 1986 and in his first year reached the final of both the Scottish Junior and Men's Championships.
In 1987 he again reached a feat no male junior Skip has yet managed to repeat. Dryburgh was unbeaten when he won the Scottish Junior Curling Championship in 1987 and that year won every junior tournament on the circuit and for the first time a Scottish team was favourites to win a world title, in Canada, he went on to beat Hugh McFadyen's outstanding Canadian Junior Champions, who had won their national title unbeaten, to win the 1987 World Junior Championship in Victoria, BC, Canada. The final holds the record for the lowest scoring world curling final at 3-2; that year Dryburgh skipped the Scottish men's team at the 1987 European Men's Championship in Obersdorf, Germany where the team finished in 6th place. On joining the RAF in 1990 Dryburgh spent much of his time in England which meant he was unable to practice. However, in 1994 he was posted to RAF Lossiemouth, which meant he could practice and it was at this time his team was selected as one of eight top British teams of the time to enter the first Olympic playoffs since 1924, in a 3-year selection cycle leading up to the 1998 Winter Olympic Games.
The selection cycle culminated in a double round robin payoff between the final four teams skipped by Dryburgh, David Smith, Hammy McMillan and Colin Hamilton. Dryburgh and McMillan reached the final both with a 4-2 record. Dryburgh won the final 9-4 and qualified for the 1998 winter Olympics, Japan, it the first time since the 1924 Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix, France that curling was back at the Winter Olympics. A month Dryburgh qualified for the 1997 European Championships in Fussen,Germany; the team narrowly lost the Semi-final to eventual winners. However, Dryburgh went on to take the bronze medal beating the reigning World Champions, Peter Lindholm's Swedish team. At the Olympics, despite starting as one of the favourites, Dryburgh ended up with a 2-5 record missing the playoffs and finishing in 7th place. In 2005/06 Dryburgh played his final year for Ireland, skipping the team through qualification at the 2005 European Men's Championships in Garmisch Partenkirchen to the 2006 World Men's Curling Championship, Lowell, MA.
It is only time. Dryburgh retired from competitive curling in 2006. In parallel with his sporting career, after graduating, Dryburgh joined the Royal Air Force on the 1st April 1990, he held a permanent commission and served at several operational and training bases in the UK in a variety of operational training and administrative appointments. He was appointed as aide-de-camp to HRH the Princess Royal at Holyrood palace, Edinburgh when The Princess Royal was appointed by Her Majesty the Queen as Lord High Commissioner for the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1996, he was promoted to the rank of Squadron Leader in 1998 following the Olympic Games and Wing Commander in 2003 before retiring from the RAF in 2006. On leaving the RAF in 2006, Dryburgh joined the Executive team at NHS Blood and Transplant where he served as an operations director for 6 years. After a short stint at QinetiQ plc, he joined Viapath llp, the Serco plc controlled healthcare joint venture as COO in 2014, he is based in central London.
He serves as a Non-Executive Director for the British Athletes Commission. Drybu
Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity is a 1932 book about the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and his theory of historicity by the philosopher Herbert Marcuse. It is influenced by the philosopher Martin Heidegger; the book received positive reviews upon its publication in English translation in 1987. It is considered essential for understanding Marcuse's intellectual development. However, the book has been criticized for Marcuse's failure to define the term "historicity". According to the philosopher Seyla Benhabib, Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity was intended to be Marcuse's Habilitationsschrift, which would have earned him the right to teach in German universities, she writes that some accounts claim that the work was rejected as a Habilitationsschrift, while others suggest that it may never have been submitted, due to Marcuse realizing that he would never be permitted to teach in Nazi Germany. Marcuse attempts to reinterpret the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, including The Phenomenology of Spirit and the Science of Logic, "to disclose and to ascertain the fundamental characteristics of historicity", the factors that "define history" and distinguish it from other phenomena such as nature.
He discuses other works of Hegel such as The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy, the Philosophy of Nature portion of the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Lectures on the Philosophy of History, Lectures on the History of Philosophy. Other topics considered include Hegel's relationship to philosophers such as Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, the work of the philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey. Marcuse acknowledges the influence of Martin Heidegger on his work. Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity was first published in German in 1932 under the title Hegels Ontologie und die Grundlegung einer Theorie der Geschichtlichkeit. In 1968, an unrevised version was published in German under the title Hegels Ontologie und die Theorie der Geschichtlichkeit. An Italian translation was published in 1969 by La Nuova Italia, a French translation was published in 1972 by Les Éditions de Minuit. In 1987, the book appeared for the first time in English, in a translation by Benhabib published by MIT Press as part of the series Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought.
Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity received positive reviews from Brent Nelson in Library Journal and H. N. Tuttle in Choice. Nelson wrote that the book "shows little of the Marcuse who became a popular New Left theorist" but would "be of interest to students of 19th- and 20th-century philosophy." He noted that "highly technical in its vocabulary", had a helpful glossary. Tuttle described the book as "Marcuse's most important and his most fundamental work" and "a philosophical classic", recommended it "without qualification to advanced undergraduates and graduate students." He considered it less ideological than Marcuse's writings, but essential for understanding Marcuse's Eros and Civilization and One-Dimensional Man. Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity received a mixed review from the philosopher Theodor W. Adorno in the Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung; the book's English translation received a positive review from the sociologist George E. McCarthy in Contemporary Sociology and a mixed review from K. R. Dove in The Philosophical Review.
The translation was discussed by Adam Sitze in Theory and Event. Adorno noted that the work advanced an interpretation of historicity that departed from Heidegger's views, moving from the "meaning of Being" toward the disclosure of beings, from fundamental ontology toward the philosophy of history, from historicity toward history. In Adorno's view, this made Marcuse's work both vulnerable to criticism, he noted that Marcuse did not ask if the question of the "material constitution of historicity" is compatible with an ontological investigation or whether the question must lead to a materialist theory of society and history. McCarthy wrote that the book was "one of those rare jewels which has remained hidden from the English-speaking world for over fifty years" and "an important work for understanding the foundations of Marcuse's own intellectual perspective and his theoretical developments". In his view, it "recaptures the heart of Hegel's philosophical vision of reality, indirectly shows its importance for social theory, breathes life into the most difficult of Hegel's writings."Dove described the book as an important part of the Hegel scholarship produced between World War I and World War II, comparing it to the work of the philosophers Richard Kroner and Nicolai Hartmann.
He noted that the philosopher Allan Bloom considered the book a serious work of Hegel scholarship, referring to it, although not by name, in The Closing of the American Mind. Dove praised Marcuse's interpretation of the Science of Logic, but considered his interpretation of The Phenomenology of Spirit less successful, noting that his work shows his awareness of its shortcomings, he criticized the "tortuous Germanic style" of the book, as well as Marcuse's failure to define the term "historicity". Sitze argued that the book was "part of Marcuse's dispute with Martin Heidegger" and "revolves around an antithesis to life, neither death nor unlivability, but paralysis."Jean-Michel Palmier criticized Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity in Herbert Marcuse et la Nouvelle Gauche. Benhabib commented in her introduction to the work that it was the culmination of a period of Marcuse's intellectual deve
Alain Frédéric Carpentier M. D. Ph. D. is a French surgeon whom the President of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery calls the father of modern mitral valve repair. He is the recipient of the 2007 Lasker Prize, he received his MD from the University of Paris in 1966 and his PhD from the same university in 1975. A professor emeritus at Pierre and Marie Curie University, in the 1980s Carpentier published a landmark paper on mitral valve repair entitled The French Correction. A visiting professor at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, he heads the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at the Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou in Paris. In 1986, he and Gilles Dreyfus performed the first artificial heart implant in Europe. Carpentier is a member of the French Academy of Sciences and sits on the Board of Directors of the World Heart Foundation; the recipient of numerous awards, including the 1996 Prix mondial Cino Del Duca, in 2005 the American Association for Thoracic Surgery bestowed its Medallion for Scientific Achievement for only the fifth time in its history.
In announcing Carpentier as the recipient, the AATS noted that he is "one of the foremost medical philanthropists in the world, having established a premier cardiac center in Vietnam a decade ago where over 1,000 open-heart cases are now performed annually. In addition, he has founded cardiac surgery programs in 17 French-speaking countries in Africa." In October 2001 he received an Honorary Doctor of Medicine and Surgery degree from University of Pavia. In 2006, Carpentier received considerable media attention in the United States as the surgeon who performed an emergency mitral valve repair procedure on Charlie Rose when the PBS television interviewer fell ill while en route to Damascus to interview Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. In 1989, Carpentier pioneered work to use the patient's own skeletal muscle to repair the failing myocardium, a procedure known as cardiomyoplasty, which has since advanced into the exciting realms of tissue engineering science. In 2008, Carpentier announced a implantable artificial heart will be ready for clinical trial by 2011, for alternative to transplant in 2013.
It was developed and will be manufactured by him, Biomedical firm Carmat, venture capital firm Truffle. The prototype uses electronic sensors and is made from chemically treated animal tissues, called "biomaterials," or a "pseudo-skin" of biosynthetic, microporous materials, amid another US team's prototype called 2005 MagScrew Total Artificial Heart, Japan and South Korea researchers are racing to produce similar projects; the first clinical trial are under process since 2013. From 2009 to 2012, Carpentier was vice-president and president of the French Academy of Sciences. Publications include: David Adams and Farzan Filsoufi. Carpentier's reconstructive valve surgery. Missouri: Saunders Elsevier. 368 pp. ISBN 9780721691688. Illustrated by Alain Carpentier and Marcia Williams. Chauvaud S, Carpentier A. "Ebstein's anomaly: the Broussais approach". Multimedia Manual of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 74: 438–43. Doi:10.1510/mmcts.2007.003038. PMID 24415583. Cortes-Morichetti M, Frati G, Schussler O, et al..
"Association between a cell-seeded collagen matrix and cellular cardiomyoplasty for myocardial support and regeneration". Tissue Engineering. 13: 2681–7. Doi:10.1089/ten.2006.0447. PMID 17691866. Chachques JC, Azarine A, Mousseaux E, El Serafi M, Cortes-Morichetti M, Carpentier AF. "MRI evaluation of local myocardial treatments: epicardial versus endocardial injections". Journal of Interventional Cardiology. 20: 188–96. Doi:10.1111/j.1540-8183.2007.00255.x. PMID 17524110. Martinod E, Seguin A, Holder-Espinasse M, et al.. "Tracheal regeneration following tracheal replacement with an allogenic aorta". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 79: 942–8, discussion 949. Doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2004.08.035. PMID 15734409. Chachques JC, Duarte F, Cattadori B, et al.. "Angiogenic growth factors and/or cellular therapy for myocardial regeneration: a comparative study". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 128: 245–53. Doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2004.04.007. PMID 15282461. Chachques JC, Acar C, Herreros J, et al.. "Cellular cardiomyoplasty: clinical application".
Ann. Thorac. Surg. 77: 1121–30. Doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2003.09.081. Hdl:10171/18566. PMID 14992951.] Martinod E, Seguin A, Pfeuty K, et al.. "Long-term evaluation of the replacement of the trachea with an autologous aortic graft". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 75: 1572–8, discussion 1578. Doi:10.1016/S0003-497500120-6. PMID 12735581. Chachques JC, Argyriadis PG, Fontaine G, et al.. "Right ventricular cardiomyoplasty: 10-year follow-up". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 75: 1464–8. Doi:10.1016/S0003-497504823-3. PMID 12735563. Zakine G, Martinod E, Fornes P, et al.. "Growth factors improve latissimus dorsi muscle vascularization and trophicity after cardiomyoplasty". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 75: 549–54. Doi:10.1016/S0003-497504332-1. PMID 12607671. Grinda JM, Latremouille C, Berrebi AJ, et al.. "Aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty for rheumatic aortic valve disease: midterm results". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 74: 438–43. Doi:10.1016/S0003-497503698-6. PMID 12173826. Honorary degree, University of Pavia, 2001 "AATS to honor Professor Alain Carpentier".