The Franjul family is a prominent and respected family in the Dominican Republic with strong political and economic influence in the southwest provinces of the country. The family considers the city of Baní as the center of its Dominican heritage, the origins of the family can be traced to the region of Asturias, Spain. Dominican historians consistently argue about the Familys origins, some have recently argued that the phonetics of the surname is one of Arab descent, which implies the family is one of Moorish descent. The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, the first Dominican-born member of the family was Francisco Fanjul, whose father became a naturalized Dominican citizen after the Dominican Republic gained its independence from Haiti in 1844. It was when, because of a misunderstanding in pronunciation, other members of the family settled in Cuba, and fled to the United States after Fidel Castro took power in 1959. While family members in the Dominican Republic became the Franjul family, today most members of the Franjul family reside in the Dominican Republic.
The first family reunion between the Franjuls and Fanjuls took place in 1995 in La Romana, Dominican Republic, although the surname Franjul is known to exist among families in the Balkans, no links have been proven to exist. Miguel Franjul, Chief Editor of Listín Diario, the largest and oldest Dominican newspaper, current Vice-President of Inter-American Commission for the Free Press. Engracia Franjul de Abate, former top executive at Banco Popular Dominicano, current president of the Dominican-American Cultural Institute board of directors, member of ICDA executive committee, and FUNDAPEC board member. Currently a director of ADOPEM, a leading micro-lending institution, luis Franjul Dume, former mayor of Bani 1966-1968. Former mayor of the city of Bani, milciades Franjul, member of Dominican Deputy Chamber, representing the Province of Peravia for the Dominican Liberation Party. Currently a candidate for Senator for the province of Peravia, manuel Díaz-Franjul, Chief negotiator of Free Trade Agreement between Dominican Republic and United States, known as DR-CAFTA.
Special adviser for the Dominican embassy in Washington, D. C. marcos Peña Franjul, renowned ecologist and expert on natural resources. Former professor at UNPHU, and former professor at Cornell University. Author of Los Franjul, Una Familia del Banilejismo, a book on the Franjul family, its history
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages. The term derives from types of popular prints usually just of a sheet, sold on the streets and containing various types of material. The first broadsheet newspaper was the Dutch Courante uyt Italien, other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner and tabloid/compact formats. Many broadsheets measure approximately 29 1⁄2 by 23 1⁄2 inches per full broadsheet spread and New Zealand broadsheets always have a paper size of A1 per spread. South African broadsheet newspapers have a spread sheet size of 820 by 578 mm or 32.3 by 22.8 in. Others measure 22 inches or 560 millimetres vertically, in the United States, the traditional dimensions for the front page half of a broadsheet are 15 inches wide by 22 3⁄4 inches long. However, in efforts to save newsprint costs many U. S. newspapers have downsized to 12 inches wide by 22 3⁄4 inches long for a folded page. Many rate cards and specification cards refer to the size with dimensions representing the front page half of a broadsheet size, rather than the full.
Some quote actual page size and others quote the area size. The two versions of the broadsheet are, Full broadsheet – The full broadsheet typically is folded vertically in half so that it forms four pages, the four pages are called a spread. Half broadsheet – The half broadsheet is usually a page that is not folded vertically and just includes a front. In uncommon instances, an entire newspaper can be a two-page half broadsheet or four-page full broadsheet, totally self-contained advertising circulars inserted in a newspaper in the same format are referred to as broadsheets. Broadsheets typically are folded horizontally in half to accommodate newsstand display space, the horizontal fold however does not affect the page numbers and the content remains vertical. The most important newspaper stories are placed above the fold and this contrasts with tabloids which typically do not have a horizontal fold. The broadsheet has since emerged as the most popular format for the dissemination of printed news, broadsheets developed after the British in 1712 placed a tax on newspapers based on the number of their pages.
The original purpose of the broadsheet, or broadside, was for the purpose of posting royal proclamations, eventually the people began using the broadsheet as a source for political activism by reprinting speeches, ballads or narrative songs originally performed by bards. With the early mechanization of the 19th century came an increase in production of printed materials including the broadside as well as the penny dreadful. In this period all over Europe began to print their issues on broadsheets
El Universal (Caracas)
El Universal is a major Venezuelan newspaper, headquartered in Caracas with an average daily circulation of about 150,000. The online version carries news, sports, economy, El Universal is part of the Latin American Newspaper Association, an organization of leading newspapers in Latin America. Its main rival is El Nacional, El Universal was founded in April 1909 in Caracas by the Venezuelan poet Andrés Mata and his friend Andrés Vigas, being the oldest of current Venezuelan newspaper. On 5 July 2014, it was announced that after 105 years of ownership, a firm that was created with the purpose of acquiring El Universal. List of newspapers in Venezuela Official website English-language version Todays El Universal front page at the Newseum website ICON, International Newspaper Database - El Universal search results
Cuban War of Independence
The Cuban War of Independence was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years War and the Little War. The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish–American War, with United States forces being deployed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands against Spain. During the years 1869–1888 of the so-called “Rewarding Truce”, lasting for 17 years from the end of the Ten Years War in 1878, with the abolition of slavery in October 1886, freedmen joined the ranks of farmers and urban working class. Many wealthy Cubans lost their property, and joined the middle class. After his second deportation to Spain in 1878, José Martí moved to the United States in 1881, there he mobilized the support of the Cuban exile community, especially in Ybor City and Key West, Florida. His goal was revolution in order to achieve independence from Spain, Martí lobbied against the U. S. annexation of Cuba, which was desired by some politicians in both the US and Cuba.
Two of the ships were seized by US authorities in early January, the insurrection began on February 24,1895, with uprisings all across the island. In Oriente, the most important ones took place in Santiago, Guantánamo, Jiguaní, San Luis, El Cobre, El Caney, Alto Songo, Bayate, in the province of Havana, the insurrection was discovered before it was underway, and authorities detained its leaders. The insurgents further west in Pinar del Río were ordered by rebel leaders to wait, around that time, Spanish forces in Cuba numbered about 80,000, of which 20,000 were regular troops and 60,000 were Spanish and Cuban volunteer militia. The latter were a locally enlisted force that took care of most of the “guard, wealthy landowners would “volunteer” a number of their slaves to serve in this force, which was under local control as militia and not under official military command. By December, Spain had sent 98,412 regular troops to the island, by the end of 1897, there were 240,000 regulars and 60,000 irregulars on the island.
The Mambises were named after the Negro Spanish officer, Juan Ethninius Mamby who joined the Dominican fight for independence in 1844, the Spanish soldiers referred to the insurgents in the Dominican Republic as “the men of Mamby” or “Mambies”. When Cuba’s first war of independence broke out in 1868, some of those soldiers were assigned to Cuba. The Cubans adopted the name with pride, after the Ten Years War, the government had forbidden possession of weapons by private individuals. From the beginning of the uprising, the rebels were hampered by the lack of suitable weapons and they acquired most of their weapons and ammunition in raids on the Spaniards. Between June 11,1895, and November 30,1897, out of sixty attempts to bring weapons and supplies to the rebels from outside the country, only one succeeded through the protection of the British. Martí was killed shortly after landing on May 19,1895, at Dos Rios, by the end of June, all of Camagüey was at war. Based on new research in Cuban sources, historian John Lawrence Tone demonstrated that Gomez and Maceo were the first to force the civilian forces to choose sides
Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, nicknamed El Jefe, was a Dominican politician and soldier, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961. He served as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952 and it has been estimated that Trujillo was responsible for the deaths of more than 50,000 people, including possibly as many as 10,000 in the Parsley massacre. The Trujillo era unfolded in a Caribbean environment that was fertile for dictatorial regimes. In the countries of the Caribbean basin alone, his dictatorship was concurrent, in whole or in part, with those in Cuba, Guatemala, El Salvador, Venezuela and Haiti. In retrospect, the Trujillo dictatorship has been characterized as more exposed, more achieved, Trujillos rule brought the country a great deal of stability and prosperity throughout his 31-year reign. The price, was high—civil liberties were nonexistent and human rights violations were routine, due to the longevity of Trujillos rule, a detached evaluation of his legacy is difficult.
Supporters of Trujillo claim that he reorganized both the state and the economy, and left vast infrastructure to the country. His detractors point to the brutality of his rule, and claim that much of the countrys wealth wound up in the hands of his family or close associates. He was the third of children, he had an adopted brother, Luis Rafael Nene Trujillo. In 1897, at age six, Trujillo was registered in the school of Juan Hilario Meriño, one year he transferred to the school of Broughton, where he became a pupil of Eugenio María de Hostos, and remained there for the rest of his primary schooling. At the age of 16 Trujillo got a job as a telegraph operator, shortly after Trujillo turned to crime, stealing cattle, counterfeiting checks, and postal robbery, a crime for which he spent several months in prison. This would not deter Trujillo, as he would form a violent gang of robbers called the 42. In 1916, the United States occupied the Dominican Republic due to threats of defaulting on foreign debts, the occupying force soon established a Dominican army constabulary to impose order.
Trujillo joined the National Guard in 1918 and trained with the U. S. Marines, seeing opportunity, Trujillo impressed the recruiters and won promotion from lieutenant to general and commander-in chief of the Army in only nine years. A rebellion against President Horacio Vásquez broke out in February 1930 in Santiago, Trujillo secretly cut a deal with rebel leader Rafael Estrella Ureña, in return for Trujillo letting Estrella take power, Estrella would allow Trujillo to run for president in new elections. As the rebels marched toward Santo Domingo, Vásquez ordered Trujillo to suppress them, feigning neutrality, Trujillo kept his men in barracks, allowing Estrellas rebels to take the capital virtually unopposed. On 3 March, Estrella was proclaimed acting president, with Trujillo confirmed as head of the police, as per their agreement, Trujillo became the presidential nominee of the Patriotic Coalition of Citizens, with Estrella as his running mate. The other candidates became targets of harassment by the army, the Trujillo-Estrella ticket was proclaimed victorious with an implausible 99 percent of the vote
Santo Domingo, officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population. In 2010, its population was counted as 965,040, the city is coterminous with the boundaries of the Distrito Nacional, itself bordered on three sides by Santo Domingo Province. Santo Domingo is the site of the first university, castle, the citys Colonial Zone was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Santo Domingo was called Ciudad Trujillo, from 1936 to 1961, after the Dominican Republics dictator, Rafael Trujillo, following his assassination, the city resumed its original designation. Santo Domingo is the cultural, political and industrial center of the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo serves as the chief seaport of the country. The citys harbor at the mouth of the Ozama River accommodates the largest vessels, temperatures are high year round, with a cool breeze around winter time. At the time, the territory consisted of five chiefdoms, Marién, Maguá, Jaragua.
These were ruled respectively by caciques Guacanagarix, Caonabo, Bohechío, dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, and officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, in 1495 it was renamed Santo Domingo, in honor of Saint Dominic. Santo Domingo came to be known as the Gateway to the Caribbean, in June 1502, Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, and the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River. The original layout of the city and a portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone. Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of Viceroy, in 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, and Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos, rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws.
In 1586, Francis Drake captured the city and held it for ransom, an expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was defeated. The English troops withdrew and took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, in 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of Frances dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti. From 1795 to 1822 the city changed several times along with the colony it headed. The city was ceded to France in 1795 after years of struggles, it was captured by Haitian rebels in 1801, recovered by France in 1802. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the capital of an independent nation after the Criollo bourgeois within the country, led by José Núñez de Cáceres, the nation was unified with Haiti just two months later
The Dominican Republic is a sovereign state occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western one-third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, christopher Columbus landed on the Western part of Hispaniola, in what is now Haiti, on December 6,1492. The island became the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World, the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821 but were forcefully annexed by their more powerful neighbor Haiti in February 1822. After the 1844 victory in the Dominican War of Independence against Haitian rule the country again under Spanish colonial rule until the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. The Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal strife until 1916, a civil war in 1965, the countrys last, was ended by another U. S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966–1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996.
Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republics current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, the Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Though long known for agriculture and mining, the economy is now dominated by services. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic have been standing out as one of the economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5. 4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7. 0%, respectively, in the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7. 4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction and tourism, private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation, job creation, as well as high level of remittances. The Dominican Republic has a market, Bolsa de Valores de la Republica Dominicana. and advanced telecommunication system. Nevertheless, government corruption, and inconsistent electric service remain major Dominican problems, the country has marked income inequality.
International migration affects the Dominican Republic greatly, as it receives, mass illegal Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues. A large Dominican diaspora exists, mostly in the United States, contributes to development, the Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. The year-round golf courses are major attractions, the island has an average temperature of 26 °C and great climatic and biological diversity. The country is the site of the first cathedral, castle and fortress built in all of the Americas, located in Santo Domingos Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music