The Curtesy Act is an act passed by the Parliament of Ireland in 1226, during the reign of Henry III as Lord of Ireland. It governed courtesy tenure in the Lordship of Ireland, i.e. the life interest which a widower may claim in the lands of his deceased wife. It was repealed by the Succession Act 1965 passed by Dáil Éireann
An Act against Plowing by the Tayle, and pulling the Wooll off living Sheep
An Act against Plowing by the Tayle, pulling the Wooll off living Sheep was an Act of the Parliament of Ireland passed in 1635. It was one of the first pieces of legislation to protect the rights of animals; the act was one of several proposed to deal with what the Protestant Ascendancy viewed as the barbarous practices of the Gaelic Irish. The committee for preparing Acts on 26 July 1634 ordered the Attorney General and Solicitor-General to "make a draught of one or more Acts to be passed for restraining the barbarous custom of plowing by the tail, of pulling the wool off living sheep, of burning corn in the straw, of barking of standing trees, of cutting young trees by stealth, of forcing cows to give milk, of building houses without chimneys". One other act arose from this order: "An Act to Prevent the unprofitable Custom of Burning of Corne in the Straw". In Ulster, the practice was to attach a short plough to a horse's tail; the simple plough was cheaper than one attached with a harness.
The horse would stop in pain when the plough hit a rock, which made rocks less to damage the plough. In 1606, an order in council prohibited the practice, with a fine of a garron; the order was not enforced, in 1612 Arthur Chichester, the Lord Deputy, mandated instead a fine of 10 shillings, selling a monopoly patent for £100 per year to Sir William Udale to collect the fines. Udale earned £870 the first year. Administrators complained that Udale was charging only 2s6d, so that the fine served as a fee rather than a deterrent. In 1614 the Dublin Castle administration suggested the fines should be used to pay for better ploughs, or replaced with corporal punishment. Udale's patent was renewed in 1623. Several petitioners from Ulster asked for the order's revocation. A bill to suspend the 1635 act for ten years was transmitted and approved by Charles I in 1641, but never enacted as the 1641 Rebellion began a period of disruption; the 1635 act's repeal was demanded in 1646 by the Confederates in negotiations with Lord Deputy Ormonde.
It was repealed in 1828 by one of Peel's Acts for restating and consolidating laws. British Whig writers of the 1830s alleged that ploughing by the tail was still practised in the West of Ireland at that time; such claims were denied by Irish nationalists as propaganda. Primary Statutes Passed in the Parliaments Held in Ireland. 1: 1310-1662. George Grierson. 1794. Pp. 301–302, 304–305. Retrieved 18 July 2017; the Journals of the House of Commons of the Kingdom of Ireland. 1. 1753. Retrieved 18 July 2017. Report of Commissioners: Patent Roll, 16 James I. part iii. f.. "The Rebellion of 1641". Ireland Under British Rule. Chapman and Hall. P. 160, fn.1. Retrieved 18 July 2017. Secondary Bagwell, Richard. Ireland under the Stuarts and during the interregnum. 1: 1603–1642. London: Longmans, Green. Pp. 124–125. Retrieved 18 July 2017. Beirne, Piers. "Against cruelty? Understanding the Act Against Plowing by the Tayle". Confronting Animal Abuse: Law and Human-Animal Relationships. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Pp. 21–68.
ISBN 9780742599741. Retrieved 18 July 2017. Blenkinsop, Adam. Paddiana: Or, Scraps and Sketches of Irish Life and Past. R. Bentley. Pp. 245–251. Retrieved 18 July 2017. Ferguson, James F.. "The "Short Ploughs" of the North of Ireland". The Gentleman's Historical Review. Bradbury, Evans: 136–140. Retrieved 18 July 2017. Philp, Robert Kemp; the History of Progress in Great Britain. London: Houlston and Wright. Pp. 88–90. ISBN 9781445531168. Retrieved 18 July 2017. Pinkerton, W.. "Ploughing by the Horse's Tail". Ulster Journal of Archaeology. First Series, Vol. 6: 212–221. JSTOR 20608875. Retrieved 18 July 2017. Evans, Estyn E.. "Some problems of Irish ethnology: the example of ploughing by the tail". In Danaher, Kevin. Folk & Farm: essays in honour of A. T. Lucas. Dublin: Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. Pp. 30–39. Lucas, Anthony T.. "Irish ploughing practices part 2". Tools and Tillage. 2: 67–83
Legislatures of the United Kingdom
The Legislatures of the United Kingdom are derived from a number of different sources from both within the UK and through membership of the European Union. The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body for the United Kingdom and the British overseas territories with Scotland and Northern Ireland each having their own devolved legislatures; each of the three major jurisdictions of the United Kingdom has legal system. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body for the United Kingdom and for English Law, it alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories. Its head is the Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its seat is the Palace of Westminster in Westminster, London; the United Kingdom Legislation may take the form of Acts or Statutory Instruments, made under the authority of an Act of Parliament by either a government minister or by the Queen-in-Council.
The latter are subject either to parliamentary approval or parliamentary disallowance. The majority of Acts considered in the UK are defined as public general acts, or'Acts of Parliament' as they will have progressed and gained approval as a Bill through both House of Commons and House of Lords, have gained Royal Assent from the Monarch. Local and Personal Acts of Parliament are presented to Parliament as a result of sponsored petitions. These, are processed through committees to enable relevant or affected parties to challenge or change the proposed Act. Prerogative instruments, made by the Sovereign under the royal prerogative are another source of UK-wide legislation.. The UK Parliament is responsible for all matters relating to defence and all foreign affairs and relations with international organisations the United Nations, the Commonwealth and the European Union. With there being no devolved legislature in England the UK Parliament is the supreme body for its governance, public bodies and local government.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is an elected chamber consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament which are elected using First past the post in single-member constituencies with 533 elected from England, 59 from Scotland, 40 from Wales and 18 from Northern Ireland. The House of Commons is now considered to be the supreme chamber of Parliament; the House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom however it is an unelected chamber with all members to the House of Lords being appointed. As of August 2018, there are 793 members known as "Peers"; the House of Lords no longer has the same powers as the House of Commons under the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 when it comes to blocking general legislation and the passing of financial legislation. The Scottish Parliament is the national, unicameral legislature of Scotland, located in the Holyrood area of the capital, Edinburgh; the Parliament, informally referred to as "Holyrood", is a democratically elected body comprising 129 members known as Members of the Scottish Parliament.
Of these 73 MSPs are elected using First past the post in single member constituencies and a further 56 MSPs are elected using the D'Hondt method, a form of party-list proportional representation in eight additional member regions with each region electing 7 MSPs. The Scottish Parliament was convened by the Scotland Act 1998, which sets out its powers as a devolved legislature; the Act delineates the legislative competence of the Parliament – the areas in which it can make laws – by explicitly specifying powers that are "reserved" to the Parliament of the United Kingdom: all matters that are not explicitly reserved are automatically the responsibility of the Scottish Parliament. The British Parliament retains the ability to amend the terms of reference of the Scottish Parliament, can extend or reduce the areas in which it can make laws; the first meeting of the new Parliament took place on 12 May 1999. The Scottish Statutory Instruments made by the Scottish Government are another source of legislation.
As with Statutory Instruments made by the British government, these are subject to either approval or disallowance by the Scottish Parliament The National Assembly for Wales has the power to make legislation in Wales. The Assembly was created by the Government of Wales Act 1998, which followed a referendum in 1997, it is a democratically elected body with 60 members known as Assembly Members. Of these 40 AMs are elected using First past the post in single member constituencies and a further 20 MSPs are elected using the D'Hondt method, a form of party-list proportional representation in five additional member regions with each region electing 4 AMs; the Assembly had no powers to initiate primary legislation until limited law-making powers were gained through the Government of Wales Act 2006. Its primary law-making powers were enhanced following a Yes vote in the referendum on 3 March 2011, making it possible for it to legislate in the 20 areas that are devolved without having to consult the UK Parliament, nor the Secretary of State for Wales.
The Assembly may delegate authority to enact legislation through Welsh Statutory Instruments. Under the Wales Act 2017 the Assembly came into line with Scotland and Northern Ireland and moved to a resevered powers model, it is expected that the National Assembly for Wales will be renamed the "We
Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it merged with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1066, William of Normandy introduced what, in centuries, became referred to as a feudal system, by which he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws. In 1215, the tenants-in-chief secured Magna Carta from King John, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes, save with the consent of his royal council, which developed into a parliament. Over the centuries, the English Parliament progressively limited the power of the English monarchy which arguably culminated in the English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649. After the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, the subsequent Glorious Revolution of 1688, the supremacy of Parliament was a settled principle and all future English and British sovereigns were restricted to the role of constitutional monarchs with limited executive authority.
The Act of Union 1707 merged the English Parliament with the Parliament of Scotland to form the Parliament of Great Britain. When the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Under a monarchical system of government, monarchs must consult and seek a measure of acceptance for their policies if they are to enjoy the broad cooperation of their subjects. Early kings of England had no standing army or police, so depended on the support of powerful subjects; the monarchy had agents in every part of the country. However, under the feudal system that evolved in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, the laws of the Crown could not have been upheld without the support of the nobility and the clergy; the former had economic and military power bases of their own through major ownership of land and the feudal obligations of their tenants. The Church was a law unto itself in this period as it had its own system of religious law courts.
In order to seek consultation and consent from the nobility and the senior clergy on major decisions, post-Norman Conquest English monarchs called Great Councils. A typical Great Council would consist of archbishops, abbots and earls, the pillars of the feudal system; when this system of consultation and consent broke down, it became impossible for government to function effectively. The most prominent instances of this before the reign of Henry III are the disagreements between Thomas Becket and Henry II and between King John and the barons. Becket, who served as Archbishop of Canterbury between 1162 and 1170, was murdered after a long running dispute with Henry II over the jurisdiction of the Church. John, king from 1199 to 1216, aroused such hostility from many leading noblemen that they forced him to agree to Magna Carta in 1215. John's refusal to adhere to this charter led to civil war; the Great Council evolved into the Parliament of England. The term came into use during the early 13th century, when it shifted from the more general meaning of "an occasion for speaking."
It first appears in official documents in the 1230s. As a result of the work by historians G. O. Sayles and H. G. Richardson, it is believed that the early parliaments had a judicial as well as a legislative function. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the kings called Knights of the Shire to meet when the monarch saw it as necessary. A notable example of this was in 1254 when sheriffs of counties were instructed to send Knights of the Shire to parliament to advise the king on finance. Parliaments were summoned when the king needed to raise money through taxes. After Magna Carta, this became a convention; this was due in no small part to the fact that King John died in 1216 and was succeeded by his young son Henry III. Leading peers and clergy governed on Henry's behalf until he came of age, giving them a taste for power that they would prove unwilling to relinquish. Among other things, they made sure. Once the reign of John ended and Henry III took full control of the government, leading peers became concerned with his style of government his unwillingness to consult them on decisions he took, his seeming patronisation of his foreign relatives over his native subjects.
Henry's support of a disastrous papal invasion of Sicily was the last straw. In 1258, seven leading barons forced Henry to swear to uphold the Provisions of Oxford, the following year, by the Provisions of Westminster; this abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons, providing for a thrice-yearly meeting of parliament to monitor their performance. Parliament assembled six times between June 1258 and April 1262, most notably at Oxford in 1258; the French-born nobleman Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, emerged as the leader of this characteristically English rebellion. In the years that followed, those supporting Montfort and those supporting the king grew more hostile to each other. Henry obtained a papal bull in 1263 exempting him from his oath and both sides began to raise armies. At the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, Henry was taken prisoner by Montfort's army. However, many of the peers who had supported Montfort began to suspect that he ha
Plantations of Ireland
Plantations in 16th- and 17th-century Ireland involved the confiscation of land by the English crown and the colonisation of this land with settlers from the island of Great Britain. There had been smaller-scale immigration to Ireland as far back as the 12th century, which had resulted in a distinct ethnicity in Ireland known as the Old English, or Hiberno-Normans. Unofficial plantations carried out by landlords took place, such as those in County Antrim and County Down; the 16th-century plantations were established through large areas of the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Leinster. The Crown granted these lands to colonists from England; this process began during the reign of Henry VIII and continued under Mary I and Elizabeth I. It was accelerated under James I, when the Plantation of Ulster took place on land escheated from those Gaelic chiefs who broke the terms of surrender and regrant, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell.
The early plantations in the 16th century tended to be based on small "exemplary" colonies. The plantations were based on mass confiscations of land from Irish landowners and the subsequent importation of numerous settlers and labourers from England and Wales, from Scotland; the final government-planned plantations were established under the English Commonwealth and Cromwell's Protectorate during the 1650s, when thousands of Parliamentarian soldiers were settled in Ireland. Apart from the plantations, significant immigration into Ireland continued well into the 18th century, from both Great Britain and continental Europe; the plantations changed the demography of Ireland by creating large communities with a British and Protestant identity. The ruling classes of these communities replaced the older Catholic ruling class, which had shared with the general population a common Irish identity and set of political attitudes; the new ruling class represented both Scottish interests in Ireland. The physical and economic nature of Irish society was changed, as new concepts of ownership and credit were introduced.
These changes led to the creation of a Protestant Ascendancy, which during the 17th century secured the authority of Crown government in Ireland from Dublin. The early Plantations of Ireland occurred during the Tudor conquest of Ireland; the Crown government at Dublin intended to pacify and Anglicise the country under English rule and incorporate the native ruling classes into the English aristocracy. The government intended to develop Ireland as a peaceful and reliable possession, without risk of rebellion or foreign invasion. Wherever the policy of surrender and regrant failed, land was confiscated and English plantations were established. To this end, two forms of plantation were adopted in the second half of the 16th century; the first was the "exemplary plantation", in which small colonies of English would provide model farming communities that the Irish could emulate. One such colony was planted in the late 1560s, at Kerrycurrihy near Cork city, on land leased from the Earl of Desmond; the second form set the trend for future English policy in Ireland.
It was punitive in nature, as it provided for the plantation of English settlers on lands confiscated following the suppression of rebellions. The first such scheme was the Plantation of King's County and Queen's County in 1556, naming them after the new Catholic monarchs Philip and Mary respectively; the new county towns were named Maryborough. An Act was passed "whereby the King and Queen's Majesties, the Heires and Successors of the Queen, be entituled to the Counties of Leix, Irry and Offaily, for making the same Countries Shire Grounds."The O'Moore and O'Connor clans, which occupied the area, had traditionally raided the English-ruled Pale around Dublin. The Lord Deputy of Ireland, the Earl of Sussex, ordered that they be dispossessed and replaced with an English settlement. However, the plantation was not a great success; the O'Moores and O'Connors retreated to the hills and bogs and fought a local insurgency against the settlement for much of the following 40 years. In 1578, the English subdued the displaced O'Moore clan by massacring most of their fine at Mullaghmast in Laois, having invited them there for peace talks.
Rory Oge O'More, the leader of rebellion in the area, was hunted down and killed that year. The ongoing violence meant that the authorities had difficulty in attracting people to settle in their new plantation. Settlement ended up clustered around a series of military fortifications. Another failed plantation occurred in eastern Ulster in the 1570s; the east of the province was intended to be colonised with English planters, to establish a barrier between the Gaels of Ireland and Scotland, to stop the flow of Scottish mercenaries into Ireland. The conquest of east Ulster was contracted out to the Earl of Sir Thomas Smith; the O'Neill chieftain, Turlough Luineach O'Neill, fearing an English bridgehead in Ulster, helped his O'Neill kinsmen of in Clandeboye. The MacDonnells in Antrim, led by Sorley Boy MacDonnell called in reinforcements from their kinsmen in the Western Isles and Highlands of Scotland; the plantation degenerated, as atrocities were committed against the local civilian population before it was abandoned.
Brian MacPhelim O'Neill of Clandeboye, his wife and 200 clansmen were murdered at a feast organised by the Earl of Essex in 1574. In 1575, Francis Drake (later victor over the Spanish Armada in the pay of the Ea
Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689
The Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 was an Act of the Parliament of England, passed in 1689. It was designed to confirm the succession to the throne of King William III and Queen Mary II of England and to confirm the validity of the laws passed by the Convention Parliament, irregularly convened following the Glorious Revolution and the end of James II's reign; this Act is still wholly in force in Great Britain. The Act was passed because in 1688 King James II of England was deposed and replaced as king by William and Mary, who ruled jointly; however this could not be achieved without an Act of Parliament to approve it. Since no parliament was in existence at the time, it was necessary to convene one, but under the constitution only the King could summon a parliament. In the absence of a king to do so, the members of the previous parliament convened a new one themselves, without a royal summons, instead asking William to issue the summons, which he did on 22 January 1689; this irregular.
They declared James to have abdicated, chose Mary and William to succeed him, passed an Act to make it legal. This Act was the Bill of Rights 1689. However, doubts arose as to the validity of the Bill of Rights and the other Acts passed by the Convention Parliament. Since the Parliament had not been summoned in the regular way, it was arguable that it was no parliament at all and its legislation was of no legal effect; therefore after the Convention Parliament was dissolved and the next parliament was summoned by the King and Queen in the normal manner, the Crown and Parliament Recognition Act was passed to confirm the validity of the royal succession and the previous parliament's legislative competence. The difficulty with the Act is that if the Convention Parliament had no authority the succession of William and Mary was of no legal effect, which meant that they were not capable of giving Royal Assent to any bill in the next parliament, with the result that the Crown and Parliament Recognition Act was of no effect either.
This point was argued before the Hereford County Court in 1944 by a litigant who represented himself in a probate case called Hall v. Hall, he argued that the Court of Probate Act 1857 was of no legal effect whatsoever, since it had never received Royal Assent. It had received Royal Assent from Queen Victoria, but according to his argument Victoria had never inherited the throne, because the Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement 1701 were of no effect, since both had been assented to by William III, not the real king; therefore Victoria had never been the real queen and so the Probate Act was not the law. Predictably, the judge ruled against him, the point has never been argued in court since. Although the judge did not give detailed reasons for his decision, a counterpoint to the above argument has been advanced by academics: "One possible answer, deducible from rationalizations of medieval practice when usurpations of the throne were not uncommon, is that... S a matter of State necessity... a de facto King had been regarded as competent to summon a lawful Parliament."
An Act for Recognizing King William and Queene Mary and for avoiding all Questions touching the Acts made in the Parliament assembled at Westminster the thirteenth day of February one thousand six hundred eighty eight. Wee your Majestyes most humble and loyall subjects the lords spirituall and temporall and commons in this present Parlyament assembled doe beseech your most excellent Majestyes that it may be published and declared in this High Court of Parlyament and enacted by authoritie of the same that we doe recognize and acknowledge your Majestyes were are and of right ought to be the laws of this realme our soveraigne liege lord and lady King and Queene of England France and Ireland and the dominions thereunto belonging in and to whose princely persons the royall state crowne and dignity of the said realms with all honours stiles regalities prerogatives powers jurisdictions and authorities to the same belonging and appertaining are most rightfully and intirely invested and incorporated united and annexed.
And for the avoiding of all disputes and questions concerning the being and authority of the late Parliament assembled at Westminster the thirteenth day of February one thousand six hundred eighty eight wee doe most humbly beseech your Majestyes that it may be enacted and bee it enacted by the King and Queenes most excellent Majestyes by and with the advice and consent of the lords spirituall and temporall and commons in this present Parlyament assembled and by authoritie of the same that all and singular the Acts made and enacted in the said Parlyament were and are laws and statutes of this kingdome and as such ought to be reputed taken and obeyed by all the people of this kingdome. In the Kingdom of Ireland another Act, entitled An Act of Recognition, of their Majesties undoubted Right to the Crown of Ireland was passed in 1692 by the Parliament of Ireland, which made similar provision. In the Republic of Ireland this was repealed by section 1 of, the Schedule to, the Statute Law Revision Act 1962.
Treason Act 1702 Parliament Act 1660 Official text of the Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 as amended and in force today within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute
Kingdom of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms; the kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature, legal system, state church; the territory of the Kingdom had been a lordship ruled by the kings of England, founded in 1177 after the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. By the 1500s the area of English rule had shrunk and most of Ireland was held by Gaelic Irish chiefdoms. In 1542, King Henry VIII of England was made King of Ireland; the English began establishing control over the island, which sparked the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years’ War. It was completed in the 1600s; the conquest involved confiscating land from the native Irish and colonising it with settlers from Britain. In its early years, the Kingdom had limited recognition, as no Catholic countries in Europe recognised Henry and his heir Edward as monarch of Ireland.
Catholics, who made up most of the population, were discriminated against in the Kingdom, which from the late 17th century was dominated by a Protestant Ascendancy. This discrimination was one of the main drivers behind several conflicts which broke out: the Irish Confederate Wars, the Williamite-Jacobite War, the Armagh disturbances and the Irish Rebellion of 1798; the Parliament of Ireland passed the Acts of Union 1800 by which it abolished itself and the Kingdom. The act was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, it established the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland and of Great Britain. The papal bull Laudabiliter of Pope Adrian IV was issued in 1155, it granted the Angevin King Henry II of England the title Dominus Hibernae. Laudabiliter authorised the king to invade Ireland. In return, Henry was required to remit a penny per hearth of the tax roll to the Pope; this was reconfirmed by Adrian's successor Pope Alexander III in 1172.
When Pope Clement VII excommunicated the king of England, Henry VIII, in 1533, the constitutional position of the lordship in Ireland became uncertain. Henry declared himself the head of the Church in England, he had petitioned Rome to procure an annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine. Clement VII refused Henry's request and Henry subsequently refused to recognise the Roman Catholic Church's vestigial sovereignty over Ireland, was excommunicated again in late 1538 by Pope Paul III; the Treason Act 1537 was passed to counteract this. Following the failed revolt of Silken Thomas in 1534–35, the lord deputy, had some military successes against several clans in the late 1530s, took their submissions. By 1540 most of Ireland seemed under the control of the king's Dublin administration. Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, an Act of the Irish Parliament; the new kingdom was not recognised by the Catholic monarchies in Europe. After the death of King Edward VI, Henry's son, the papal bull of 1555 recognised the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I as Queen of Ireland.
The link of "personal union" of the Crown of Ireland to the Crown of England became enshrined in Catholic canon law. In this fashion, the Kingdom of Ireland was ruled by the reigning monarch of England; this placed the new Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with the Kingdom of England. In line with its expanded role and self-image, the administration established the King's Inns for barristers in 1541, the Ulster King of Arms to regulate heraldry in 1552. Proposals to establish a university in Dublin were delayed until 1592. In 1593 war broke out, as Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, led a confederation of Irish lords and Spain against the crown, in what became known as the Nine Years' War. A series of stunning Irish victories brought English power in Ireland to the point of collapse by the beginning of 1600, but a renewed campaign under Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy forced Tyrone to submit in 1603, completing the Tudor conquest of Ireland. In 1603 James VI King of Scots became James I of England, uniting the Kingdoms of England and Ireland in a personal union.
The political order of the kingdom was interrupted by the Wars of the Three Kingdoms starting in 1639. During the subsequent interregnum period, England and Ireland were ruled as a republic until 1660; this period saw the rise of the loyalist Irish Catholic Confederation within the kingdom and, from 1653, the creation of the republican Commonwealth of England and Ireland. The kingdom's order was restored 1660 with the restoration of Charles II. Without any public dissent, Charles's reign was backdated to his father's execution in 1649. Poynings' Law was repealed in 1782 in what came to be known as the Constitution of 1782, granting Ireland legislative independence. Parliament in this period came to be known as Grattan's Parliament, after the principal Irish leader of the period, Henry Grattan. Although Ireland had legislative independence, executive administration remained under the control of the executive of the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1788 -- 89 a Regency crisis arose. Grattan wanted to appoint the Prince of Wales George