Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, leading commercial center of Cuba. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, it spans a total of 781.58 km2 – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean region. The city of Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, becoming a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain; the King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city; the sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War. The city is the center of the Cuban government, home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices; the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.
Contemporary Havana can be described as three cities in one: Old Havana and the newer suburban districts. The city extends westward and southward from the bay, entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Mari melena and Antares; the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The city attracts over a million tourists annually. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982; the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical climate. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names. Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found. However, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.
Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River. The town that became Havana originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519; the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana; the name combines patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a trading port, suffered regular attacks by buccaneers and French corsairs; the first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, to limit the extensive contrabando that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville.
Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. On, the city would be designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish Crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. Havana expanded in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In 1649, an epidemic of the fatal Yellow fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.
During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only drydock in the New World. The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War; the episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War; the treaty gave
Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay. The city is located on the left bank of the Paraguay River at the confluence of this river with the River Pilcomayo, on the South American continent; the Paraguay River and the Bay of Asunción in the northwest separate the city from the Occidental Region of Paraguay and Argentina in the south part of the city. The rest of the city is surrounded by the Central Department; the city is an autonomous capital district, not a part of any department. The metropolitan area, called Gran Asunción, includes the cities of San Lorenzo, Fernando de la Mora, Lambaré, Mariano Roque Alonso, Ñemby, San Antonio, Capiatá and Villa Elisa, which are part of the Central Department; the Asunción metropolitan area has around two million inhabitants. The Municipality of Asunción is listed on the Asunción Stock Exchange, as BVPASA: MUA. Asunción is one of the oldest cities in South America and the longest continually inhabited area in the Río de la Plata Basin. From Asunción the colonial expeditions departed to found other cities, including the second foundation of Buenos Aires and other important cities such as Villarrica, Santa Fe and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
Asunción is considered a'gamma city' by the study GaWC5. It is the home of the national government, principal port, the chief industrial and cultural center of the country. Near Asunción are the headquarters of the CONMEBOL, the continental governing body of association football in South America. Asunción is said to be one of the cheapest cities in the world for foreign visitors; the Spanish conquistador Juan de Ayolas may have first visited the site of the future city on his way north, up the Paraguay River, looking for a passage to the mines of Alto Perú. Juan de Salazar y Espinosa and Gonzalo de Mendoza, a relative of Pedro de Mendoza, were sent in search of Ayolas, but failed to find him. On his way up and down the river, de Salazar stopped at a bay in the left bank to resupply his ships, he found the natives friendly, decided to found a fort there in August 1537. He named it Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción. In 1542 natives destroyed Buenos Aires, the Spaniards there fled to Asunción.
Thus the city became the center of a large Spanish colonial province comprising part of Brazil, present-day Paraguay and northeastern Argentina: the Giant Province of the Indies. In 1603 Asunción was the seat of the First Synod of Asunción, which set guidelines for the evangelization of the natives in their lingua franca, Guaraní. In 1731 an uprising under José de Antequera y Castro was one of the first rebellions against Spanish colonial rule; the uprising failed, but it was the first sign of the independent spirit, growing among the criollos and natives of Paraguay. The event influenced the independence of Paraguay, which subsequently materialised in 1811; the secret meetings between the independence leaders to plan an ambush against the Spanish Governor in Paraguay took place at the home of Juana María de Lara, in downtown Asunción. On the night of May 14 and May 15, 1811, the rebels succeeded and forced governor Velasco to surrender. Today, Lara's former home, known as Casa de la Independencia, operates as a museum and historical building.
After Paraguay became independent, significant change occurred in Asunción. Under the rule of Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia roads were built throughout the city and the streets were named. However, during the presidency of Carlos Antonio López Asunción saw further progress as the new president implemented new economic policies. More than 400 schools, metallurgic factories and the first railroad service in South America were built during the López presidency. After López died, his son Francisco Solano López became the new president and led the country through the disastrous Paraguayan War that lasted for five years. After the end of the armed conflict, Brazilian troops occupied Asunción until 1876. Many historians have claimed that this war provoked a steady downfall of the city and country, since it massacred two thirds of the country's population. Progress slowed down afterwards, the economy stagnated. After the Paraguayan War, Asunción began a slow attempt at recovery. Towards the end of the 19th century and during the early years of the 20th century, a flow of immigrants from Europe and the Ottoman Empire came to the city.
This led to a change in the appearance of the city as many new buildings were built and Asunción went through an era more prosperous than any since the war. Asunción is located between the parallels 25° 15' and 25° 20' of south latitude and between the meridians 57° 40' and 57° 30' of west longitude; the city sits on the left bank of the Paraguay River at the confluence of this river with the River Pilcomayo. The Paraguay River and the Bay of Asunción in the northwest separate the city from the Occidental Region of Paraguay and Argentina in the south part of the city; the rest of the city is surrounded by the Central Department. With its location along the Paraguay River, the city offers many landscapes. Places such as Cerro Lambaré, a hill located in Lambaré, offer a spectacular show in the springtime because of the blossoming lapacho trees in the area. Parks such as Parque Independencia and Parque Carlos Antonio López offer large areas of typical Paraguayan vegetation and are frequented by tourists.
Silvio Pettirossi International Airport
Silvio Pettirossi International Airport is Paraguay's main national and international gateway, located at Luque, serving the capital city, Asunción. It is named after the Paraguayan aviator Silvio Pettirossi and was known as President Stroessner International Airport, after Paraguay's former head of state General Alfredo Stroessner. In 2017, Pettirossi handled a record 1.2 million passengers, making it the busiest airport in the country. It is the main international hub for LATAM Paranair; the airport serves as hub for LATAM Paraguay known as TAM Paraguay, TAM Mercosur and LAP. The terminal building splits into two international concourses, the north concourse with 2 gates and the south concourse with 4 gates. Iberia provided direct flights to Asunción from Madrid from 1966 till the mid-nineties. Lufthansa flew once a week from Frankfurt to Asunción from 1971 to 1980, with DC-10 service starting in 1974. For both airlines, the flights included multiple destinations in South America. On 17 December 2015, the first Air Europa flight arrived from Madrid, Spain to the Silvio Pettirossi International Airport in Luque and provided the first direct connection between Paraguay and Europe in 21 years.
The airplane arrived with the presence of the Minister of Tourism, Marcela Bacigalupo and more than 200 invited guests. The flight had 98% of its seats occupied and before the airplane departed Madrid, there was an inauguration ceremony of the new route, attended by the president of the airline, Juan José Hidalgo, the ambassador of Paraguay in Spain, Antonio Rivas, the vice-minister of Paraguayan Industry, Oscar Stark. Hidalgo highlighted "the high seat occupancy of the inaugural flight," which, in his opinion, shows "success" is expected for this route; the airport, located within Luque, may be reached from the city of Asuncion via the Aviadores del Chaco Avenue, which runs adjacent to nearby Ñu Guasú Park. Asuncion's local bus line 30-A links the city center with the airport's terminal; the airport is near the headquarters of CONMEBOL, the continental governing body of association football in South America. The Silvio Pettirossi Airport offers tourist visas on arrival with a maximum duration of 90 days for a reciprocity fee to citizens of: Australia – US$135 Canada – US$150 United States of America – US$160 New Zealand – US$140 These data show number of passengers movements into the airport, according to the Dirección Nacional de Aeronáutica Civil's Aviation Sector Summary Reports.
16 June 1955: a Panair do Brasil Lockheed L-049/149 Constellation registration PP-PDJ operating flight 263 from São Paulo-Congonhas to Asunción hit a 12m tree while on final approach to land at Asunción. Part of the wing broke off, the aircraft caught fire. Of the 24 passengers and crew aboard, 16 died. 27 August 1980: Transporte Aéreo Militar – TAM Paraguayo, a Douglas C-47B registration FAP2016 crashed on approach to Silvio Pettirossi International Airport. The aircraft was on a flight to Ayolas when an engine failed shortly after take-off and the decision was made to land back at Asunción. One person was killed 4 February 1996: a LAC Colombia cargo Douglas DC-8-55F registration HK-3979X flying from Asunción to Campinas on an empty positioning flight from Asunción. At VR power was reduced on no. 1 engine and, after rotation on the no. 2 engine. With the gear still down and flaps at 15° the aircraft lost control and crashed on a playing field 2 km past the runway; the crew used the positioning flight as an opportunity for crew training.
All four occupants of the aircraft and 20 persons on the ground died. List of airports in Paraguay Transport in Paraguay List of airports by ICAO code: S#SG - Paraguay This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Airport information for SGAS at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Airport information for SGAS at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF. Current weather for SGAS at NOAA/NWS Accident history for ASU at Aviation Safety Network Silvio Pettirossi International Airport A–Z World Airports Online – Asuncion – Silvio Pettirossi International Airport Ground Handling & FBO On Asuncion Google Map of ASU Flickr group for photos of ASU
Air Europa Líneas Aéreas, S. A. U. is an airline in the third largest after Iberia and Vueling. The airline is headquartered in the Polígono Son Noguera in the Centro Empresarial Globalia in Llucmajor, Spain; the airline is 100% owned by Globalia, a travel and tourism company managed by Juan José Hidalgo. Since September 2007 the airline has been a member of the Skyteam alliance. Air Europa started in 1986 as part of the British ILG-Air Europe Group and 75% owned by Spanish banks, it had a similar livery to Air Europe but with Air Europa titles and its aircraft were registered in Spain. It flew holiday charters from Mediterranean resorts and European cities using Boeing 737-300s and Boeing 757s, it was the first Spanish private company. When parent company ILG ceased trading in 1991 Air Europa continued profitably with a larger fleet of Boeing 737s and 757s, it signed a franchise agreement with Iberia in January 1998. It is now owned by Globalia Corporación Empresarial S. A. At the end of the 1990s Boeing 737-800 jets were introduced along with a new livery.
In June 2005 it was announced Air Europa was among four future associate members of the SkyTeam alliance, due to join by 2006. However, the joining date was postponed, it did not become a member until 1 September 2007. Air Europa was the parent company for Air Dominicana, the new flag carrier of the Dominican Republic, until bankruptcy was declared on 21 September 2009. Air Europa retired its last Boeing 767 on 13 April 2012. Air Europa operates tour services between northern and western Europe and holiday resorts in the Canary Islands and Balearic Islands, it operates domestic scheduled services and long-haul scheduled services to North America and South America. Its main base is Palma de Mallorca Palma de Mallorca. During the last ten years, scheduled flights have increased their share of operations; as of November 2016, Air Europa has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: As of May 2018, the Air Europa fleet consists of the following aircraft: Air Europa operated the following aircraft: List of airlines of Spain Transport in Spain Air Europe Air Europe Media related to Air Europa at Wikimedia Commons Official website Official mobile website
Boeing 737 Classic
The Boeing 737 Classic refers to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737. It is the second-generation derivative of the 737, following the original -100/-200 models that began production in 1966, they are short - to narrow-body jet airliners. Produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1984 to 2000, the 737 Classic includes three variants and can seat between 145 and 188 passengers. Improvements over the previous generation of 737 aircraft included CFM International CFM56 high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, upgraded avionics, increased passenger capacity; the first model of the Classic series, the 737–300, entered service in 1984. It was followed by a stretched model, the 737-400, which entered service in 1988, followed by the shortened 737-500, the smallest variant in the classic series, in 1990. In total, 1,988 aircraft were delivered; the Classic series was introduced as the new generation of the 737, but following the introduction of the 737 Next Generation in the mid-1990s, was designated as the 737 Classic series.
Following the success of the Boeing 737-200 Advanced, Boeing wanted to increase capacity and range, incorporating improvements to upgrade the plane to modern specifications, while retaining commonality with previous 737 variants. Development began in 1979, in 1980, preliminary aircraft specifications were released at the Farnborough Airshow; the new series featured CFM56 turbofan engines, yielding significant gains in fuel economy and a reduction in noise, but posing an engineering challenge given the low ground clearance of the 737 - a trait of its 707-derived fuselage. Boeing and engine supplier CFM International solved the problem by placing the engine ahead of the wing, by moving engine accessories to the sides of the engine pod, giving the 737 a distinctive noncircular air intake; the wing incorporated a number of changes for improved aerodynamics. The wing tip was extended 9 inches; the leading-edge slats and trailing-edge flaps were adjusted. The flight deck was improved with the optional electronic flight instrumentation system, the passenger cabin incorporated improvements similar to those on the Boeing 757.
In March 1981, USAir and Southwest Airlines each ordered 10 aircraft of the 737-300 series, with an option for 20 more. That aircraft, the initial model of the 737 Classic series, first flew in February 1984 and entered service in December of that year with Southwest Airlines. A further stretched model, the 737-400, was launched with an order for 25 aircraft with 30 options from Piedmont Airlines in June 1986; that aircraft first flew in February 1988 and entered service that year with Piedmont Airlines. The final model of the series, the 737-500, was launched with an order for 30 aircraft from Southwest Airlines in May 1987; that aircraft, designed as a replacement for the 737-200 and had similar passenger capacity and dimensions, as well as the longest range of any member of the 737 Classic family, first flew in June 1989 and entered service with Southwest Airlines in 1990. Boeing selected the CFM56-3 to power the 737-300 variant; the 737 wings were closer to the ground than previous applications for the CFM56, necessitating several modifications to the engine.
The fan diameter was reduced, which reduced the bypass ratio, the engine accessory gearbox was moved from the bottom of the engine to the 9 o'clock position, giving the engine nacelle its distinctive flat-bottomed shape, nicknamed the "hamster pouch". The overall thrust was reduced, from 24,000 to 20,000 lbf due to the reduction in bypass ratio. Throughout the 1980s, the 737 Classic series attracted large orders from airlines in the United States and Europe, with its order totals exceeding those of preceding 737 models. By far, the most successful model was the 737-300, with deliveries totaling 1,113 aircraft. Major operators included US carriers, small national airlines, charter carriers. By the 1990s, when regular Boeing customer United Airlines bought the Airbus A320, this prompted Boeing to update the slower, shorter-range 737 Classic -400 into the rewinged, more efficient, longer 737NG-800. Production of the 737 Classic continued alongside that of the Next Generation for a period of time.
Six former Southwest 737-300s are modified and operated for aerial firefighting by British Columbia-based Coulson Group, supported by a C$3.4 million loan from the Canadian government. The converted 737 FireLiner can carry 4,000 US gal with a flow rate of 3,000 US gal /s, retains 66 seats; the first was deployed to Australia. The prototype of the -300 rolled out of the Renton plant on January 17, 1984, first flew on February 24, 1984. After it received its flight certification on November 14, 1984, USAir received the first aircraft on November 28. A popular aircraft, Boeing received 252 orders for it in 1985, over 1,000 throughout its production; the 300 series remained in production until 1999 when the last aircraft was delivered to Air New Zealand on December 17, 1999, registration ZK-NGJ. By 1,113 Boeing 737-300s were produced in a span of more than 15 years. In December 2008, Southwest Airlines selected Boeing to retrofit the 737-300 with a new set of instruments and software, to improve commonality with the 737-700, as well as to support the Required Navigation Performance initiative, but that order was cancelled and the retrofits never took place.
The 737-300 can be retrofitted with Aviation Partners
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees