RRG Storch V
The RRG Storch V was the only member of Alexander Lippisch's Storch series of tailless aircraft to be powered. It flew in 1929. Before the Storch V, Lippisch had designed only gliders, many of them tailless; the first of these, the Espenlaub E.2, was built by Espenlaub in 1922 but Lippisch, at RRG from 1925, did not return to the tailless layout until 1927. Development progressed with a series of the Storch models; the Storch V was the Storch IV with a small pusher configuration engine added behind the pilot. The Storch V had a straight edged wing with about 17° of sweep on the leading edge and with only slight taper and dihedral, it was built around a plywood skinned D-box leading edge spar and a second spar near mid-chord and was fabric covered. Broad, lobate ailerons were hinged at right angles to the line of flight, protruding beyond the trailing edges and carrying small trim tabs not fitted to the Storch IV. Broad, low endplate fins and rudders of about equal area, cambered on their inner surfaces provided directional stability and control.
Their profiles were lower and simpler than those on the Storch IV. The rudders could work together in opposition for braking; each wing was braced from a single point on the lower fuselage pod longeron to nose and rear spars at about 40% span by a faired V-strut. There were a pair of sturdy, vertical struts between the upper pod and the wing centre; the pod was flat sided, with angled upper and lower surfaces and on the Storch IV projected back to a line between the aileron trailing edges to provide some yaw stability. On the Storch V this provided a place to mount a small DKW 5–7 kW air-cooled two-stroke engine in pusher configuration with its output shaft just lower than the wing. Enclosed within a humped, metal cowling, it proved difficult to cool, so it was run at less than full power. There was a landing skid under the pod which extended back past the end of the pod to protect the propeller; the date of the first flight of the Storch V is not known but it was active during 1929 and flew well despite its low engine power.
It crashed whilst demonstrating at Darmstadt in gusty conditions. Data from L'Aerophile February 1930, p.39General characteristics Crew: One Length: 3.80 m Wingspan: 12.37 m Height: 2.0 m Wing area: 18.5 m2 Aspect ratio: 8 Empty weight: 170 kg Powerplant: 1 × DKW 500 cm3 air-cooled 2-stroke piston engine, 5.2–6.7 kW Propellers: 2-bladed RRG, 1.24 m diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 125 km/h at 100 m
Heinkel He 162
The Heinkel He 162 Volksjäger, the name of a project of the Emergency Fighter Program design competition, was a German single-engine, jet-powered fighter aircraft fielded by the Luftwaffe in World War II. It was designed and built and made of wood as metals were in short supply and prioritised for other aircraft. Volksjäger was the Reich Air Ministry's official name for the government design program competition won by the He 162 design. Other names given to the plane include Salamander, the codename of its construction program, Spatz, the name given to the plane by Heinkel. Through 1943 the U. S. 8th Air Force and German Luftwaffe entered a period of rapid evolution as both forces attempted to gain an advantage. Having lost too many fighters to the bombers' defensive guns, the Germans invested in a series of heavy weapons that allowed them to attack from outside the guns' effective range; the addition of heavy cannons like the 30mm calibre MK 108, heavier Bordkanone autoloading weapons in 37mm and 50mm calibres on their Zerstörer heavy fighters, the spring-1943 adoption of the Werfer-Granate 21 unguided rockets, gave the German single and twin-engined defensive fighters a degree of firepower never seen by Allied fliers.
Meanwhile, the single-engine aircraft like specially equipped Fw 190As added armor to protect their pilots from fire, allowing them to approach to distances where their heavy weapons could be used with some chance of hitting the bombers. All of this added to the weight being carried by both the single and twin-engine fighters affecting their performance; when the 8th Air Force re-opened its bombing campaign in early 1944 with the Big Week offensive, the bombers returned to the skies with the long-range P-51 Mustang in escort. Unencumbered with the heavy weapons needed to down a bomber, the Mustangs were able to fend off the Luftwaffe with relative ease; the Luftwaffe responded by changing tactics, forming in front of the bombers and making a single pass through the formations, giving the defense little time to react. The 8th Air Force responded with a change of its own, after Major General Jimmy Doolittle had ordered a change in fighter tactics earlier in 1944, amounting to an air supremacy entry into German airspace far ahead of the bombers' combat box formations — when at the end of April, he added additional directives allowing the fighters, following the bombers' flight back home to England, to roam over Germany and hit the Luftwaffe's defensive fighters wherever they could be found.
This change in tactics resulted in a sudden increase in the rate of irreplaceable losses to the Luftwaffe day fighter force, as their laden aircraft were "bounced" long before reaching the bombers. Within weeks, many of their aces were dead, along with hundreds of other pilots, the training program could not replace their casualties enough; the Luftwaffe put up little fight during the summer of 1944, allowing the Allied landings in France to go unopposed from the air. With few planes coming up to fight, Allied fighters were let loose on the German airbases and truck traffic. Logistics soon became a serious problem for the Luftwaffe, as maintaining aircraft in fighting condition became impossible. Getting enough fuel was more difficult because of a devastating campaign against German petroleum industry targets. Addressing this posed a considerable problem for the Luftwaffe. Two camps developed, both demanding the immediate introduction of large numbers of jet fighter aircraft. One group, led by General Adolf Galland, the Inspector of Fighters, reasoned that superior numbers had to be countered with superior technology, demanded that all possible effort be put into increasing the production of the Messerschmitt Me 262 in its A-1a fighter version if that meant reducing production of other aircraft in the meantime.
The second group pointed out that this would do little to address the problem. Instead, they suggested that a new design be built - one so inexpensive that if a machine was damaged or worn out, it could be discarded and replaced with a fresh plane straight off the assembly line, thus was born the concept of the "throwaway fighter". Galland and other Luftwaffe senior officers expressed vehement opposition to the light fighter idea, while Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring and Armaments Minister Albert Speer supported the idea. Göring and Speer got their way, a contract tender for a single-engine jet fighter, suited for cheap and rapid mass production was established under the name Volksjäger; the official RLM Volksjäger design competition parameters specified a single-seat fighter, powered by a single BMW 003, a lower-thrust engine not in demand for either the Me 262 or the Ar 234 in service. The main structure of the Volksjäger competing airframe designs would use cheap and unsophisticated parts made of wood and other non-strategic materials and, more could be assembled by semi- and non-skilled labor, including slave labor.
Specifications included a weight of no more than 2,000 kg, with maximum speed specified as 750 km/h at sea level, operational endurance at least a half hour, the takeoff run no more than 500 m. Armament was specified as either two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons with 100 rounds each, or two 30 mm MK 108 cannons with 50 rounds each; the Volksjäger ne
An autocannon or automatic cannon is a large automatic, rapid-fire projectile weapon that fires armour-piercing or explosive shells, as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun. Autocannons have a larger calibre than a machine gun, but are smaller than a field gun or other artillery; when used on its own, the word "autocannon" indicates a single-barrel weapon. When multiple rotating barrels are involved, the word "rotary" is added, such a weapon is referred to as a "rotary autocannon". Modern autocannons are not single soldier-portable or stand-alone units, rather they are vehicle-mounted, aircraft-mounted, or boat-mounted, or remote-operated as in some naval applications; as such, ammunition is fed from a belt to reduce reloading or for a faster rate of fire, but a magazine remains an option. They can use a variety of ammunition: common shells include high-explosive dual-purpose types, any variety of armour-piercing types, such as composite rigid or discarding sabot types. Although capable of generating a high rate of fire, autocannons overheat if used for sustained fire, are limited by the amount of ammunition that can be carried by the weapons systems mounting them.
Both the US 25 mm Bushmaster and the British 30 mm Rarden have slow rates of fire so as not to use ammunition too quickly. The rate of fire of a modern autocannon ranges from 90 rounds per minute, to 2,500 rounds per minute with the GIAT 30. Systems with multiple barrels can have rates of fire of over 10,000 rounds per minute; such high rates of fire are employed by aircraft in air-to-air combat and close air support attacks on ground targets, where the target dwell time is short and weapons are operated in brief bursts. The first modern autocannon was the British QF 1 pounder known as the "pom-pom"; this was an upscaled version of the Maxim gun, the first successful automatic machine gun, requiring no outside stimulus in its firing cycle other than holding the trigger. The pom-pom fired 1 pound gunpowder-filled explosive shells at a rate of over 200 rounds a minute: much faster than conventional artillery while possessing a much longer range and more firepower than the infantry rifle. In 1913, Reinhold Becker and his Stahlwerke Becker firm designed the 20mm Becker cannon for the German Empire's perceived need for heavy-calibre aircraft armament, was assisted by the Imperial Government's Spandau Arsenal in perfecting the ordnance - although only about 500+ examples of the original Becker design were made during World War I, the design's patent was acquired by the Swiss Oerlikon Contraves firm in 1924, with the Third Reich's Ikaria-Werke firm of Berlin using Oerlikon design patents in creating the MG FF wingmount cannon ordnance, in Imperial Japan, their navy's adoption and production of the Type 99 cannon in 1939 was based on the Becker/Oerlikon design's principles.
During the First World War, autocannons were used in the trenches as an anti-aircraft gun. The British used pom-pom guns as part of their air defences to counter the German Zeppelin airships that made regular bombing raids on London, but they were of little value, as their shells neither ignited the hydrogen of the Zeppelins, nor caused sufficient loss of gas to bring them down. Attempts to use them in aircraft failed as the weight limited both speed and altitude, thus making successful interception impossible; the more effective QF 2 pounder naval gun would be developed during the war to serve as an anti-aircraft and close range defensive weapon for naval vessels. Autocannons would serve in a much greater capacity during the Second World War. During the inter-war years, aircraft underwent an evolution and the all-metal monoplane, pioneered as far back as the end of 1915 replaced wood and fabric biplanes; the subsequent increase in speed and durability reduced the window of opportunity for defence.
Heavier anti-aircraft cannon had difficulty tracking fast-moving aircraft and were unable to judge altitude or distance, while machine guns possessed insufficient range and firepower to bring down aircraft consistently. Weapons such as the Oerlikon 20 mm and the Bofors 40 mm would see widespread use by both sides during the second World War. Continued ineffectiveness against aircraft despite the large numbers installed during the second World War led, in the West, to the removal of all shipboard anti-aircraft weapons in the early post-war period; this was only reversed with the introduction of computer-controlled systems. The German Panzer II light tank, one of the most numerous in German service during the invasion of Poland and the campaign in France, used a 20 mm autocannon as its main armament. Although ineffective against tank armour during the early years of the war, the cannon was effective against light-skinned vehicles as well as infantry and was used by armoured cars. Larger examples, such as the 40 mm Vickers S, were mounted in ground attack aircraft to serve as an anti-tank weapon, a role to which they were suited as tank armour is lightest on top.
Polish 20 mm. Unlike the Oerlikon, it was effective against all the tanks fielded in 1939 because it was built as an upgrade to the Oerlikon, Hispano—Suiza, Madsen. It, with great difficulty, proved capable of knocking out early Panzer IIIs and IVs. Only 55 were produced by the time of the Polish Defensive War. In airc
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The DFS 194 was a rocket-powered aircraft designed by Alexander Lippisch at the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug. The DFS 194 was based on the Alexander Lippisch Delta series of tailless designs; as conceived, it would have been a tailless aircraft similar to his DFS 40, powered by a conventional piston engine driving a pusher propeller. The airframe was completed in this configuration in March 1938. Lippisch's designs had attracted the attention of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium who believed that tailless aircraft were the best basis for a rocket-powered fighter. On January 2, 1939, Lippisch and his team were transferred to the Messerschmitt company to begin work on such an aircraft, under what was known as Project X; the DFS-194 was modified to accept a Walter R I-203 rocket engine designed by Hellmuth Walter, by October, the aircraft was undergoing engine tests at Peenemünde. These were followed by glide tests in early 1940 leading to the first powered flight in August with Heini Dittmar at the controls.
The flight went well, the DFS 194 reaching 550 km/h, bettering the speed of the earlier, Walter rocket powered Heinkel He 176. The aircraft proved to have excellent flying characteristics and proved safe to fly at nearly twice the anticipated speed; these results paved the way for the next stage of the project, which now received priority status from the RLM. The Messerschmitt Me 163, a refined design along the same basic lines, flew the following year. General characteristics Crew: one, pilot Length: 6.4 m Wingspan: 10.4 m Height: 2.13 m Wing area: 18 m² Loaded weight: 2,100 kg Powerplant: 1× Walter R I-203 rocket, 3.9 kN 3.9 kN Performance Maximum speed: 550 km/h Rate of climb: 1,615 m/min Related development DFS 39 DFS 40 Messerschmitt Me 163Aircraft of comparable role and era Focke-Wulf Volksjäger Junkers Ju 248 Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 Related lists List of military aircraft of Germany List of Luftwaffe aircraft prototype projects during World War II List of rocket planes
The RFB X-114 was a ground-effect craft, designed chiefly to operate over water but capable of flight at higher altitudes where required, carrying five or six passengers or freight along coasts and capable of surveillance duties. One was evaluated by the German military in the late 1970s; the RFB X-114 Aerofoil Craft was an experimental ground-effect vehicle intended to work over water, with the ability to fly out of ground effect when required. It was the last of three such aircraft designed by Alexander Lippisch in early 1970s; the low powered, two-seat proof of concept Collins X-112 was followed by the RFB X-113, structurally and aerodynamically refined, but still low- powered. The much larger X-114 had a 149 kW engine. All three were inverse delta aircraft, that is, they had a wing, triangular in plan, but with a straight, unswept leading edge. Combined with strong anhedral, this layout produces stable flight in ground effect, it is claimed that it is stable in pitch and that it can fly in ground effect at altitudes up to about 50% of its span, allowing it to operate over rough water.
This contrasts with the lower aspect ratio square wing of the Ekranoplans, which leaves ground effect at only 10% of span, limiting them to the calmer waters of lakes and rivers. The weight of the X-114 was more than twice that of the X-112, the next heaviest of the series, but all three shared the same control systems. At each wing tip there was a long, flat bottomed float reaching forward about 2.5 m beyond the wing's leading edge, with short, outward leaning winglets in line with that edge and fitted with ailerons. At the rear the fuselage swept upwards to a conventional fin and T-tail, the latter carrying elevators. On the water's surface, the floats stabilised the X-114 and, in combination with the strong anhedral, held the fuselage well clear of the water; the X-114 had a pod type fuselage, projecting forward as far as the floats. Seating, in rows of two, accommodated seven under multi-section glazing; the pod extended rearwards to about one quarter root chord, its rearmost part unglazed and forming a streamlined pylon for the separately podded, 149 kW Lycoming O-360 flat-four engine.
A drive shaft ran rearwards from the engine within a conical fairing to a shrouded, five bladed pusher configuration propeller mounted near mid-chord. Though intended for over-water flight in ground effect, the X-114 could be flown out of ground effect over obstructions like trees, peninsulas, or waterfalls, it was equipped with conventional landing gear, with small wheels retracting into the floats and a tailwheel on the fuselage at the wing's trailing edge, which could be lifted up to lie along the fuselage bottom where it began the upward slope to the tail. It is not clear if this lightweight gear allowed land based take-offs and landings, or if it acted as beaching gear, allowing the X-114 easy access from water to land-based facilities; the X-114 began its trials with the German Ministry of Defence in April 1977. At some stage it was fitted with downward angled hydrofoils mounted to its floats with the aim of decreasing take-off speed, but they proved to have the opposite effect by decreasing the ram air pressure.
They called for care on landing, pulling the craft into the water if their angle of attack was negative. Despite completing its test programme satisfactorily, no production order was received and the sole prototype was the only X-114 built, it was lost in an accident. Though Lippisch died just before the X-114 test programme began, his concept was further developed in the Airfish series of ground effect vehicles, which continued in operation until at least 2012. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1978-79General characteristics Crew: One Capacity: Five or six passengers Length: 12.80 m Wingspan: 7.00 m Height: 2.90 m Empty weight: 1,000 kg Max takeoff weight: 1,500 kg Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming IO-360 flat four, 150 kW Propellers: 5-bladed ducted pusher configurationPerformance Cruise speed: 150 km/h in ground effect. Out of ground effect, estimated: 200 km/h Range: 2,000 km in ground effect Endurance: 20 hr, in ground effect
The Zögling is a German high-wing, cable-braced, single seat primary glider, designed by Alexander Lippisch in 1926 and produced with many variations by a variety of manufacturers. The Zögling was designed to be a training glider for basic flight training; the usual launch method was by bungee cord from a sloped hill. Because training was conducted by solo flight the aircraft had to be easy to fly and easy to repair; the high-wing design uses a kingpost and cable bracing. The primary structure of the glider is of wood, with the wings, tail surfaces and inverted "V" kingpost all finished in doped aircraft fabric covering; the pilot sits on a simple seat in the open air, without a windshield. D. D. Zögling RRG-1 Zögling DFS Zögling 33 DFS Zögling 1 Lippisch Zögling Teichfuss L. T.30 G 101 production in Sweden National Soaring Museum, New York, United States US Southwest Soaring Museum – replica fuselage only Swedish Air Force Museum has a G 101 in storage Data from The Virtual Aviation MuseumGeneral characteristics Crew: One Length: 5.290 m Wingspan: 10.040 m Height: 2.010 m Related development DFS SG 38 Schulgleiter Slingsby PrimaryAircraft of comparable role and era Detroit G1 Gull Jongblood Primary Schweizer SGP 1-1 Cloudcraft Dickson Primary Related lists List of gliders Zögling photos in the National Soaring Museum