Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate, known as a number plate or a license plate, is metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the owner within the issuing regions database. The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered, the next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district. Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration, the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well, the third part indicates the year of registration of the vehicle and is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates.
Alternately, the government will merely assign plate numbers, and it is the owners responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime. If the vehicle is destroyed or exported to a different country. Other jurisdictions follow a policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they already hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyers name, a person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them. Some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with personal plates, in some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement, often associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration. Plates are usually fixed directly to a vehicle or to a frame that is fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames, in some jurisdictions licence plate frames are illegal
Augustdorf is a municipality in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It has an area of 42.18 km² and c.9,600 inhabitants. In 1775 Simon August, Count of Lippe-Detmold issued a writ of lease for the area of todays Augustdorf in favour of August Simon Struß, in 1779 the actual development plan for the settlement was decided, but the place hardly developed. In 1780 the settlement at Dören consisted of four tiny thatched huts. In 1789 the settlement was named in honour of Count Simon August
Oerlinghausen is a city in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany located between Bielefeld and Detmold in the Teutoburger Wald. Geographically, Oerlinghausen is situated on top of the Teutoburger Wald hills, oerlinghausens highest point is the Tönsberg with 334 meters. The flatlands of northern Germany start some 40 km north of Oerlinghausen, there are hiking routes along the hill chain which stretches 80 km in east-west direction. To the south of the hills are large sand areas originating from melting glaciers during past ice ages, although not high, the hills are steep in many places and almost completely covered by forest. First mentioned in documents in 1036, the became a city in 1926 by authority of the Land of Lippe. In 1969 the city was expanded with the addition of Helpup, Währentrup, the city has been home to an unusual number of well-known sociologists. Marianne Weber, who was born in Oerlinghausen and married Max Weber here in 1893, was an author herself. The Altstadt has some old buildings with a number of restaurants, marianne Weber, lawyer and legal historian.
Friedrich Bödeker and cacti explorer Berthold Müller-Oerlinghausen, sculptor Official website Freilichtmuseum website Glider Airfield Website
Lippstadt is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the largest town within the district of Soest, Lippstadt is situated in the Lippe valley, roughly 70 kilometres east of Dortmund and roughly 30 kilometres west of Paderborn. The historic town centre is situated between an artificial canal of the river Lippe and the river itself, Lippstadt consists of 18 districts, Lippstadt is twinned with, Netherlands, since 1971 Lippstadt was founded by Bernhard II zur Lippe. In the early 13th century Lippstadt, with a population of 2700, had four parish churches, there was an Augustinian abbey which had existed since 1281. Heinrich von Ahaus founded one of his communities for women of the Brethren of the Common Life there, in 1523 it formed a defensive alliance together with the neighbouring cities of Osnabrück, Soest and Münster. Augustinians studying at the University of Wittenberg brought Martin Luthers doctrine home with them, colonel Edward Morgan, a Royalist during English Civil War 1642-9, was Captain General of the Kings forces in South Wales.
After the Kings arrest and execution, he fled to the continent and they had six children, two sons, and four daughters. He was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica 1664-65 and his nephew Henry Morgan left his Jamaican property to his godsons Charles Byndloss and Henry Archbold on condition they adopted the surname of Morgan. These were the children of his two cousins Anna Petronilla Byndloss, and Johanna Archbold, in 1851 the whole of Lippstadt, which up to had been divided between the Kingdom of Prussia and Lippe, was added to the Prussian royal province of Westphalia. In 1944 a womens subcamp of Buchenwald was founded in Lippstadt and it was the site of a displaced persons camp in the years following World War II. It is home to a factory of large-diameter antifriction bearings, the important road to get to Lippstadt is the Bundesstraße 55. This street goes from north to south of the city. At north, Lippstadt connects with Rheda-Wiedenbrück and the Autobahn 2, in addition, South-Lippstadt connects with the Bundesstraße 1 and the Autobahn 44 by passing through the Erwitte.
The Lippstadt train station is located on Bahnstreck Hamm-Warburg Rd and it has a railway service with ICE, IC and region train every day. Passengers can change direction with Kassel, Dresden, München and Düsseldorf networks, RE1, Nordrhein-Westfalen-Express, comes from Parderborn through Ruhrgebiet region and Düsseldorf, and it passes Cologne and end up at Aachen station. RB89, Ems-Börde-Bahn, takes only 30 minutes to Hamm-Münster The bus system in Lippstadt is provided by Regionalverkehr Ruhr-Lippe, the system consists of 3 major types of bus networks. City-Bus Networks The city-bus networks in Lippstadt consist of five lines, the bus lines start every 30 minutes from Bustreff am Bahnhof and travel via five different routes to different destinations. However, passengers can use Region-Bus Networks instant, Region-Bus Networks, a bus network providing transportation between cities, has individual timetables and destinations. The regular service Region-buses covers Beakum, Rheda-Wiedenbrück and Rietberg, in addition, there is the Schnellbus from Lippstadt passing through Erwitte to Warstein every hour
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area. Its capital is Düsseldorf, the most populous city is Cologne, four of Germanys ten largest cities—Cologne, Düsseldorf and Essen—are located within the state, as well as the largest metropolitan area on the European continent, Rhine-Ruhr. North Rhine-Westphalia was formed in 1946 as a merger of the provinces of North Rhine and Westphalia, the state has been run by a coalition of the Social Democrats and Greens since 2010. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior, North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri. By the 8th century the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany. But at the time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south. The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks eventually built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Ottonian dynasty had both Saxon and Frankish ancestry.
As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes. Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military, Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, and the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked largely in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795 the whole of the bank of the Rhine was resigned to France. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium, around 1 AD there were numerous incursions through Westphalia and perhaps even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements. The Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in Paderborn and nearby parts and his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today.
Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, Widukind was buried in Enger, which is a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was originally a district of the Duchy of Saxony, in 1180 Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa. The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only an area south of the Lippe River. Parts of Westphalia came under Brandenburg-Prussian control during the 17th and 18th centuries, the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in Münster and Osnabrück, ended the Thirty Years War
The Werre is a river in the Detmold region of North Rhine-Westphalia, left tributary of the Weser. Its source is near Horn-Bad Meinberg, the Werre flows generally north through the towns Detmold, Bad Salzuflen, Herford and Löhne. It flows into the Weser close to Bad Oeynhausen, the total length of the Werre is 71.9 km. It crosses the districts of Lippe and Minden-Lübbecke
The stamen is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium, a stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and an anther which contains microsporangia. Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the connective, a pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte. The stamens in a flower are called the androecium. The androecium can consist of as few a one-half stamen as in Canna species or as many as 3,482 stamens which have been counted in Carnegiea gigantea, the androecium in various species of plants forms a great variety of patterns, some of them highly complex. It surrounds the gynoecium and is surrounded by the perianth, a few members of the family Triuridaceae, particularly Lacandonia schismatica, are exceptional in that their gynoecia surround their androecia.
Stamen is the Latin word meaning thread, depending on the species of plant, some or all of the stamens in a flower may be attached to the petals or to the floral axis. They may be free-standing or fused to one another in different ways, including fusion of some. The filaments may be fused and the free, or the filaments free. Rather than there being two locules, one locule of a stamen may fail to develop, or alternatively the two locules may merge late in development to give a single locule, a typical anther contains four microsporangia. The microsporangia form sacs or pockets in the anther, the two separate locules on each side of an anther may fuse into a single locule. Each microsporangium is lined with a tissue layer called the tapetum. These undergo meiosis to form haploid spores, the spores may remain attached to each other in a tetrad or separate after meiosis. Each microspore divides mitotically to form an immature microgametophyte called a pollen grain, the pollen is eventually released when the anther forms openings.
These may consist of longitudinal slits, pores, as in the family, or by valves. More commonly, mature pollen grains separate and are dispensed by wind or water, pollinating insects, pollen of angiosperms must be transported to the stigma, the receptive surface of the carpel, of a compatible flower, for successful pollination to occur. After arriving, the pollen grain typically completes its development and it may grow a pollen tube and undergoing mitosis to produce two sperm nuclei
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Principality of Lippe
Lippe was a historical state in Germany, ruled by the House of Lippe. It was located between the Weser River and the southeast part of the Teutoburg forest. The founder of what would become the Principality of Lippe was Bernhard I, Bernhard I assumed the title of edler Herr von Lippe. Bernhards successors inherited and obtained several counties, lord Simon V was the first ruler of Lippe to style himself as a count. Following the death of Simon VI in 1613, the principality was split into three counties, Lippe-Detmold went to Simon VII, Lippe-Brake to Otto and Lippe-Alverdissen went to Philip I, the Lippe-Brake county was reunited with the main Detmold line in 1709. Another branch of the family was founded by Jobst Herman, a son of Simon VII, the Counts of Lippe-Detmold were granted the title of Prince of The Empire in 1789. Shortly after becoming a state of the German Empire in 1871. This resulted in a dispute between the neighbouring principality of Schaumburg-Lippe and the Lippe-Biesterfeld line.
The dispute was resolved by the Imperial Court in Leipzig in 1905, with the passing to the Lippe-Biesterfeld line who. The Principality of Lippe came to an end on 12 November 1918 with the abdication of Leopold IV, in 1947, Lippe merged into the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The princely family still owns the estate and castle at Detmold, ordinances and by-laws of the county of Lippe online Guidelines for the integration of the Land Lippe within the territory of the federal state North-Rhine-Westphalia of 17 January 1947
Lemgo is a university city in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of c. It was founded in the 12th century by Bernard II, Lord of Lippe at the crossroad of two merchant routes. Lemgo was a member of the Hanseatic League, a trading association of free or autonomous cities in several northern European countries such as the Netherlands, Germany. During the Reformation the city of Lemgo adopted Lutheranism in 1522, whereas otherwise in Lippe, in 1605 Simon VI, Count of Lippe adopted Calvinism and demanded the conversion of Lemgos citizens too using his monarchic privilege of cuius regio, eius religio. This led to a dispute with Lemgo, the city defied the edict to convert to Calvinism, leading to the Revolt of Lemgo. This religious dispute was resolved by the Peace of Röhrentrup in 1617, from 1947 until 1993, Lemgo hosted successive infantry battalions of the British Army, the last one being the Royal Irish Regiment. The battalions were based in Stornoway Barracks, known to the locals as Spiegelberg Kaserne, the base was previously the location of a Displaced persons camp and before that a Wehrmacht artillery unit.
At the end of WW2, Canadian Section GHQ, 2nd Echelon, HQ21 Army Group, after this headquarters moved to Oldenburg the site was taken over by the British Army. Lemgo is the location of the OWL University, the town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts. Lemgo is twinned with, United Kingdom Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France Stendal, Germany Hörstmar County Primary School in Lemgo has a twin school in Holme on Spalding Moor since 1989
Until the 19th century the official name of the hill ridge was Osning. South of the city centre of Bielefeld, a gap called the Bielefeld Pass bisects the range into the Northern Teutoburg Forest, in addition, the northeastern and southwestern ridges are cut by the exits of the longitudinal valleys between the ridges. The geologically oldest ridge is the one, which consists of limestone of the Triassic. Most of the ridges and part of the valley are covered by deciduous forest, parts of the valley areas are used for agriculture, especially production of cereals. The highest elevation in the Southern Teutoburg Forest is the Velmerstot, in the Northern Teutoburg Forest the highest elevation is the Dörenberg. The river Ems has its source at the base of the southernmost portion of the Teutoburg Forest. The southern half of the range, situated about 30 km southwest of the Weser valley, is part of the watershed between the Ems basin in the west and the Weser basin in the east, the drainage towards the Weser is effected by the Werre river.
The northwestern half of the range is drained to the river Ems on both sides. The neighbouring landscapes are the Westphalian Lowland in the west, Hase valley in the north, the hilly Ravensberg Basin in the northeast, Lippe Uplands in the east, and Egge Range in the south. Except for an area south of Osnabrück, which belongs to the Bundesland of Lower Saxony. The Battle of Teutoburg Forest in 9 A. D. occurred in or near this region, the Roman historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus identified the location of the battle as saltus Teutoburgiensis. Recent excavations suggest that at least the final stages of the battle took place further northwest, at Kalkriese, as of 2011 the Teutoburg Forest comprises two separate nature parks, TERRA. During the period of renaissance in the wake of the Napoleonic wars, German people saw him as an early protagonist of German resistance to foreign rule. Emperor William I, the first Kaiser of the unified German Empire, a monumental statue of the emperor himself was erected on the hill of Wittekindsberg in Wiehen Hills.
In order to create a national landscape the Osning Hills were given the name Teutoburg Forest, the old name survived among the local population and the part of the ridge around the Ebberg near Bielefeld is still known as the Osning today. The composer Johannes Brahms liked to take walks in this forest during his stay in Detmold