Yitzhak Rabin was an Israeli politician and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995. Rabin was born in Jerusalem to Ukrainian-Jewish immigrants and was raised in a Labor Zionist household, he excelled as a student. He led a 27-year career as a soldier; as a teenager he joined the commando force of the Yishuv. He rose through its ranks to become its chief of operations during Israel's War of Independence, he joined the newly formed Israel Defense Forces in late 1948 and continued to rise as a promising officer. He helped shape the training doctrine of the IDF in the early 1950s, led the IDF's Operations Directorate from 1959 to 1963, he was appointed Chief of the General Staff in 1964 and oversaw Israel's victory in the 1967 Six-Day War. Rabin served as Israel's ambassador to the United States from 1968 to 1973, during a period of deepening U. S.–Israel ties. He was appointed Prime Minister of Israel after the resignation of Golda Meir.
In his first term, Rabin ordered the Entebbe raid. He resigned in 1977 in the wake of a financial scandal. Rabin was Israel's minister of defense for much of the 1980s, including during the outbreak of the First Intifada. In 1992, Rabin was re-elected as prime minister on a platform embracing the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, he signed several historic agreements with the Palestinian leadership as part of the Oslo Accords. In 1994, Rabin won the Nobel Peace Prize together with long-time political rival Shimon Peres and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Rabin signed a peace treaty with Jordan in 1994. In November 1995, he was assassinated by an extremist named Yigal Amir, who opposed the terms of the Oslo Accords. Amir was convicted of Rabin's murder. Rabin was the first native-born prime minister of Israel, the only prime minister to be assassinated and the second to die in office after Levi Eshkol. Rabin has become a symbol of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. Rabin was born at Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem on 1 March 1922, Mandatory Palestine, to Nehemiah and Rosa Rabin, immigrants of the Third Aliyah, the third wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine from Europe.
Nehemiah was born Nehemiah Rubitzov in the shtetl Sydorovychi near Ivankiv in the southern Pale of Settlement. His father Menachem died when he was a boy, Nehemiah worked to support his family from an early age. At the age of 18, he emigrated to the United States, where he joined the Poale Zion party and changed his surname to Rabin. In 1917, Nehemiah Rabin went to Mandatory Palestine with a group of volunteers from the Jewish Legion. Yitzhak's mother, Rosa Cohen, was born in 1890 in Mogilev in Belarus, her father, a rabbi, opposed the Zionist movement and sent Rosa to a Christian high school for girls in Gomel, which gave her a broad general education. Early on, Rosa took an interest in social causes. In 1919, she traveled to Palestine on the steamship Ruslan. After working on a kibbutz on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, she moved to Jerusalem. Rabin's parents met in Jerusalem during the 1920 Nebi Musa riots, they moved to Tel Aviv's Chlenov Street near Jaffa in 1923. Nehemiah became a worker for the Palestine Electric Corporation and Rosa was an accountant and local activist.
She became a member of the Tel Aviv City Council. The family moved again in 1931 to a two-room apartment on Hamagid Street in Tel Aviv. Rabin grew up in Tel Aviv, he enrolled in the Tel Aviv Beit Hinuch Leyaldei Ovdim in 1928 and completed his studies there in 1935. The school taught the children agriculture as well as Zionism. Rabin received good marks in school, but he was so shy that few people knew he was intelligent. In 1935, Rabin enrolled at an agricultural school on kibbutz Givat Hashlosha that his mother founded, it was here in 1936 at the age of 14 that Rabin joined the Haganah and received his first military training, learning how to use a pistol and stand guard. He joined HaNoar HaOved. In 1937, he enrolled at the two-year Kadoorie Agricultural High School, he excelled in a number of agriculture-related subjects but disliked studying English language—the language of the British "enemy." He aspired to be an irrigation engineer, but his interest in military affairs intensified in 1938, when the ongoing Arab revolt worsened.
A young Haganah sergeant named Yigal Allon a general in the IDF and prominent politician, trained Rabin and others at Kadoorie. Rabin finished at Kadoorie in August 1940. For part of 1939, the British closed Kadoorie, Rabin joined Allon as a military policeman at Kibbutz Ginosar until the school re-opened; when he finished school, Rabin considered studying irrigation engineering on scholarship at the University of California, although he decided to stay and fight in Palestine. Rabin married Leah Schlossberg during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Leah Rabin was working at the time as a reporter for a Palmach newspaper, they had two children and Yuval. Rabin was non-religious. In 1941, during his practical training at kibbutz Ramat Yohanan, Rabin joined the newly formed Palmach section of the Haganah, under the influence of Yigal Allon. Rabin could not yet operate a machine gun, drive a ca
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Asiaweek was an English-language news magazine focusing on Asia, published weekly by Asiaweek Limited, a subsidiary of Time Inc. Based in Hong Kong, it was established in 1975, ceased publication with its 7 December 2001 issue due to a "downturn in the advertising market," according to Norman Pearlstine, editor in chief of Time Inc; the magazine had a circulation of 120,000 copies. The magazine was associated with Yazhou Zhoukan, an international Chinese newsweekly, before Time Warner media acquired it. Asiaweek was founded in 1975 by Michael O'Neill, a New Zealander, T. J. S. George, an Indian, who had worked together at the Far Eastern Economic Review but had grown disenchanted with what they considered its ponderous style and perceived British stance. Asiaweek's mission statement said it all: "To report and the affairs of Asia in all spheres of human activity, to see the world from an Asian perspective, to be Asia's voice in the world."Among the publication's many contributions to an understanding of the Asia-Pacific Rim region was the annual Asiaweek Short Story Competition, which ran from 1981 to 1988.
Prizewinning Asian Fiction was published in book form in 1991 by Times Editions and Hong Kong University Press In his Foreword, Asiaweek Managing Editor Salmon Wayne Morrison wrote: "The competition cast a body of writing that had not been given publicity before."Asiaweek had only four editors during its 26 years period: co-founders T. J. S. George and Michael O'Neill, who conceived the magazine, Ann Morrison who succeeded O'Neill in 1994, Dorinda Elliott Newsweek's Asia editor in Hong Kong, who took over in October 2000; the magazine had always moved with the times. As co-founder George wrote in an editorial statement in Asiaweek's first issue in December 1975: "Realities have changed, so the values, it is now a new Asia, this is a new magazine to report it."O'Neill was a founding Editor-in-Chief of Yazhou Zhoukan, launched by Asiaweek Limited in 1987, with Thomas Hon Wing Polin as its founding Managing Editor. In 1985, Inc. acquired 84% of Asiaweek, buying out Reader's Digest's 80% stake and 4% local interests.
The remaining 16% was owned by Michael O'Neill. In 1994, Time ousted O'Neill and installed another editor, Ann Morrison, who came to Hong Kong from Fortune based in New York. George, who left Asiaweek before its troubles began, laments the death of the magazine after O'Neill was removed. With Asiaweek's demise, George said, his only regret was the way "the magazine was devalued by the people who took it upon themselves to nurture it; that is why I shed no tears now as the concept itself was killed in 1994 when Mike was removed by the new management. Its closure is a mere burial."According to Time, the reason for the closure was due to an advertising slump. Executives at Time insist; the New York Times columnist Thomas Crampton writes, "Asiaweek and the Far Eastern Economic Review were the only weekly magazines with a strong Asia focus through the 1980s. But competition grew in the 1990s when global and local media companies expanded into regional editions. In addition to several small regionally financed magazines, The Economist, BusinessWeek and Forbes all began aggressive expansions into Asia.
These global titles could rely on skeletal staffs and economies of scale."According to Crampton, besides the "brutal competition for limited advertising revenue", another plausible reason for the shakeout was "the suffocating embrace of U. S.-based media giants with an American-centric perspective." For Asiaweek's founding editor, Time Warner's closure of the 26-year-old publication plays into Asian fears of a U. S.-centric world media. "The mandarins of Manhattan know Asia's potential," said T. J. S. George, now an editorial consultant for the New Indian Express Group. "They want a total monopoly for Time magazine."'Asia through Asian eyes' was the slogan that helped Asiaweek rise. George is still nostalgic about the fresh and fearless style of the magazine during its heyday and is wary of American meddling in Asian affairs, he warns that "perhaps the most deep-going, subliminal – if pernicious – mind control weapon at America's disposal is its news media."But Singapore-based Alejandro Reyes, long-time correspondent and contributing editor of Asiaweek, insists that the magazine retained its Asian voice independent of whatever the bosses in New York might have wanted.
He says the magazine's demise was due to the "failure of a pan-Asian marketing strategy impeded by limited resources and intense competition" and is hopeful of the revival of a niche market for media with an Asian perspective despite globalization trends. Reyes, educated in the United States applauded the modern, business-oriented techniques and practices of AOL Time Warner, he was not too happy when he found out that Time deleted all Asiaweek articles from its online archives, including his. "This is all tragic," says Reyes, "– misguided decisions by New York-centric media bureaucrats whose careers are soon to be deleted just as ruthlessly."M. G. G. Pillai, one of Asiaweek's casualties, says the magazine lost focus and became Americanised after Time took over. Unlike Reyes, he was not optimistic that it will be replaced because most magazines in Asia depend on the patronage of political rulers, most financiers have an axe to grind. Philip Bowring, former editor of the Far Eastern Economic Review, bought by Dow Jones in the late 1980s and merged with the Asian Wall Street Journal in 2001 and quartered into a monthly in 2004 before its final burial in 2009
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware
Ehud Barak is an Israeli general and politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001. He was leader of the Labor Party until January 2011, he held the posts of Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister under Ehud Olmert and in Benjamin Netanyahu's second government from 2007 to 2013, as he retired from politics at the end of the tenure. A Rav Aluf in the Israel Defense Forces, Barak is the joint most decorated soldier in Israel's history, having taken part in many battles and combat mission. Following a decorated career, he was appointed Chief of General Staff in 1991, serving until 1995, he is a graduate in physics and economics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Stanford University. Barak was born on 12 February 1942 in kibbutz Mishmar HaSharon in what was Mandatory Palestine, he is the eldest of four sons of Yisrael Mendel Brog. His paternal grandparents and Reuven Brog, were murdered in Pušalotas in the northern Lithuania in 1912, leaving his father orphaned at the age of two.
Barak's maternal grandparents and Shmuel Godin, died at the Treblinka extermination camp during the Holocaust. Ehud hebraized his family name from "Brog" to "Barak" in 1972, it was during his military service that he met Nava. They had three daughters together: Michal and Anat, he has grandchildren. Barak divorced Nava in August 2003. On 30 July 2007, Barak married Nili Priel in a small ceremony in his private residence. In his spare time, Barak enjoys reading works by writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he is a classical pianist, with many years of study behind him. Barak earned his bachelor's degree in physics and mathematics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1968, his master's degree in engineering-economic systems in 1978 from Stanford University, in California. Barak joined the Israel Defense Forces in 1959, he served in the IDF for 35 years, rising to the position of Chief of the General Staff and the rank of Rav Aluf, the highest in the Israeli military. During his service as a commando in the elite Sayeret Matkal, Barak led several acclaimed operations, such as: "Operation Isotope", the mission to free the hostages on board the hijacked Sabena Flight 571 at Lod Airport in 1972.
These acclaimed operations, along with Operation Bayonet, led to the dismantling of Palestinian terrorist cell Black September. It has been alluded that Barak masterminded the Tunis Raid on 16 April 1988, in which PLO leader Abu Jihad was killed. During the Yom Kippur War, Barak commanded an improvised regiment of tanks which, among other things, helped rescue paratrooper battalion 890, commanded by Yitzhak Mordechai, suffering heavy losses in the Battle of the Chinese Farm, he went on the command the 401st armored brigade and the 611st "Pillar of Fire" and 252nd "Sinai" divisions, before his appointment to head the IDF's Planning Directorate. Barak served as head of Aman, the Military Intelligence Directorate, head of Central Command and Deputy Chief of the General Staff, he served as Chief of the General Staff between 1 April 1991 and 1 January 1995. During this period he implemented the first Oslo Accords and participated in the negotiations towards the Israel–Jordan peace treaty. Barak was awarded the Medal of Distinguished Service and four Chief of Staff citations for courage and operational excellence.
These five decorations make him the most decorated soldier in Israeli history. In 1992 he was awarded the Legion of Merit by the United States. In 2012, he was again awarded by the United States with the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service. On 7 July 1995, Barak was appointed Minister of Internal Affairs by Yitzhak Rabin; when Shimon Peres formed a new government following Rabin's assassination in November 1995, Barak was made Minister of Foreign Affairs. He was elected to the Knesset on the Labor Party list in 1996, served as a member of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee. Following internal elections after Peres' defeat in the election for Prime Minister in 1996, Barak became the leader of the Labor Party. In the 1999 Prime Ministerial election, Barak beat Benjamin Netanyahu by a wide margin. However, he sparked controversy by deciding to form a coalition with the ultra-Orthodox party Shas, who had won an unprecedented 17 seats in the 120-seat Knesset.
Shas grudgingly agreed to Barak's terms that they eject their leader Aryeh Deri, a convicted felon, enact reform to "clean up" in-party corruption. Consequentially, the left wing Meretz party quit the coalition after they failed to agree on the powers to be given to a Shas deputy minister in the Ministry of Education. In 1999 Barak gave a campaign promise to end Israel's 22-year-long occupation of Southern Lebanon within a year. On 24 May 2000 Israel withdrew from Southern Lebanon. On 7 October, three Israeli soldiers were killed in a border raid by Hezbollah and their bodies were subsequently capt
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini, popularly known as Yasser Arafat or by his kunya Abu Ammar, was a Palestinian political leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization from 1969 to 2004 and President of the Palestinian National Authority from 1994 to 2004. Ideologically an Arab nationalist, he was a founding member of the Fatah political party, which he led from 1959 until 2004. Arafat was born to Palestinian parents in Cairo, where he spent most of his youth and studied at the University of King Fuad I. While a student, he embraced Arab anti-Zionist ideas. Opposed to the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Returning to Cairo, he served as president of the General Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. In the latter part of the 1950s he co-founded Fatah, a paramilitary organisation seeking the disestablishment of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian state.
Fatah operated from where it launched attacks on Israeli targets. In the latter part of the 1960s Arafat's profile grew. Fatah's growing presence in Jordan resulted in military clashes with King Hussein's Jordanian government and in the early 1970s it relocated to Lebanon. There, Fatah assisted the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War and continued its attacks on Israel, resulting in it becoming a major target of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions. From 1983 to 1993, Arafat based himself in Tunisia, began to shift his approach from open conflict with the Israelis to negotiation. In 1988, he acknowledged Israel's right to exist and sought a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1994 he returned to Palestine, settling in Gaza City and promoting self-governance for the Palestinian territories, he engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit.
In 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. At the time, Fatah's support among the Palestinians declined with the growth of Hamas and other militant rivals. In late 2004, after being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat fell into a coma and died. While the cause of Arafat's death has remained the subject of speculation, investigations by Russian and French teams determined no foul play was involved. Arafat remains a controversial figure; the majority of the Palestinian people view him as a heroic freedom fighter and martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people. Conversely, most Israelis came to regard him as an unrepentant terrorist, while Palestinian rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government. Arafat was born in Egypt, his father, Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa al-Husseini, was a Palestinian from Gaza City, whose mother, Yasser's paternal grandmother, was Egyptian.
Arafat's father battled in the Egyptian courts for 25 years to claim family land in Egypt as part of his inheritance but was unsuccessful. He worked as a textile merchant in Cairo's religiously mixed Sakakini District. Arafat was the second-youngest of seven children and was, along with his younger brother Fathi, the only offspring born in Cairo, his mother, Zahwa Abul Saud, was from a Jerusalem-based family. She died from a kidney ailment in 1933. Arafat's first visit to Jerusalem came when his father, unable to raise seven children alone, sent Yasser and his brother Fathi to their mother's family in the Moroccan Quarter of the Old City, they lived there with their uncle Salim Abul Saud for four years. In 1937, their father recalled them to be taken care of by Inam. Arafat had a deteriorating relationship with his father. Arafat's sister Inam stated in an interview with Arafat's biographer, British historian Alan Hart, that Arafat was beaten by his father for going to the Jewish quarter in Cairo and attending religious services.
When she asked Arafat why he would not stop going, he responded by saying that he wanted to study Jewish mentality. In 1944, Arafat enrolled in the University of King Fuad I and graduated in 1950. At university, he engaged Jews in discussion and read publications by Theodor Herzl and other prominent Zionists. By 1946 he was an Arab nationalist and began procuring weapons to be smuggled into the former British Mandate of Palestine, for use by irregulars in the Arab Higher Committee and the Army of the Holy War militias. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Arafat left the University and, along with other Arabs, sought to enter Palestine to join Arab forces fighting against Israeli troops and the creation of the state of Israel. However, instead of joining the ranks of the Palestinian fedayeen, Arafat fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood, although he did not join the organization, he took part in combat in the Gaza area. In early 1949, the war was winding down in Israel's favor, Arafat returned to Cairo from a lack of logistical support.
After returning to the University, Arafat studied civil engineering and served as pr
The Daily Show
The Daily Show is an American late-night talk and news satire television program. It airs each Monday through Thursday on Comedy Central. Describing itself as a fake news program, The Daily Show draws its comedy and satire from recent news stories, political figures, media organizations, uses self-referential humor as well; the half-hour-long show premiered on July 21, 1996, was first hosted by Craig Kilborn until December 17, 1998. Jon Stewart took over as the host from January 11, 1999, until August 6, 2015, making the show more focused on political satire and news satire, in contrast with the pop culture focus during Kilborn's tenure. Stewart was succeeded by Trevor Noah, whose tenure premiered on September 28, 2015. Under different hosts, the show has been formally known as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart from 1999 until 2015, The Daily Show with Trevor Noah since 2015; the Daily Show is the longest-running program on Comedy Central, has won 24 Primetime Emmy Awards. The program is popular among young audiences.
The Pew Research Center suggested in 2010 that 74% of regular viewers were between 18 and 49, that 10% of the audience watched the show for its news headlines, 2% for in-depth reporting, 43% for entertainment, compared with 64% who watched CNN for the news headlines. Critics chastised Stewart for not conducting sufficiently hard-hitting interviews with his political guests, some of whom he may have lampooned in previous segments. Stewart and other Daily Show writers responded to such criticism by saying that they do not have any journalistic responsibility and that as comedians their only duty is to provide entertainment. Stewart's appearance on the CNN show Crossfire picked up this debate, where he chastised the CNN production and hosts for not conducting informative and current interviews on a news network; each episode begins with announcer Drew Birns announcing the date and the introduction, "From Comedy Central's World News Headquarters in New York, this is The Daily Show with Trevor Noah".
The introduction was "This is The Daily Show, the most important television program, ever." The host opens the show with a monologue drawing from current news stories and issues. The show had divided its news commentary into sections known as "Headlines", "Other News", "This Just In"; some episodes will begin with a 1–3 minute intro on a small story before transitioning into the main story of the night. The monologue segment is followed by a segment featuring an exchange with a correspondent—typically introduced as the show's "senior" specialist in the subject at hand—either at the anchor desk with the host or reporting from a false location in front of a greenscreen showing stock footage, their stated areas of expertise vary depending on the news story, being discussed, can range from general to absurdly specific. The cast of correspondents is quite diverse, many sarcastically portray extreme stereotypes of themselves to poke fun at a news story, such as "Senior Latino Correspondent", "Senior Youth Correspondent" or "Senior Black Correspondent".
They present absurd or humorously exaggerated takes on current events against the host's straight man. While correspondents stated to be reporting abroad are performing in-studio in front of a greenscreen background, on rare occasions, cast members have recorded pieces on location. For instance, during the week of August 20, 2007, the show aired a series of segments called "Operation Silent Thunder: The Daily Show in Iraq" in which correspondent Rob Riggle reported from Iraq. In August 2008, Riggle traveled to China for a series of segments titled "Rob Riggle: Chasing the Dragon", which focused on the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Jason Jones traveled to Iran in early June 2009 to report on the Iranian elections, John Oliver traveled to South Africa for the series of segments "Into Africa" to report on the 2010 FIFA World Cup. In March 2012, Oliver traveled to Gabon, on the west African coast, to report on the Gabonese government's decision to donate $2 million to UNESCO after the United States cut its funding for UNESCO earlier that year.
On July 19, 2016, Roy Wood Jr. reported live from the Republican National Convention and talked about Donald Trump's African-American support. Correspondent segments feature a rotating supporting cast, involve the show's members travelling to different locations to file comedic reports on current news stories and conduct interviews with people related to the featured issue. Topics have varied widely. Since Stewart began hosting in 1999, the focus of the show has become more political and the field pieces have come to more reflect current issues and debates. Under Kilborn and the early years of Stewart, most interviewees were either unaware or not aware of the comedic nature of The Daily Show. However, as the show began to gain popularity—particularly following its coverage of the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections—most of the subjects now interviewed are aware of the comedic element; some segments have recurred periodically throughout different tenures, such as "Back in Black" & "Your Moment of Zen".
Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, a common segment of the show has been dubbed "Mess O' Potamia", focusing on the United States' policies in the Middle East Iraq. Elections in the United States were a prominent focus in the show's "Indecision" cover