September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
Todd Morgan Beamer was an American passenger aboard United Airlines Flight 93, hijacked as part of the September 11 attacks in 2001. He was one of the passengers. During the struggle, the aircraft lost control and crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, saving the hijackers' intended target and additional victims. Todd Beamer was born on November 24, 1968, in Flint, Michigan, to David Beamer, an IBM sales representative, Peggy Jackson Beamer, a muralist, the middle child of three and only son. Beamer and his two sisters and Michele, were raised "with a strong biblical value system and work ethic"; the family relocated to Poughkeepsie, New York, to Wheaton, Illinois, a suburb west of Chicago, where David worked at Amdahl, a computer technology company. Beamer attended Wheaton Christian Grammar School, where he played soccer and baseball, he attended Wheaton Academy, a Christian high school, from 1983 to 1985, where he excelled in the same sports. He was elected class vice president in his junior year.
After David was promoted to vice president of Amdahl's California headquarters, the family moved, Beamer spent his senior year at Los Gatos High School, just south of San Jose, California. Beamer attended Fresno State University, where he majored in physical therapy and played baseball, in the hopes of playing professionally, but injuries he suffered in an automobile accident ended these plans, he transferred to Wheaton College, a Christian university. At Wheaton College he majored in medicine before switching to business, he continued as a senior became captain of the basketball team. He graduated in 1991. While at Wheaton College, he met his future wife, during a senior seminar class, their first date was November 2, 1991, the 10-year anniversary of which they had been planning to celebrate at the time of his death. Beamer subsequently worked for Wilson Sporting Goods while taking night classes at DePaul University, earning an M. B. A. in June 1993. Beamer married Brosious on May 14, 1994, in Peekskill, New York, they moved to Plainsboro, New Jersey, where Beamer began working with Oracle Corporation, selling systems applications and database software as a field marketing representative.
Within months, Beamer was promoted to account manager. Beamer and Lisa taught Sunday school at Princeton Alliance Church for six years, worked in youth ministry. Beamer played on the church softball team, he was a staunch fan of Chicago Bulls and Chicago Bears. In 2000, the Beamers moved to New Jersey, with their two sons. Beamer's work forced him to travel up to four times a month, sometimes for as long as a week. In 2001, he earned a five-day trip to Italy with his wife for being a top sales performer, they returned home on September 10, at 5 pm. While Beamer could have left that night for a Tuesday business meeting in California, he opted instead to spend time with his family, his wife was due the following January with their third child. He left home at 6:15 am the next morning, to take an early flight from Newark to San Francisco to meet with representatives of the Sony Corporation at 1:00pm, planning to return on a red-eye flight that night. United Flight 93 was scheduled to depart at 8:00am, but the Boeing 757 did not depart until 42 minutes due to runway traffic delays.
Six minutes American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the World Trade Center's North Tower. 15 minutes at 9:03 am, as United Flight 175 crashed into the South Tower, United 93 was climbing to cruising altitude, heading west over New Jersey and into Pennsylvania. At 9:25 am, Flight 93 was above eastern Ohio, its pilot radioed Cleveland controllers to inquire about an alert, flashed on his cockpit computer screen to "beware of cockpit intrusion." Three minutes Cleveland controllers could hear screams over the cockpit's open microphone. Moments the hijackers, led by the Lebanese Ziad Samir Jarrah, took over the plane's controls, disengaged the autopilot, told passengers, "Keep remaining sitting. We have a bomb on board." Beamer and the other passengers were herded into the back of the plane. The curtain between first class and economy class had been drawn, at which point Beamer saw the pilot and co-pilot lying dead on the floor just outside the curtain, their throats having been cut, as a flight attendant informed him.
Within six minutes, the plane changed course and was heading for Washington, D. C.. Several of the passengers made phone calls to loved ones, who informed them about the two planes that had crashed into the World Trade Center in New York City and the third into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. Beamer tried to place a credit card call through a phone located on the back of a plane seat, but was routed to a customer-service representative, who passed him on to GTE airphone supervisor Lisa Jefferson. With FBI agents listening in on their call, Beamer informed Jefferson that hijackers had taken over United 93, that one passenger had been killed, mentioned the dead pilots, he stated that two of the hijackers had knives, that one appeared to have a bomb strapped around his waist. When the hijackers veered the plane south, Beamer exclaimed, "We're going down! We're going down!" Following this, the passengers and flight crew decided to act. According to accounts of cell phone conversations, along with Mark Bingham, Tom Burnett and Jeremy Glick, formed a plan to take the plane back from the hijackers.
They were joined by other passengers, including Lou Nacke, Rich Guadagno, Alan Beaven, Honor Elizabeth Wainio, Linda Gronlund, a
United Airlines Flight 93
United Airlines Flight 93 was a domestic scheduled passenger flight, hijacked by four al-Qaeda terrorists on board, as part of the September 11 attacks. It crashed into a field in Somerset County, during an attempt by the passengers and crew to regain control. All 44 people on board were killed, including the four hijackers, but no one on the ground was injured; the aircraft involved, a Boeing 757–222, was flying United Airlines' daily scheduled morning flight from Newark International Airport in New Jersey to San Francisco International Airport in California. The hijackers stormed the aircraft's cockpit 46 minutes after takeoff; the pilot and first officer took measures, such as de-activating the autopilot, to hinder the hijackers. Ziad Jarrah, who had trained as a pilot, took control of the aircraft and diverted it back toward the east coast, in the direction of Washington, D. C. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi bin al-Shibh, considered principal instigators of the attacks, have claimed that the intended target was the Capitol Building.
After the hijackers took control of the plane, several passengers and flight attendants learned from phone calls that suicide attacks had been made by hijacked airliners on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. Many of the passengers attempted to regain control of the aircraft from the hijackers. During the struggle, the plane crashed into a field near a reclaimed strip mine in Stonycreek Township, near Indian Lake and Shanksville, about 65 miles southeast of Pittsburgh and 130 miles northwest of Washington, D. C. A few people witnessed the impact from the ground, news agencies began reporting the event within an hour. Of the four aircraft hijacked on September 11 – the others were American Airlines Flight 11, United Airlines Flight 175 and American Airlines Flight 77 – United Airlines Flight 93 was the only aircraft that did not reach its hijackers' intended target. Vice President Dick Cheney, in the Presidential Emergency Operations Center deep under the White House, authorized Flight 93 to be shot down.
Construction of a permanent Flight 93 National Memorial was dedicated on September 10, 2011, the concrete and glass visitor center situated on a hill overlooking the site was opened four years later. The hijacking of Flight 93 was led by a member of al-Qaeda. Jarrah had a secular upbringing, he intended to become a pilot and moved to Germany in 1996, enrolling at the University of Greifswald to study German. A year he moved to Hamburg and began studying aeronautical engineering at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. In Hamburg, Jarrah associated with the radical Hamburg cell. In November 1999, Jarrah left Hamburg for Afghanistan. While there, he met with al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in January 2000. Jarrah returned to Hamburg at the end of January and in February obtained a new passport containing no stamped records of his travels by reporting his passport as stolen. In May, Jarrah received a visa from the U. S. Embassy in Berlin, arriving in Florida in June 2000. There, he began taking flying lessons and training in hand-to-hand combat.
Jarrah maintained contact with his girlfriend in Germany and with his family in Lebanon in the months preceding the attacks. This close contact upset Mohamed Atta, the tactical leader of the plot, al-Qaeda planners may have considered another operative, Zacarias Moussaoui, to replace him if he had backed out. Four "muscle" hijackers were trained to storm the cockpit and overpower the crew, three accompanied Jarrah on Flight 93; the first, Ahmed al-Nami, arrived in Miami, Florida, on May 28, 2001, on a six-month tourist visa with United Airlines Flight 175 hijackers Hamza al-Ghamdi and Mohand al-Shehri. The second Flight 93 hijacker, Ahmed al-Haznawi, arrived in Miami on June 8 with Flight 11 hijacker Wail al-Shehri; the third Flight 93 muscle hijacker, Saeed al-Ghamdi, arrived in Orlando, Florida, on June 27 with Flight 175 hijacker Fayez Banihammad. On August 3, 2001, an intended fifth hijacker, Mohammed al-Qahtani, flew into Orlando from Dubai, he was questioned by officials, who were dubious that he could support himself with only $2,800 cash to his name, suspicious that he intended to become an illegal immigrant as he was using a one-way ticket.
He was sent back to Dubai, subsequently returned to Saudi Arabia. Ziad Jarrah and Saeed al-Ghamdi's passports were recovered from the Flight 93 crash site. Jarrah's family said; the aircraft involved in the hijacking was a Boeing 757–222, registration N591UA, delivered to the airline in 1996. The airplane had a capacity of 182 passengers; the seven crew members were Captain Jason Dahl, First Officer LeRoy Homer Jr. and flight attendants Lorraine Bay, Sandra Bradshaw, Wanda Green, CeeCee Lyles, Deborah Welsh. The four hijackers checked in for the flight between 07:39 Eastern Time. At 07:03, Ghamdi checked in without any luggage. At 07:24, Haznawi checked in one bag and at 07:39, Jarrah checked in without any luggage. Haznawi was the only hijacker selected for extra scrutiny by the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System, his checked bag underwent extra screening for explosives, with no extra scrutiny required by CAPPS at the passenger-security check
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Wheaton College (Illinois)
Wheaton College is a Christian, residential liberal arts college and graduate school in Wheaton, Illinois. The Protestant college was founded by evangelical abolitionists in 1860. Wheaton College was a stop on the Underground Railroad and graduated one of Illinois' first African-American college graduates. Wheaton is noted for its "twin traditions of quality academics and deep faith," according to Time magazine and is ranked 20th among all national liberal arts colleges in the number of alumni who go on to earn PhDs. Wheaton is included in Loren Pope's influential book Colleges, it has been described as one of America's foremost Christian institutions. Wheaton College was ranked 8th in "Best Undergraduate Teaching" by the U. S. News & World Report for national liberal arts colleges in 2016; the school was ranked 57th overall among national liberal arts colleges by U. S. News & World Report for 2016. Forbes lists Universities in its 2015 rankings. Wheaton College was founded in 1860, its predecessor, the Illinois Institute, had been founded in late 1853 by Wesleyan Methodists as a college and preparatory school.
Wheaton's first president, Jonathan Blanchard, was a former president of Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois and a staunch abolitionist with ties to Oberlin College. Mired in financial trouble and unable to sustain the institution, the Wesleyans looked to Blanchard for new leadership, he took on the role as president in 1860, having suggested several Congregationalist appointees to the board of trustees the previous year. The Wesleyans, similar in spirit and mission to the Congregationalists, were happy to relinquish control of the Illinois Institute. Blanchard separated the college from any denominational support and was responsible for its new name, given in honor of trustee and benefactor Warren L. Wheaton, who founded the town of Wheaton after moving to Illinois from New England. A dogged reformer, Blanchard began his public campaign for abolitionism with the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1836, at the age of twenty-five. In his life, after the Civil War, he began a sustained campaign against Freemasonry.
This culminated in a national presidential campaign on the American Anti-Masonic Party ticket in 1884. Under Blanchard's leadership, the college was a stop on the Underground Railroad; the confirmation came from the letters of Daniel Studebaker, one of Blanchard's relatives by marriage, who notes that the town and college's anti-slavery beliefs were so held "that he, along with hundreds of other Wheaton residents, had seen and spoken with many fugitive slaves". Blanchard lobbied for universal co-education and was a strong proponent of reform through strong public education open to all. At this time, Wheaton was the only school in Illinois with a college-level women's program. Wheaton saw its first graduate of color in 1866, when Edward Breathitte Sellers took his degree. Additionally, he is one of the first African-American college graduates in the state of Illinois. In 1882, Charles A. Blanchard succeeded his father as president of the college. In 1925, J. Oliver Buswell, an outspoken Presbyterian, delivered a series of lectures at Wheaton College.
Shortly thereafter, President Charles Blanchard died and Buswell was called to be the third president of Wheaton. Upon his installation in April 1926, he became the nation's youngest college president at age 31. Buswell's tenure was characterized by expanding enrollment, a building program, strong academic development, a boom in the institution's reputation, it was known for growing divisiveness over faculty scholarship and personality clashes. In 1940, this tension led to the firing of Buswell for being, as two historians of the college put it, "too argumentative in temperament and too intellectual in his approach to Christianity." By the late 1940s, Wheaton was emerging as a standard-bearer of Evangelicalism. By 1950, enrollment at the college surpassed 1,600, in the second half of the twentieth century, enrollment growth and more selective admissions accompanied athletic success and improved facilities, expanded programs. In 1951, Honey Rock, a camp in Three Lakes, was purchased by the college.
In 2010, the public phase of The Promise of Wheaton campaign came to a close with $250.7 million raised, an "unprecedented 5-1/2 year campaign figure for Wheaton College". In 2010, Wheaton College become the first American Associate University of the Tony Blair Faith Foundation's Faith and Globalization Initiative. Tony Blair noted that the partnership will "give emerging leaders in the United States and the United Kingdom the opportunity to explore in depth the critical issues of how faith impacts the modern world today through different faith and cultural lenses" and that Wheaton's participation will "greatly enrich the Initiative"; as of 2015 the college continued to retain its Christian "Statement of Faith and Educational Purpose" and expected public statements of its faculty members to conform to it. Wheaton College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. According to The Princeton Review's "The Best 351 Colleges", "If the integration of faith and learning is what you want out of a college, Wheaton is arguably the best school in the nation with a Christ-based worldview."
Students may choose in the sciences. Some of the most popular in recent years have been business, English, biblical studies, political science, international relations, psychology. In 2011 it was ranked No. 1 for best cafeteria food in the nation according to the Princeton review. In 2015, U. S. News & World Report ranked Wheaton College at 56 out of 265 Best National Liberal Arts Col