Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². Its urban area extends beyond the administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people. About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and it is continental Europes westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean, the westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. Lisbon is recognised as a city because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade, education. It is one of the economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector. Humberto Delgado Airport serves over 20 million passengers annually, as of 2015, and the motorway network, the city is the 7th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Istanbul, Barcelona, Madrid and Milan, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any region in Portugal.
Its GDP amounts to 96.3 billion USD and thus $32,434 per capita, the city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, in 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbons status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, the typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C.
Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbons name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela and it was referred to as Olisippo by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. The Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population and this indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects
The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th, European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c.1760 in opposition to the then-dominant Baroque and Rococo styles. Each neo-classicism selects some models among the range of classics that are available to it. They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity, the Rococo art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Woods The Ruins of Palmyra. While the movement is described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism. The case of the main champion of late Neoclassicism, demonstrates this especially well. The revival can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology, the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were important in shaping this movement in both architecture and the visual arts. With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout Europe, Neoclassicism in each art implies a particular canon of a classical model.
In English, the term Neoclassicism is used primarily of the arts, the similar movement in English literature. This, which had been dominant for decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable. Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar, in music, the period saw the rise of classical music, and Neoclassicism is used of 20th-century developments. Ingress coronation portrait of Napoleon even borrowed from Late Antique consular diptychs and their Carolingian revival, much Neoclassical painting is more classicizing in subject matter than in anything else. A fierce, but often very badly informed, dispute raged for decades over the merits of Greek and Roman art, with Winckelmann. The work of artists, who could not easily be described as insipid, combined aspects of Romanticism with a generally Neoclassical style. Unlike Carstens unrealized schemes, the etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesi were numerous and profitable and his main subject matter was the buildings and ruins of Rome, and he was more stimulated by the ancient than the modern.
Neoclassicism in painting gained a new sense of direction with the success of Jacques-Louis Davids Oath of the Horatii at the Paris Salon of 1785. Despite its evocation of republican virtues, this was a commission by the royal government, David managed to combine an idealist style with drama and forcefulness. David rapidly became the leader of French art, and after the French Revolution became a politician with control of government patronage in art
The Pombaline Lower Town area covers about 235,620 square metres of central Lisbon, Portugal. The Pombaline Baixa is an elegant district, primarily constructed after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the Pombaline Baixa is one of the first examples of earthquake-resistant construction. Architectural models were tested by having troops march around them to simulate an earthquake, Praça do Comércio Rossio Praça da Figueira Restauradores Square Tourism in Lisbon Tentative list Baixa Pombalina website Virtual Tour & Location Map of Baixa Pombalina
1755 Lisbon earthquake
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on Saturday,1 November, the holy day of All Saints Day, at around 09,40 local time. In combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, the earthquake almost totally destroyed Lisbon, estimates place the death toll in Lisbon alone between 10,000 and 100,000 people, making it one of the deadliest earthquakes in history. The earthquake accentuated political tensions in the Kingdom of Portugal and profoundly disrupted the countrys colonial ambitions, the event was widely discussed and dwelt upon by European Enlightenment philosophers, and inspired major developments in theodicy. As the first earthquake studied scientifically for its effects over an area, it led to the birth of modern seismology. In 1755, the earthquake struck on the morning of 1 November, contemporary reports state that the earthquake lasted between three and a half and six minutes, causing fissures 5 metres wide to open in the city centre.
Survivors rushed to the space of the docks for safety and watched as the water receded, revealing a sea floor littered with lost cargo. Approximately 40 minutes after the earthquake, a tsunami engulfed the harbour and downtown area, rushing up the Tagus river, were forced to gallop as fast as possible to the upper grounds for fear of being carried away. It was followed by two more waves, in the areas unaffected by the tsunami, fire quickly broke out, and flames raged for five days. Lisbon was not the only Portuguese city affected by the catastrophe, throughout the south of the country, in particular the Algarve, destruction was rampant. The tsunami destroyed some coastal fortresses in the Algarve and, in the lower levels, almost all the coastal towns and villages of the Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro, which was protected by the sandy banks of Ria Formosa. In Lagos, the reached the top of the city walls. Other towns of different Portuguese regions, such as Peniche and even Covilhã, the shock waves of the earthquake destroyed part of Covilhãs castle walls and its large towers.
On the island of Madeira and many smaller settlements suffered significant damage, almost all of the ports in the Azores archipelago suffered most of their destruction from the tsunami, with the sea penetrating about 150 m inland. Shocks from the earthquake were felt throughout Europe as far as Finland and North Africa, and according to some even in Greenland. Tsunamis as tall as 20 metres swept the coast of North Africa, a three-metre tsunami hit Cornwall on the southern English coast. Galway, on the west coast of Ireland, was hit, at Kinsale, several vessels were whirled round in the harbor, and water poured into the marketplace. In 2015, it was revealed that the waves may have reached the coast of Brazil. Such a hypothesis was raised by reviewing letters sent by Brazilian authorities at the time of the earthquake and these letters describe damage and destruction caused by gigantic waves
History of Lisbon
The history of Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal, revolves around its strategic geographical position at the mouth of the Tagus, the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. Its spacious and sheltered natural harbour made the city historically an important seaport for trade between the Mediterranean Sea and northern Europe, during the Neolithic period, pre-Celtic peoples inhabited the region, remains of their stone monuments still exist today in the periphery of the city. Roman armies first entered the Iberian peninsula in 219 BC, and occupied the Lusitanian city of Olissipo in 205 BC, with the collapse of the Roman Empire, waves of Germanic tribes invaded the peninsula, and by 500 AD, the Visigothic Kingdom controlled most of Hispania. In 711, Islamic Moors, who were mostly Berbers and Arabs from the Maghreb, invaded the Christian Iberian Peninsula, what is now Portugal first became part of the Emirate of Córdoba and of its successor state, the Caliphate of Córdoba. Despite attempts to seize it by the Normans in 844 and by Alfonso VI in 1093, in 1147, after a four-month siege, Christian crusaders under the command of Afonso I captured the city and Christian rule returned.
In 1256, Afonso III moved his capital from Coimbra to Lisbon, taking advantage of the excellent port. The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, in combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, almost totally destroyed Lisbon, during the Peninsular War, Napoleon’s forces began a four-year occupation of the city in December 1807, and Lisbon descended with the rest of the country into anarchy. After the war ended in 1814, a new constitution was proclaimed, the 20th century brought political upheaval to Lisbon and the nation as a whole. In 1908, at the height of the turbulent period of the Republican movement, King Carlos, on 5 October 1910, the Republicans organised a coup détat that overthrew the constitutional monarchy and established the Portuguese Republic. There were 45 changes of government from 1910 through 1926, the right-wing Estado Novo regime, which ruled the country from 1926 to 1974, suppressed civil liberties and political freedom in the longest-lived dictatorship in Western Europe. It was finally deposed by the Carnation Revolution, launched in Lisbon with a coup on 25 April 1974.
Following the revolution, there was a huge influx into Lisbon of refugees from the former African colonies in 1974 and 1975, Portugal joined the European Community in 1986, and subsequently received massive funding to spur redevelopment. Lisbons local infrastructure was improved with new investment and its port became the largest on the Atlantic coast. The city was in the limelight as the 1994 European City of Culture, as well as host of Expo 98, there are traces of human occupation for many thousands of years in the area of what is now Lisbon. Its terrain was made attractive by the advantages of dwelling near the River Tagus, the first human inhabitants were probably the Neanderthals, who gradually became extinct about 30,000 years ago when modern humans entered the Iberian Peninsula. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by a people who lived in farming communities near the coast. Some of the burial chambers in the region around Lisbon appear to have been built by Mesolithic pastoral-hunting peoples.
They built religious monuments called megaliths and menhirs that still survive in the periphery of the city, permanent settlements are not shown in the archaeological record until c.2500 BC
Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro
Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro, who is usually referred to as Columbano, was a Portuguese Realist painter. Usually considered the greatest Portuguese painter of the 19th century, he has compared to the likes of Wilhelm Leibl. Columbano was the son of painter, Manuel Maria Bordalo Pinheiro. He became the painter of his generation and the master of realism in Portuguese painting, specializing in portraiture. He was disciple of his father, of the painter Miguel Ângelo Lupi, after attempting twice for a bursar to study abroad finally in 1881 the countess of Edla, second wife of D. Fernando would finance his study in France. There he studied the work of French naturalist and impressionist painters, like Courbet and Degas without losing his distinctive style which is often gloomy, the group included Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, António da Silva Porto, Marques de Oliveira and José Malhoa. His most famous portrait was that of the poet Antero de Quental in 1889, in this haunting work Columbano seems to have anticipated Anteros suicide.
The best collection of his paintings is in the Chiado Museum, hes represented in some of the finest Portuguese museums, like the National Museum Soares dos Reis, in Porto. Media related to Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro at Wikimedia Commons
An oculus is a circular opening in the centre of a dome or in a wall. Originating in antiquity, it is a feature of Byzantine and Neoclassical architecture and it is known as an œil de boeuf from the French, or simply a bulls-eye. The oculus was used by the Romans, one of the finest examples being that in the dome of the Pantheon, open to the weather, it allows rain to enter and fall to the floor, where it is carried away through drains. Though the opening looks small, it actually has a diameter of 27 ft allowing it to light the building just as the sun lights the earth, the rain keeps the building cool during the hot summer months. Pliny in his Natural history call counters oculus, the oculus was widely used in the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. It was applied to buildings in Syria in the 5th and 6th centuries, in Constantinoples Myrelaion Church, there are two oculi above the stringcourse on both lateral facades. Early examples of the oculus in Renaissance architecture can be seen in Florence Cathedral, in the nave clerestorey, since the revival of dome construction beginning in the Italian Renaissance, open oculi have been replaced by light-transmitting cupolas and other round windows and skylights.
They can be seen in the pediments of Palladios Villa Rotonda, use of oculus windows became more popular in Baroque architecture. Widely used by Neo-Palladian architects including Colen Campbell, one can be seen in the dome of Thomas Jeffersons Rotunda at the University of Virginia