Bartholomew JoJo Simpson is a fictional character in the American animated television series The Simpsons and part of the Simpson family. He is voiced by Nancy Cartwright and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Cartoonist Matt Groening created and designed Bart while waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic strip, Life in Hell, but instead decided to create a new set of characters. While the rest of the characters were named after Groening's family members, Bart's name is an anagram of the word brat. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three years, the Simpson family received its own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. At ten years old, Bart is the eldest child and only son of Homer and Marge, the brother of Lisa and Maggie. Bart's most prominent and popular character traits are his mischievousness and disrespect for authority, he has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons – including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride and comic books – and inspired an entire line of merchandise.
In casting, Nancy Cartwright planned to audition for the role of Lisa, while Yeardley Smith tried out for Bart. Smith's voice was too high for a boy. Cartwright found that Lisa was not interesting at the time, so instead auditioned for Bart, which she thought was a better role. Hallmarks of the character include his chalkboard gags in the opening sequence. Who the hell are you?". Although, with the exception of "Ay, caramba!", they have been retired or not used. During the first two seasons of The Simpsons, Bart was the show's breakout character and "Bartmania" ensued, spawning Bart Simpson-themed merchandise touting his rebellious attitude and pride at underachieving, which caused many parents and educators to cast him as a bad role model for children. Around the third season, the series started to focus more on the family as a whole, though Bart still remains a prominent character. Time named Bart one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century, he was named "entertainer of the year" in 1990 by Entertainment Weekly.
Nancy Cartwright has won several awards for voicing Bart, including a Primetime Emmy Award in 1992 and an Annie Award in 1995. In 2000, along with the rest of his family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, he has appeared in every Simpsons episode except "Four Great Women and a Manicure". The Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters do not age or age little, as such, the show is always assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific times, though sometimes this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes. Bart's year of birth was stated in "I Married Marge" as being in the early 1980s. In "Simpsorama" Bart states his birthday as February 23, he lived with his parents in the Lower East Side of Springfield until the Simpsons bought their first house. When Lisa was born, Bart was at first jealous of the attention she received, but he soon warmed to her when he discovered that "Bart" was her first word. Bart's first day of school was in the early 1990s.
His initial enthusiasm was crushed by an uncaring teacher and Marge became worried that something was wrong with Bart. One day during recess, Bart met Milhouse and started entertaining him and other students with various gestures and rude words. Principal Skinner told him "you've just started school, the path you choose now may be the one you follow for the rest of your life! Now, what do you say?" In his moment of truth, Bart responded, "eat my shorts". The episode "That'90s Show" contradicted much of the backstory's time frame. Bart's hobbies include skateboarding, watching television, reading comic books, playing video games and causing mischief, his favorite movies are the Star Wars Trilogy. For the duration of the series, Bart has attended Springfield Elementary School and has been in Edna Krabappel's fourth grade class. While he is too young to hold a full-time job, he has had occasional part-time jobs, he works as a bartender at Fat Tony's social club in "Bart the Murderer". Matt Groening first conceived of Bart and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986, while waiting in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office.
Groening had been called in to pitch a series of animated shorts for The Tracey Ullman Show, had intended to present an adaptation of his Life in Hell comic strip. When he realized that animating Life in Hell would require him to rescind publication rights, Groening decided to go in another direction, he hurriedly sketched out his version of a dysfunctional family, naming the characters after members of his own family. For the rebellious son, he substituted "Bart", an anagram of the word brat, for his own name, as he decided it would have been too obvious for him to have named the character'Matt'. Bart's middle initial J is a "tribute" to animated characters such as Bullwinkle J. Moose and Rocket J. Squirrel from The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, who received their mid
Marjorie Jacqueline "Marge" Simpson is a fictional character in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons and part of the eponymous family. She is voiced by Julie Kavner and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Marge was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters, he named the character after his mother Margaret Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three seasons, the Simpson family received their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. Marge is the matriarch of the Simpson family. With her husband Homer, she has three children: Bart and Maggie. Marge is the moralistic force in her family and provides a grounding voice in the midst of her family's antics by trying to maintain order in the Simpson household, she is portrayed as a stereotypical television mother and is included on lists of top "TV moms".
She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise. Marge's distinctive blue beehive hairstyle was inspired by a combination of the Bride's in Bride of Frankenstein and the style that Margaret Groening wore in the 1960s. Julie Kavner, a member of the original cast of The Tracey Ullman Show, was asked to voice Marge so that more voice actors would not be needed. Kavner has won several awards for voicing Marge, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, she was nominated for an Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in an Animated Feature for her performance in The Simpsons Movie. In 2000, along with the rest of her family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the Simpsons uses a floating timeline, as such the show is assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes.
Marge Simpson is the wife of Homer and mother of Bart and Maggie Simpson. She was raised by her parents and Clancy Bouvier, she has a pair of the joyless Patty and Selma, both of whom vocally disapprove of Homer. In "The Way We Was", it is revealed via flashback that Marge attended Springfield High School, in her final year met Homer Simpson, after they both were sent to detention—Homer for smoking in the bathroom with Barney, Marge for burning her bra in a feminist protest, she was at first wary of Homer, but agreed to go to the prom with him, although she ended up going with Artie Ziff after Homer received tutoring lessons were a means to get to know her better, while knowing that she needed to sleep for a school meet. However, she regretted going with Artie. At the end of the evening, while Artie drove her home after receiving a slap, she spied Homer walking along the side of the road with the corsage meant for her. After hearing her parents voicing their negative opinions about Homer, she took her own car and went back to give him a ride.
She told Homer she should've gone to the prom with him and he fixes her snapped shoulder strap with the corsage. During the ride, he tells her he will kiss her and never be able to let her go. After the two had been dating for several years, Marge discovered she was pregnant with Bart, she and Homer were married in a small wedding chapel across the state line. Bart was born soon after, the couple bought their first house; the episode "That'90s Show" contradicted much of the established back-story. As with many Simpsons characters, Marge's age and birthday changes to serve the story. In season one episodes "Life on the Fast Lane" and "Some Enchanted Evening", Marge was said to be 34. In "Homer's Paternity Coot", Marge states that Emerald would have been her birthstone if she had been born three months placing her birthday sometime in February. In "Regarding Margie", Homer mentioned that Marge was his age, meaning she could have been anywhere between 36 and 40. During this episode, Lisa questions Homer's memory of Marge's birthday.
When he can not remember, Marge yells. In the season eighteen episode "Marge Gamer" she states that she and actor Randy Quaid share the same birthdate. Marge has been nonworking for most of the series, choosing to be a homemaker and take care of her family. However, she has held several one-episode jobs in the course of the series; these include working as a nuclear technician alongside Homer at Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in "Marge Gets a Job". While Marge has never expressed discontent with her role as a homemaker, she has become bored with it. In "The Springfield Connection", Marge decided that she needed more excitement in her life and became a police officer. However, by the end of the episode, she quit. Matt Groening first conceived Marge and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office. Groe
Philip Edward Hartmann, better known as Phil Hartman, was a Canadian-American actor, comedian and graphic artist. Born in Brantford, Ontario and his family moved to the United States in 1958. After graduating from California State University, with a degree in graphic arts, he designed album covers for bands like Poco and America. Hartman joined the comedy group The Groundlings in 1975 and there helped comedian Paul Reubens develop his character Pee-wee Herman. Hartman co-wrote the screenplay for the film Pee-wee's Big Adventure and made recurring appearances as Captain Carl on Reubens' show Pee-wee's Playhouse. Hartman garnered fame in 1986, he won fame for his impressions of President Bill Clinton, he stayed on the show for eight seasons. Given the moniker "The Glue" for his ability to hold the show together and help other cast members, Hartman won a Primetime Emmy Award for his SNL work in 1989. In 1995, after scrapping plans for his own variety show, he starred as Bill McNeal in the NBC sitcom NewsRadio.
He voiced various roles on The Simpsons, most notably Lionel Hutz from seasons 2–9 and Troy McClure from seasons 2–10. Other Simpsons characters included Mr. Muntz and minor characters, he had roles in the films Houseguest, Sgt. Bilko, Jingle All the Way, Small Soldiers and the English dub of Kiki's Delivery Service. Hartman had been divorced twice before he married Brynn Omdahl in 1987. However, their marriage was fractured, due in part to her drug use and Hartman’s own emotional distance, a factor in his previous two marriages ending. On May 28, 1998, Brynn Hartman shot and killed Hartman while he slept in their Encino, Los Angeles home killed herself several hours later. In the weeks following his death, Hartman was celebrated in a wave of tributes. Dan Snierson of Entertainment Weekly opined that Hartman was "the last person you'd expect to read about in lurid headlines in your morning paper... a decidedly regular guy, beloved by everyone he worked with." Hartman was posthumously inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame in 2012 and the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2014.
Phil Hartman was born Philip Edward Hartmann on September 24, 1948, in Brantford, Canada. He was the fourth of eight children of Doris Marguerite and Rupert Loebig Hartmann, a salesman specializing in building materials, his parents raised their children in that faith. As a child Hartman found affection hard to earn and stated: "I suppose I didn't get what I wanted out of my family life, so I started seeking love and attention elsewhere."Hartman was ten years old when his family moved to the United States. The family first lived in Maine. There, Hartman attended Westchester High School and acted as the class clown. After graduating, Hartman studied art at Santa Monica City College, dropping out in 1969 to become a roadie with a rock band, he returned to school in 1972, this time studying graphic arts at California State University, Northridge. He developed his own graphic arts business, which he operated on his own, creating over 40 album covers for bands including Poco and America, as well as advertising and the logo for Crosby, Stills & Nash.
In the late 1970s, Hartman made his first television appearance on an episode of The Dating Game. Working alone as a graphic artist, Hartman amused himself with "flights of voice fantasies". Citing the need for a more social outlet for his talents, aged 27, began in 1975 to attend evening comedy classes run by the California-based improvisational comedy group The Groundlings. While watching one of the troupe's performances, Hartman impulsively decided to climb on stage and join the cast. Phil's first movie appearance was in the 1978 film Stunt Rock directed by Brian Trenchard Smith. After several years of training, paying his way by re-designing the group's logo and merchandise, Hartman formally joined the cast of The Groundlings. Hartman met comedian Paul Reubens and the two became friends collaborating on writing and comedic material. Together they created the character Pee-wee Herman and developed The Pee-wee Herman Show, a stage performance which aired on HBO in 1981. Hartman played Captain Carl on The Pee-wee Herman Show and returned in the role for the children's show Pee-wee's Playhouse.
Reubens and Hartman made cameos in the 1980 film Cheech & Chong's Next Movie. Hartman co-wrote the script of the 1985 feature film Pee-wee's Big Adventure and had a cameo role as a reporter in the film. Although he had considered quitting acting at the age of 36 due to limited opportunities, the success of Pee-wee's Big Adventure brought new possibilities and changed his mind. After a creative falling-out with Reubens, Hartman left the Pee-Wee Herman project to pursue other roles. In addition to his work with Reubens, Hartman recorded a number of voice-over roles; these included appearances on The Smurfs, Challenge of the GoBots, The 13 Ghosts of Scooby-Doo, voicing characters Henry Mitchell and George Wilson on Dennis the Menace. Additionally Hartman developed a strong persona providing voice-overs for advertisements. After appearing in the 1986 films Jumpin' Jack Flash and Three Amigos, Hartman auditioned for NBC's variety show Saturday Night Live and joined the cast and writing staff, he told the Los Angeles Times, "I wanted to do because I wanted to get the exposure that would give me box-office credibility so I can write movies for myself."
In his eight seasons with the show Hartman beca
"Radio Bart" is the thirteenth episode of The Simpsons' third season. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on January 9, 1992. In the episode, Bart receives a microphone. To play a prank on the citizens of Springfield, he lowers a radio down a well and uses the microphone to trick the town into thinking that a little boy is trapped. At first he is successful, but soon realizes that he left a "Property of Bart Simpson" label on the radio and goes to retrieve it, only to become trapped in the well; the town finds out about the prank and decides to leave Bart in the well as a consequence, before his father Homer decides to rescue him. The episode was directed by Carlos Baeza. Musician Sting guest starred in the episode as himself, though the producers approached Bruce Springsteen to appear; the episode features cultural references to charity singles such as "We Are the World". Since airing, "Radio Bart" has received a positive critical reception from television critics, it acquired a Nielsen rating of 14.1 and was the highest-rated show on the Fox network the week it aired.
It lost to A Claymation Easter. The Simpson family are busy preparing for Bart's birthday party. Homer sees a commercial on television for a prank microphone called the Superstar Celebrity Microphone that can be used to tap into localized AM radio systems and decides to buy one for Bart. Subsequently, Bart experiences a crushingly disappointing birthday party when all his gifts turn out to be useless things like a cactus, a label maker, a new suit. At first, he is disappointed by the microphone, but finds a use for it in creating practical jokes, such as tricking Ned's boys Rod and Todd into believing that God is talking to them, listening in on Lisa and Janey's conversations about boys, persuading Homer that Martians are invading the Earth. Bart plays a prank when he lowers a radio down a well and speaks through it with the microphone, tricking the townspeople into thinking an orphan named Timmy O'Toole has fallen down the well. Although they are unable to get "Timmy" out, as the well is too small for any adult to fit in, the entire town offers moral support and do everything they can to give him hope.
Krusty gets musician Sting to join other celebrities in recording a charity single, "We're Sending Our Love Down the Well". However, Lisa catches Bart in the act and reminds him he put a "Property of Bart Simpson" label on the radio. Bart sets out that night to retrieve it but falls into the well after Eddie and Lou untie his rope; when the townspeople find him, he admits. Angry at being tricked, the townspeople leave Bart in the well. Despite efforts by Homer and Marge to mobilize a rescue operation, the entire town remains outraged at Bart and refuse to help. After Bart breaks down crying, Homer has had enough: he decides to dig a tunnel and rescue Bart himself. Groundskeeper Willie sees this and joins Homer, starting an excavation operation with many others joining in. Bart is rescued with help from Sting and other residents, Willie puts up a small warning sign near the well to prevent future accidents. "Radio Bart" was written by Jon Vitti and directed by Carlos Baeza, though series creator Matt Groening came up with the idea for it.
The episode was based on the 1951 film Ace in the Hole, which sees the story of a down-and-out journalist exploiting a story about a man trapped in a cave to re-jump start his career. Vitti did not watch the film. Vitti said renting, he remarked, "It's hard to rent. It's dark and funny and it's by Billy Wilder, so you think it would be in stores, but it's not, it was hard to find." The producers approached singer Bruce Springsteen to appear in the episode because he had participated to the charity song "We Are the World", on which "We're Sending Our Love Down the Well" is based. Springsteen declined. Executive producer Al Jean said Sting is one of his favorite guest stars that have appeared on the show and he "couldn't have been better, he was funny." The Simpsons director David Silverman said Sting's appearance in the episode worked for his persona because he has campaigned for political and social causes in real life. Sting was staying in New York City at the time of the episode's recording so Vitti flew there to record the lines with him.
The television commercial for the Superstar Celebrity Microphone that Homer watches, was inspired by a popular Ronco Mr. Microphone commercial from the late 1970s, in which a boy becomes popular and "scores with the girls" by using his microphone to be on the radio. Both commercials feature a boy riding by in a car full of friends saying, "Hey, good-looking, we'll be back to pick you up later," a line the staff thought was "hilarious". In the Superstar Celebrity Microphone commercial, the boy sings the 1975 song "Convoy" by C. W. McCall into the microphone; the producers wanted him to sing "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" by Gordon Lightfoot, a song about the sinking of the bulk carrier SS Edmund Fitzgerald on Lake Superior. However, according to Vitti, Lightfoot's licensing arrangement would have required the producers to get permission from the families of the twenty-nine crewmen who died on the ship, so "Convoy" was used instead. Homer sings the song on the microphone to convince Bart to like the present.
"Radio Bart" features several popular culture references. At the beginning of the episode, Homer w
Nancy Jean Cartwright is an American actress, voice actress, writer and director, known for her long-running role as Bart Simpson on the animated television series The Simpsons. Cartwright voices other characters for the show, including Nelson Muntz, Ralph Wiggum, Todd Flanders and Database. Cartwright was born in Ohio. Cartwright trained alongside voice actor Daws Butler, her first professional role was voicing Gloria in the animated series Richie Rich, which she followed with a starring role in the television movie Marian Rose White and her first feature film, Twilight Zone: The Movie. After continuing to search for acting work, in 1987, Cartwright auditioned for a role in a series of animated shorts about a dysfunctional family, to appear on The Tracey Ullman Show. Cartwright intended to audition for the role of the middle child. Matt Groening, the series' creator, allowed her to audition for Bart and offered her the role on the spot, she voiced Bart for three seasons on The Tracey Ullman Show, in 1989, the shorts were spun off into a half-hour show called The Simpsons.
For her subsequent work as Bart, Cartwright received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992 and an Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in the Field of Animation in 1995. Besides The Simpsons, Cartwright has voiced numerous other animated characters, including Daffney Gillfin in The Snorks, Rufus in Kim Possible, Mindy in Animaniacs, Pistol in Goof Troop, Margo Sherman in The Critic, Todd Daring in The Replacements, Charles "Chuckie" Finster, Jr. in Rugrats and All Grown Up!. In 2000, she published her autobiography, My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy, four years adapted it into a one-woman play. In 2017, she produced the film In Search of Fellini. Cartwright was born in Dayton, Ohio, on October 25, 1957, Frank and Miriam Cartwright's fourth of six children, she grew up in Kettering and discovered her talent for voices at an early age. While in the fourth grade at the school of St. Charles Borromeo, she won a school-wide speech competition with her performance of Rudyard Kipling's How the Camel Got His Hump.
Cartwright attended Fairmont West High School, participated in the school's theater and marching band. She entered public speaking competitions, placing first in the "Humorous Interpretation" category at the National District Tournament two years running; the judges suggested to her that she should perform cartoon voices. Cartwright accepted a scholarship from Ohio University, she continued to compete in public speaking competitions. In 1976, Cartwright landed a part-time job doing voice-overs for commercials on WING radio in Dayton. A representative from Warner Bros. Records visited WING and sent Cartwright a list of contacts in the animation industry. One of these was Daws Butler, known for voicing characters such as Huckleberry Hound, Elroy Jetson, Spike the Bulldog and Yogi Bear. Cartwright left a message in a Cockney accent on his answering machine. Butler called her back and agreed to be her mentor, he instructed her to send him a tape recording of herself reading it. Once he received the tape, Butler sent her notes.
For the next year, they continued in this way. Cartwright described Butler as "absolutely amazing, always encouraging, always polite". Cartwright returned to Ohio University for her sophomore year, but transferred to the University of California, Los Angeles so she could be closer to Hollywood and Butler, her mother, died late in the summer of 1978. Cartwright nearly changed her relocation plans but, on September 17, 1978, "joylessly" left for Westwood, Los Angeles. While attending UCLA, which did not have a public speaking team, Cartwright continued training as a voice actress with Butler, she recalled, "every Sunday I'd take a 20-minute bus ride to his house in Beverly Hills for a one-hour lesson and be there for four hours... They had four sons, they didn't have a daughter and I kind of fitted in as the baby of the family." Butler introduced her to many of the voice directors at Hanna-Barbera. After she met the director Gordon Hunt, he asked her to audition for a recurring role as Gloria in Richie Rich.
She received the part, worked with Hunt on several other projects. At the end of 1980, Cartwright signed with a talent agency and landed a lead role in a pilot for a sitcom called In Trouble. Cartwright described the show as "forgettable, but it jump-started my on-camera career", she graduated from UCLA in 1981 with a degree in theater. During the summer, Cartwright worked with Jonathan Winters as part of an improvisation troupe at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. Returning to Los Angeles, Cartwright won the lead role in the television movie Marian Rose White. Janet Maslin, a critic for The New York Times, described Cartwright as "a chubby, lumbering cross-eyed actress whose naturalness adds to the film's impact". Cartwright replied by sending Maslin a letter insisting she was not cross-eyed, included a photograph. Cartwright auditioned for the role of Ethel, a girl who becomes trapped in a cartoon world in the third segment of Twilight Zone: The Movie, she met with director Joe Dante and described him as "a total cartoon buff, once he
Alfred Ernest Jean III is an American screenwriter and producer. Jean is well known for his work on The Simpsons, he was born and raised near Detroit and graduated from Harvard University in 1981. Jean began his writing career in the 1980s with fellow Harvard alum Mike Reiss. Together, they worked as writers and producers on television shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, ALF and It's Garry Shandling's Show. Jean was offered a job as a writer on the animated sitcom The Simpsons in 1989, alongside Reiss, together they became the first members of the original writing staff of the show, they served as showrunners during the show's third and fourth seasons, though they left The Simpsons after season four to create The Critic, an animated show about film critic Jay Sherman. It was first broadcast on ABC in January 1994 and was well received by critics, but did not catch on with viewers and only lasted for two seasons. In 1994, Jean and Reiss signed a three-year deal with The Walt Disney Company to produce other television shows for ABC, the duo created and executive-produced Teen Angel, canceled in its first season.
Jean returned full-time to The Simpsons during the tenth season. He became showrunner again with the start of the thirteenth season in 2001, without Reiss, has held that position since. Jean was one of the writers and producers who worked on The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film based on the series, released in 2007. Al Jean was born Alfred Ernest Jean III on January 9, 1961, he was born and raised in Farmington Hills, graduated from Farmington Hills Harrison High School, is of Irish ancestry. Jean arrived at Harvard University when he was sixteen years old and graduated in 1981 with a bachelor's degree in mathematics. Daryl Libow, one of Jean's freshman roommates, said he was a "math whiz" when he arrived at Harvard but "soon blossomed and found his comedic feet." In Holworthy Hall at Harvard, Jean met fellow freshman Mike Reiss. Jeff Martin, another writer for the Lampoon, said "they loomed large around the magazine, they were funny guys and unusually polished comedy writers for that age.
We were never surprised that they went on to success." Jean has stated that the duo spent most of their time at the Lampoon, adding that "it was my second dorm room." He became vice-president of the publication. Jean lives in Los Angeles, California with his wife, television writer Stephanie Gillis; the two were wed in Enniskerry, Ireland in 2002. Jean has two daughters; the humor magazine National Lampoon hired Jean and Reiss after they graduated in 1981. During the 1980s, the duo began collaborating on various television material. During this period they worked as writers and producers on television shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, ALF, Sledge Hammer! and It's Garry Shandling's Show. In 1989, Jean was offered a job as a writer on the animated sitcom The Simpsons, a show created by Matt Groening, James L. Brooks, Sam Simon that continues to air today. Many of Jean's friends were not interested in working on The Simpsons because it was a cartoon and they did not think it would last long.
Jean, was a fan of the work of Groening and Simon, therefore took the job together with Reiss. The duo became the first members of the original writing staff of The Simpsons and worked on the thirteen episodes of the show's first season. While watching the first episode of the show, "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire", premiering on television in December 1989, Jean opined to himself that the series was the greatest project he had been involved with and desired to continue working on it for the rest of his professional career. What he enjoyed most about The Simpsons at the time was something he recognized from Brooks' previous work: although the show was based on humor, it had depth and warmth. Although Jean has been credited as the sole writer of several episodes of the show, he considers the process to be collaborative: "the principal writer has, at most, written 40% of the script. It's a real team effort." The person, credited as the writer in the episode's opening credits is the person that came up with the idea for the episode and wrote the first draft if he or she only contributed to a small part of the final script.
Jean has stated. She is the character he relates to the most because of their similar childhoods and the fact that he has a daughter. Jean became show runner of The Simpsons at the start of the third season together with Reiss. A show runner has the ultimate responsibility of all the processes that an episode goes through before completion, including the writing, the animation, the voice acting, the music; when Jean began his tenure as show runner, the only thing he thought to himself every day was "Don't blow it and screw up this thing everyone loves." The first episode Jean and Reiss ran was "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", they felt a lot of pressure on them to make it good, they were so pressured that they did six to seven rewrites of the script in order to improve its humor. Jean said. It's not good enough.'" Reiss added that "we were scared. We had never run anything before, they dumped us on this."Jean and Reiss served as show runners until the end of the fourth season in 1993. Since the show had established itself in the first two seasons, they were able to give it more depth during their tenur
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva