Androscoggin County, Maine
Androscoggin County is a county in the U. S. state of Maine. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 107,702, its county seat is Auburn. Androscoggin County comprises the Lewiston-Auburn, Maine Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Lewiston-Auburn, Metropolitan New England City and Town Area, it is a part of the Portland-Lewiston-South Portland, Maine Combined Statistical Area. Bates College is in the Androscoggin County city of Lewiston. Demand for a new county emerged when the residents of the growing town of Lewiston complained of the long distance they had to travel to reach Wiscasset, the county seat of Lincoln County, in which Lewiston was located, it was an impractical circumstance as Lewiston's neighbor, was part of Cumberland County. As the growing partnership of the two towns emerged, the case for the towns to be in the same county grew. Different plans were discussed, including Lewiston joining Cumberland County; the idea of a new county came to the table. The debate became over which town would be the center of the new county.
Bath and Lewiston each desired the distinction. Lewiston won the debate. Androscoggin County was created in 1854 from towns in Cumberland County, Lincoln County, Kennebec County, Oxford County; the next issue centered on where to put the county seat, as both Lewiston and Auburn desired to be named the county seat. It would be put to a vote, with both towns putting different offers on the table, including ideas to cut the costs of the new county buildings for surrounding towns. Auburn would win a convincing victory, with the towns on each side of the river voting for the town on their side; as more people lived to the west of the Androscoggin River, Auburn won the vote. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 497 square miles, of which 468 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in Maine by total area Franklin County, Maine – north Kennebec County, Maine – northeast Sagadahoc County, Maine – southeast Cumberland County, Maine – south Oxford County, Maine – west As of the census of 2000, there were 103,793 people, 42,028 households, 27,192 families residing in the county.
The population density was 221 people per square mile. There were 45,960 housing units at an average density of 98 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.98% White, 0.66% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 24.5% were of French Canadian, 19.4% French, 14.3% English, 9.7% United States or American and 8.4% Irish ancestry. 9.6 % of the population speak 1.5 % of the population speak Spanish at home. There were 42,028 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.60% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.30% were non-families. 28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 29.70% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,793, the median income for a family was $44,082. Males had a median income of $31,622 versus $22,366 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,734. About 7.50% of families and 11.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 107,702 people, 44,315 households, 28,045 families residing in the county; the population density was 230.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 49,090 housing units at an average density of 104.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.8% white, 3.6% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.5% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 21.2% were English, 20.5% were French Canadian, 20.1% were French, 15.5% were Irish, 8.1% were German, 5.0% were American. Of the 44,315 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families, 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 39.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,470 and the median income for a family was $55,045. Males had a median income of $41,554 versus $31,852 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,752. About 9.7% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 12.4% of those age 65 or over. The Sun Journal prints a daily newspaper in four different editions statewide; the Sun Journal was the recipient of the 2008 New England Daily Newspaper of the Year and the 2009 Maine Press Association Newspaper of the Year.
In Presidential elections, Androscoggin County has been one of the most though not always the most Democratic counties in the state. It was the only coun
L. L. Bean is an American held retail company founded in 1912 by Leon Leonwood Bean; the company is headquartered where it was founded, in Maine. It specializes in clothing and outdoor recreation equipment. L. L. Bean was founded in 1912 by its namesake and fisherman Leon Leonwood Bean in Freeport, Maine; the company began as a one-room operation selling the Maine Hunting Shoe. Bean had developed a waterproof boot, a combination of lightweight leather uppers and rubber bottoms, that he sold to hunters, he obtained a list of nonresident Maine hunting license holders, prepared a descriptive mail order circular, set up a shop in his brother's basement in Freeport and started a nationwide mail-order business. By 1912, he was selling the Bean Boot, or Maine Hunting Shoe, through a four-page mail-order catalog, the boot remains a staple of the company's outdoor image. Defects in the initial design led to 90 percent of the original production run being returned: Bean honored his money-back guarantee, corrected the design, continued selling them.
The 220,000 sq ft L. L. Bean retail store campus in Freeport, Maine is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Leon L. Bean died on February 1967, in Pompano Beach, Florida, he is buried in Freeport's Webster Cemetery. The company passed into the directorship of Bean's grandson, Leon Gorman, from that time until 2001, when Gorman decided to take the position of Chairman, leaving the position of CEO to Christopher McCormick, the first non-family member to assume the title. On May 19, 2013 Shawn Gorman, 47, a great-grandson of the company’s founder, was elected L. L. Bean’s chairman; the company announced a US$125,000 donation to a new scholarship fund upon Leon Gorman's death in 2015, representing about 2.5 years of tuition at his alma mater, Bowdoin College. Stephen Smith was named CEO in November 2015, the first time in the company's 103-year history that a CEO had been hired from outside the company. Since its inception, the company has branched out not only to variations on its boots but to other outdoor equipment such as firearms, tents, as well as producing a full line of clothing, now its mainstay.
L. L. Bean is a global company sourcing its products across the globe. In 2016, its Brunswick, Maine factory employed more than 450 people who handmake the company's products such as the Maine Hunting Shoe, L. L. Bean Boot and Totes, dog beds, leather goods and backpacks. In 2000, L. L. Bean formed a contract with the Japanese automaker Subaru, making L. L. Bean the official outfitter of Subaru, spawning an L. L. Bean edition Subaru Outback and Subaru Forester for the US market; the L. L. Bean trim levels were top-spec versions, with all available options included as standard equipment; this relationship with Subaru ended June 28, 2008. In 2010, L. L. Bean created a contemporary sub-brand called L. L. Bean Signature; the Signature line is a modern interpretation of L. L. Bean's previous products with modern fits. Along with a number of retail and outlet stores, the company maintains its flagship store on Main Street in Freeport, Maine; this branch opened in 1917, has been open 24 hours a day since 1951, with the exception of two Sundays in 1962 when Maine changed its blue laws.
The flagship closed to honor the death of US President John F. Kennedy in 1963, as well as the deaths of founder Leon Bean in 1967 and his grandson Leon Gorman in 2015. L. L. Bean, for its part, has invested in activities for both visitors and residents in Freeport, including their Outdoor Discovery Schools, Christmas light displays, their Summer Concert Series, which has attracted artists such as Grace Potter, Lake Street Dive, Edwin McCain, Great Big Sea, Buckwheat Zydeco, Rockapella. L. L. Bean opened its first outlet store in North Conway, New Hampshire in 1988; the company operates 30 retail stores and 10 factory outlets in the US, 25 retail stores in Japan, in addition to its catalog and online sales operations. The L. L. Bean Bootmobile, travels the United States and serves as a mobile store during its college tour with a limited selection of products. In March 2018, L. L. Bean opened their first urban location in Boston's Seaport District; the 8,600-square-foot store will be the model for further expansion in urban areas and carry a selection of merchandise selected to fit the surrounding community.
From its founding, L. L. Bean had an unlimited return policy, which allowed customers to return items with which they were dissatisfied at any time without a purchase receipt. On February 9, 2018, the company announced they would be limiting returns to within one year of purchase, only with a receipt or other proof of purchase. L. L. Bean said that some customers had been abusing the policy by returning items, purchased from yard sales and third parties or used the policy as a lifetime replacement program items with normal wear and tear. L. L. Bean has stated they reserve the right to deny returns to those who return items systematically. In January 2017, there was a call from a group of political activists to boycott L. L. Bean after it was disclosed that Linda Bean, one of the descendants of founder Leon Leonwood Bean who sits on the board of directors, had donated US$60,000 to a political action committee that supported Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign. There were assertions. Trump posted on Twitter, in support of Linda Bean after calls for the boycott, "Thank you to Linda Bean of L.
L. Bean for your great support and courage. People will support you more now. Buy L. L. Bean." The company said it had not donated to Trump, nor have any of the other directors or any of the 50 other Bean heirs. It was uncl
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Lisbon Falls, Maine
Lisbon Falls is a census-designated place in the town of Lisbon, located in Androscoggin County, United States. The population of Lisbon Falls was 4,100 at the 2010 census, it is included in both the Lewiston-Auburn, metropolitan statistical area and the Lewiston-Auburn, Metropolitan New England city and town area. Abenaki Indians called the falls Anmecangin, meaning "much fish"; the area was once part of Little River Plantation, a portion of, incorporated in 1799 as Thompsonborough renamed in 1802 after Lisbon, Portugal. In 1806, Lisbon annexed the remainder of Little River Plantation. With water power from the Androscoggin River, Lisbon Falls became a small mill town. Before it burned down in 1987, the Worumbo Mill was the main mill in Lisbon Falls, it had been incorporated in 1864, was world-famous for its woolens. Well known were its vicuna wool products, which became famous when President Eisenhower's Chief of Staff, Sherman Adams, received a vicuna sport coat as a gift from a wealthy industrialist and had to resign due to the resulting scandal.
The town's primary employment is at a gypsum mill. Another large employer is Bath Iron Works, in Maine; the horror writer Stephen King attended Lisbon Falls High School. The fictional town of Castle Rock, which he used in several stories, is thought to be based on Lisbon Falls. King utilized the town's actual name and citizens in his 2011 novel, 11/22/63; the town is famous for its Moxie Days, a celebration of the soft drink Moxie, sold at Frank Anicetti's corner store. The store's official name is the Kennebec Fruit Company, but it is referred to as The Moxie Store and is recognizable by its bright yellow paint job. Moxie Days in Lisbon Falls is attended by thousands from around the world each summer. Lisbon Falls was home to John Gould, famous Maine humorist and author, he was the author of "Farmer Takes a Wife," "The Fastest Hound Dog in the State of Maine," and "Tales From Rhapsody Home, What They Don't Tell You About Senior Living." In his book On Writing, Stephen King recounts his experience working for John Gould at the Lisbon Enterprise, a weekly newspaper that Gould published.
Lisbon Falls is located at 44°0′8″N 70°3′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.9 square miles, of which 3.7 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 4.87%, is water. Lisbon Falls is drained by the Little River; this climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Lisbon Falls has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,420 people, 1,707 households, 1,206 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,162.4 people per square mile. There were 1,798 housing units at an average density of 472.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.99% White, 0.63% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. There were 1,707 households out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families.
22.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.02. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,224, the median income for a family was $42,476. Males had a median income of $31,735 versus $20,688 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,838. About 8.5% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over. Lisbon Historical Society Museum Town of Lisbon, Maine Lisbon Falls Public Library Moxie Festival
A mill town known as factory town or mill village, is a settlement that developed around one or more mills or factories cotton mills or factories producing textiles. In the United Kingdom, the term "mill town" refers to the 19th century textile manufacturing towns of northern England and the Scottish Lowlands those in Lancashire and Yorkshire; some former mill towns have a symbol of the textile industry in their town badge. Some towns may have statues dedicated to textile workers or have a symbol in the badge of local schools; the list below includes some towns. For example, mining was a key industry in Wigan and Leigh in Greater Manchester, in Ossett in Yorkshire. On his tour of northern England in 1849, Scottish publisher Angus Reach said: In general, these towns wear a monotonous sameness of aspect and moral... In fact, the social condition of the different town populations is as much alike as the material appearance of the tall chimneys under which they live. Here and there the height of the latter may differ by a few rounds of brick, but in all essential respects, a description of one is a description of all.
Crespi d'Adda, UNESCO World Heritage Site Nuovo quartiere operaio in Schio Villaggio Leumann a Collegno Villaggio Frua in Saronno Villaggio operaio della Filatura in Tollegno The town grew out of a textile factory founded in 1833 by the sons of Feliks Lubienski, who owned the land where it was built. They brought in a specialist from his newly designed machines, he was French inventor, Philippe de Girard from Lourmarin. He became a director of the firm; the factory town developed during the 19th century into a significant textile mill town in Poland. In honour of Girard,'Ruda Guzowska' as the original estate was called, was renamed Żyrardów, a toponym derived of the polonised spelling of Girard's name. Most of Żyrardów's monuments are located in the manufacturing area which dates from the 19th and early 20th centuries, it is believed that Żyrardów's textile settlement is the only entire urban industrial complex from the 19th-century to be preserved in Europe. Beginning with Samuel Slater and technological information smuggled out of England by Francis Cabot Lowell, large mills were established in New England in the early to mid 19th century.
Mill towns, sometimes planned and owned as a company town, grew in the shadow of the industries. The region became a manufacturing powerhouse along rivers like the Housatonic, Shetucket, Merrimack, Cocheco, Androscoggin, Kennebec or Winooski. In the 20th century, alternatives to water power were developed, it became more profitable for companies to manufacture textiles in southern states where cotton was grown and winters did not require significant heating costs; the Great Depression acted as a catalyst that sent several struggling New England firms into bankruptcy. Laurel Mill San José de Suaita Company town Industrial district Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Old Great Falls Historic District, Paterson, NJ American Textile History Museum, Lowell, MA Belknap Mill Society Museum, Laconia, NH Berlin and Coös County Historical Society, Berlin, NH Slater Mill Historic Site, Pawtucket, RI Lowell National Historic Park, Lowell, MA Lynn Heritage State Park, Lynn, MA The Millyard Museum, Manchester, NH Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Historic Corridor San Jose de Suaita Cotton Mill Museum Southern Textile Heritage Corridor, Vir, NC, SC, Ga, Al Museum Lewiston-Auburn, Lewiston, ME
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website