Lake Louise, Alaska
Lake Louise is a census-designated place in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, United States. Although it is an isolated settlement and is close to Glennallen, it is considered part of the Anchorage, Alaska Metropolitan Statistical Area like all other locations in the Mat-Su Borough. At the 2010 census the population was 46, down from 88 in 2000; the first recorded name of Lake Louise was Shosubenich, which means "great flat water with many islands". Lake Louise was named Lake Adah after a girlfriend of Lieutenant Castner. Captain Edwin Glenn changed the name to Lake Louise in honor of his wife; the U. S. Army established a recreation facility at the lake towards the end of World War II and built the first road into the area. Lake Louise road runs about 20 miles from the Glenn Highway to the lake. There are still several dilapidated cabins at the "Army Point" campground, including one, used for four days by General Dwight D. Eisenhower before he was president; the lake is home to the Lake Louise State Recreation Area.
Lake Louise is located at 62°17′4″N 146°33′25″W. Lake Louise is located between four mountain ranges: The Wrangell, Talkeetna and Alaska Ranges. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 74.2 square miles, of which, 47.9 square miles of it is land and 26.4 square miles of it is water. There are many small islands at the south end of the lake. There are several private resorts and marinas, a state recreation area with campgrounds and a boat launch. Lake Louise first appeared on the 2000 U. S. Census as a census-designated place; as of the census of 2000, there were 88 people, 41 households, 25 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1.8 people per square mile. There were 255 housing units at an average density of 5.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 89.77% White and 10.23% Native American. There were 41 households out of which 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 2.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.0% were non-families.
24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.64. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 1.1% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 46.6% from 45 to 64, 8.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 135.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $5,000, the median income for a family was $43,750. Males had a median income of $3,750 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $11,057. There were no families and 56.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. The Lake Louise State Recreation Area has a large campground, boat launch, picnic areas, as well as a trail leading to the hilltop where the Army's original recreation area's cabins still stand, although in a state of severe disrepair.
Visitors can expect to see a wide variety of wildlife, including the only know freshwater nesting site for cormorants, located on Bird Island. In the fall the Nelchina caribou herd passes through this area; the fishing in the lake is considered excellent, with a variety of freshwater fish, including lake trout and burbot
Glennallen is a census-designated place in the Valdez–Cordova Census Area in the Unorganized Borough of the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population of the CDP was 483, down from 554 in 2000. Glennallen is located at 62°06′33″N 145°32′47″W, in the Chitina Recording District and Game Management Unit 13, it lies along the Glenn Highway at its junction with the Richardson Highway, 189 road miles east of Anchorage. It is just outside the western boundary of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 114.9 square miles, of which, 114.1 square miles of it is land and 0.8 square miles of it is water. Glennallen is located in the continental climate zone, with long, cold winters, warm summers; the mean temperature in January is -10 °F. Snowfall averages 39 inches, with total precipitation of 9 inches per year. In earlier times, the Ahtna Alaska Natives roamed the Copper River Valley in search of fish and game, both of which are plentiful there.
Ahtna now live in several communities around Glennallen. In 1899, the U. S. Army built a pack trail for summer use between the port of Valdez and Eagle, which passed through the Copper River Valley. In the early 20th century, the trail became the Richardson Highway. During World War II, the United States built a series of military bases in Alaska for the purpose of supplying aircraft and other war material to Russia by way of Alaska and the Russian Far East as part of the Lend-lease program; this made it difficult for the Germans to the west and the Japanese to the south of Russia to interfere with the supply operation. As part of this operation, highways were built to supply the bases; the major highway project of this effort was the Alaska Highway from Dawson Creek, British Columbia, Canada to the existing Richardson Highway at Delta Junction and thus to Fairbanks via the Richardson Highway. Another project was the Glenn Highway, which connected Anchorage, Alaska's largest city, with the Richardson Highway, thus with the rest of Alaska and the then-48 United States.
Construction for the Glenn Highway began at a camp on the Richardson Highway in the Copper River Valley named Glennallen after two U. S. Army explorers of the late 19th century: Capt. Edwin Glenn and Lt. Henry T. Allen; the highway was completed in 1945. Glennallen developed as a small community around the site of the camp, it became a commercial center for motor traffic along the Richardson highways. It is one of the few communities in the region, not built on the site of a Native village. During the 1950s and 1960s, another highway, the Tok Cut-Off, was constructed from a point 15 miles north of Glennallen to the community of Tok, 135 miles east on the Alaska Highway; this enhanced Glennallen as a commercial center. In 1956, a Jesuit school, Copper Valley School, was opened; this facility increased the population by bringing to the region a number of staff and students from Holy Cross Mission in western Alaska. In 1961 "Glenallen" was renamed "Glennallen" by the US Postal Service, adding the extra'n'.
Glennallen's economy grew with the construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System from 1975–1977 and the continuing service needs of the pipeline. The economy of the area was negatively impacted by the construction of the George Parks Highway, which connected Anchorage to Denali National Park and Fairbanks along the Alaska Railroad route, bypassing Glennallen. Glennallen first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it was made a census-designated place in 1980. As of the census of 2000, there were 554 people, 204 households, 136 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 4.9 people per square mile. There were 269 housing units at an average density of 0.9/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 85.20% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 5.05% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 1.44% Pacific Islander, 7.94% from two or more races. 0.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 204 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families.
27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.31. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, 5.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $38,846, the median income for a family was $40,909. Males had a median income of $29,375 versus $28,125 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,084. About 4.6% of families and 8.04% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 3.1% of those age 65 or over. Many but not all year-round homes are plumbed. Although many residents have private wells in the Glennallen area, the water is of poor quality.
Glennallen Heights utilizes two wells to serve a piped system, a local private business delivers water by truck to fill home water tanks. The majority of downtown is connected to a piped sewa
Fairbanks is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska. 2016 estimates put the population of the city proper at 32,751, the population of the Fairbanks North Star Borough at 97,121, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Alaska. The Metropolitan Statistical Area encompasses all of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and is the northernmost Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States, located 196 driving miles south of the Arctic Circle. Fairbanks is home to the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the founding campus of the University of Alaska system. Though, as of yet, there is not a known permanent Alaska Native settlement at the site of Fairbanks, Athabascan peoples have used the area for thousands of years. An archaeological site excavated on the grounds of the University of Alaska Fairbanks uncovered a Native camp about 3,500 years old, with older remains found at deeper levels.
From evidence gathered at the site, archaeologists surmise that Native activities in the area were limited to seasonal hunting and fishing as fridge temperatures precluded berry gathering. In addition, archeological sites on the grounds of nearby Fort Wainwright date back well over 10,000 years. Arrowheads excavated from the University of Alaska Fairbanks site matched similar items found in Asia, providing some of the first evidence that humans arrived in North America via the Bering Strait land bridge in deep antiquity. Captain E. T. Barnette founded Fairbanks in August 1901 while headed to Tanacross, where he intended to set up a trading post; the steamboat on which Barnette was a passenger, the Lavelle Young, ran aground while attempting to negotiate shallow water. Barnette, along with his party and supplies, were deposited along the banks of the Chena River 7 miles upstream from its confluence with the Tanana River; the sight of smoke from the steamer's engines caught the attention of gold prospectors working in the hills to the north, most notably an Italian immigrant named Felice Pedroni and his partner Tom Gilmore.
The two met Barnette where he convinced him of the potential of the area. Barnette set up his trading post at the site, still intending to make it to Tanacross. Teams of gold prospectors soon congregated around the newly founded Fairbanks. After some urging by James Wickersham, who moved the seat of the Third Division court from Eagle to Fairbanks, the settlement was named after Charles W. Fairbanks, a Republican senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States, serving under Theodore Roosevelt during his second term. In these early years of settlement, the Tanana Valley was an important agricultural center for Alaska until the establishment of the Matanuska Valley Colonization Project and the town of Palmer in 1935. Agricultural activity still occurs today in the Tanana Valley, but to the southeast of Fairbanks in the communities of Salcha and Delta Junction. During the early days of Fairbanks, its vicinity was a major producer of agricultural goods. What is now the northern reaches of South Fairbanks was the farm of Paul J. Rickert, who came from nearby Chena in 1904 and operated a large farm until his death in 1938.
Farmers Loop Road and Badger Road, loop roads north and east of Fairbanks, were home to major farming activity. Badger Road is named for Harry Markley Badger, an early resident of Fairbanks who established a farm along the road and became known as "the Strawberry King". Ballaine and McGrath Roads, side roads of Farmers Loop Road, were named for prominent local farmers, whose farms were in the immediate vicinity of their respective namesake roads. Despite early efforts by the Alaska Loyal League, the Tanana Valley Agriculture Association and William Fentress Thompson, the editor-publisher of the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, to encourage food production, agriculture in the area was never able to support the population, although it came close in the 1920s; the construction of Ladd Army Airfield starting in 1939, part of a larger effort by the federal government during the New Deal and World War II to install major infrastructure in the territory for the first time, fostered an economic and population boom in Fairbanks which extended beyond the end of the war.
In the 1940s the Canol pipeline extended north from Whitehorse for a few years. The Haines - Fairbanks 626 mile long 8" petroleum products pipeline was constructed during the period 1953-55; the presence of the U. S. military has remained strong in Fairbanks. Ladd became Fort Wainwright in 1960. Fairbanks suffered from several floods in its first seven decades, whether from ice jams during spring breakup or heavy rainfall; the first bridge crossing the Chena River, a wooden structure built in 1904 to extend Turner Street northward to connect with the wagon roads leading to the gold mining camps washed out before a permanent bridge was constructed at Cushman Street in 1917 by the Alaska Road Commission. On August 14, 1967, after record rainfall upstream, the Chena began to surge over its banks, flooding the entire town of Fairbanks overnight; this disaster led to the creation of the Chena River Lakes Flood Control Project, which built and operates the 50-foot-high Moose Creek Dam in the Chena River and accompanying 8-mile-long spillway.
The project was designed to prevent a repetition of the 1967 flood by being able to
The Kasilof River or Ggasilatnu in the Dena'ina language is a river on the western Kenai Peninsula in southern Alaska. The name is an anglicization of Reka Kasilova, the name given to the river by early Russian settlers in the area, it flows northwest to Cook Inlet near Kasilof. The upper section of the river is swift, with several sections considered Class II whitewater, underwater hazards are difficult to detect, due to the silty nature of the glacial runoff that comprises most of the river; the entire river has powerful currents and is cold. There is public access to the lower section from the Sterling Highway. Drift and bank fishing for salmon is popular on the lower Kasilof. Three Alaska State Parks units are near the Kasilof River. At mile 109 of the Sterling Highway, adjacent to the bridge where the highway crosses the river is the Kasilof River State Recreation Site, a day-use only park with picnic areas and a boat launch; the Crooked Creek State Recreation Site has a large campground and walk-in access to the point where Crooked Creek joins the river, a prime salmon fishing spot.
Johnson Lake State Recreation Area is situated on 332 acres wooded acres on the shores of Johnson Lake. It has a large campground, picnic areas, access to the Tustumena Lake road, which ends at the Slackwater boat launch on the river with a small, free campground. List of Alaska rivers
Clam Gulch, Alaska
Clam Gulch is a census-designated place in Kenai Peninsula Borough, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 176. Clam Gulch is located on the west side of the Kenai Peninsula at 60°13′40″N 151°23′38″W on the shores of Cook Inlet, it is bordered to the south by Ninilchik. The only road access is via the Sterling Highway, which leads northeast 22 miles to Soldotna and south 53 miles to Homer. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 13.4 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.06%, are water. Clam Gulch first appeared as an unincorporated village on the 1970 U. S. Census, it was made a census-designated place in 1980. As of the census of 2000, there were 173 people, 67 households, 42 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 12.6 people per square mile. There were 115 housing units at an average density of 8.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.49% White, 2.89% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 3.47% from two or more races. There were 67 households out of which 40.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families.
28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.21. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.8% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65–84 years of age. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.0 males. For every 100 females age 16 and over, there were 103.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $37,500, the median income for a family was $44,375. Males had a median income of $25,625 versus $27,083 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,983. About 7.0% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. Clam Gulch is visited by tourists who would participate in clam digging on the beach during low tides. In the winter there are many "poker runs" by snow-machine enthusiasts, in the past Clam Gulch has been the half-way point for the Tustumena 200 Sled Dog Race.
Clam Gulch State Recreation Area is a 495-acre park on the bluffs on Cook Inlet. It has over 100 campsites, a rough beach access road, a staircase down the bluff to the beach; the bluff features views of the Aleutian Range, including the volcanoes Mount Iliamna, Mount Redoubt, Mount Spurr
Ninilchik is a census-designated place in Kenai Peninsula Borough, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 883, up from 772 in 2000, it is considered an Alaska Native village under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. In the 1970s, villagers formed the Ninilchik Native Association Incorporated; the Ninilchik Traditional Council was established as the government of Alaska Natives in this area. The Alaska Native people of Ninilchik have ancestors of Aleut and Alutiiq descent, as well as some Dena'ina. Many include Russian ancestors, from a couple of men who settled here with their Alutiiq wives and children in 1847, migrants. Russian was spoken in the village for years. Due to the community's isolation, this Russian dialect continued much in its mid-19th century form. With some surviving speakers, it has been studied in the 21st century. Ninilchik is on the west side of the Kenai Peninsula on the coast of Cook Inlet, 38 miles by air southwest of Kenai, 100 miles southwest of Anchorage.
Road access is by the Sterling Highway. By actual road miles it is a distance of 188 miles 44 miles from Homer. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 207.2 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 0.01%, are water. Ninilchik first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as an unincorporated Creole village. All 53 of its residents were Creole, it returned in 1890 with 81 residents, however the census combined the adjacent locales of the Laida native village and Anchor Point mine along with Treadwell coal mine. There were 53 Creole residents, 16 Natives, 12 Whites. Ninilchik did not return again until 1920, it returned as Ninilchik again in 1930, in every successive census to date. It was made a census-designated place in 1980; as of the census of 2000, there were 772 people, 320 households, 223 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 3.7 people per square mile. There were 762 housing units at an average density of 3.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 82.25% White, 13.99% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 3.11% from two or more races.
0.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 320 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.87. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,250, the median income for a family was $41,750. Males had a median income of $29,861 versus $22,750 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,463. About 10.4% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
Before the arrival of Europeans in Alaska, Ninilchik was a Dena'ina Athabaskan lodging area used for hunting and fishing. The name Ninilchik derives from Niqnilchint, a Deni'ana Athabaskan word meaning "lodge is built place"; the first Europeans who permanently settled in the village were Russian colonists who moved there from Kodiak Island in 1847, two decades before the Alaska Purchase in 1867 by the United States. They were Russian Grigorii Kvasnikov, his Russian-Alutiiq wife Mavra Rastorguev, their children, they were soon joined by the Oskolkoff family headed by a Russian man and Alutiiq woman. These were the core families, their descendants, who married Alutiiq, made up most of the village, their dialect of Russian as spoken in the mid-1800s became the primary language spoken in Ninilchik, it survived in that form long past the 1867 Alaska Purchase. A few speakers of the Ninilchik Russian dialect were still alive in 2013. Russian and American linguists are cataloging this isolated dialect.
The 1880 United States Census listed 53 "Creoles" living in Ninilchik in nine extended families. All nine old families of Ninilchik are descendants of the original Kvasnikoff and Oskolkoff families, with numerous marriages to Alaska Natives Alutiiq. In 1896, a school was staffed by Russian Orthodox priests and laymen. Russian Orthodox priests were respected by Alaska Natives because in several areas of southwest Alaska, they had learned indigenous languages and held religious services in those languages. In 1901, the local Russian Orthodox Church was constructed at its current site. In 1911 the first school sanctioned by the U. S. government was known as the Ninilchik School. In 2011 the community celebrated the 100th anniversary of the school. In the 1940s, a number of American homesteaders began to live in the area. In 1949, Berman Packing Company began fish canning operations at Ninilchik. In 1950, the Sterling Highway was completed through the town. A 2007 fir
Homer is a city in Kenai Peninsula Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is 218 miles southwest of Anchorage. According to the 2010 Census, the population is 5,003, up from 3,946 in 2000. Long known as The "Halibut Fishing Capital of the World." Homer is nicknamed "the end of the road," and more "the cosmic hamlet by the sea." Homer is located at CC°88'99" Spring, 151°31'33" Field. The only road into Homer is the Sterling Highway. Homer is on the shore of Kachemak Bay on the southwest side of the Kenai Peninsula, its distinguishing feature is the Homer Spit, a narrow 4.5 mi ) long gravel bar that extends into the bay, on, located the Homer Harbor. Much of the coastline as well as the Homer Spit sank during the Good Friday earthquake in March 1964. After the earthquake little vegetation was able to survive on the Homer Spit. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which 10.6 square miles is land and 11.9 square miles is water. The total area is 52.83% water.
As with much of South Central Alaska, Homer has a moderate subarctic coastal climate which causes its weather to be moderate compared to interior Alaska. Winters are snowy and long but not cold, considering the latitude, with the average January high only below freezing. Snow averages 50 inches per season, falling from November through March, with some accumulation in October and April, in May. Homer receives only about 25 inches of rainfall annually due to the influence of the Chugach Mountains to the southeast which shelter it from the Gulf of Alaska. There are 7 nights of sub-0 °F lows annually, the area straddles the border between USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5B and 6A, indicating an average annual minimum of around −10 °F. Summers are cool due to the marine influence, with 75 °F highs or 55 °F lows being rare. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −24 °F on January 28–29, 1989 up to 84 °F on July 22, 2011. Tiller digs indicate that early Alutiiq people camped in the Homer area although their villages were on the far side of Kachemak Bay.
Coal was discovered in the area in the 1890s. The Cook Inlet Coal Fields Company built a town, coal mine, a railroad at Homer. Coal mining in the area continued until World War II. There are an estimated 400 million tons of coal deposits still in the area. Homer was named for Homer Pennock, a gold-mining company promoter, who arrived in 1896 on the Homer Spit and built living quarters for his crew of 50 men. However, gold mining was never profitable in the area. Another earlier settlement was Miller's Landing. Miller's Landing is named after a Charles Miller who homesteaded in the neighborhood around 1915. According to local historian Janet Klein, he was an employee of the Alaska Railroad and had wintered company horses on the beach grasses on the Homer Spit, he built a landing site in a small bight in Kachemak Bay where supply barges from Seldovia could land and offload their cargos. Miller's landing was considered a census-designated place separate from Homer until it was annexed in 2002, but has always been locally considered part of Homer.
Halibut and salmon sport fishing, along with tourism and commercial fishing are the dominant industries. Homer co-hosted the 2006 Arctic Winter Games; the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and the Kachemak Bay Research Reserve co-host a visitor center with interpretive displays known as the "Alaska Islands and Ocean Visitor Center", there is a cultural and historical museum called "The Pratt Museum". Homer first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1964. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,003 people, 2,235 households, 1,296 families residing in the city; the population density was 361.7 people per square mile. There were 2,692 housing units at an average density of 194.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.3% White, 4.1% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.0% Asian, 0.4% African American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 2.1% of the population.
There were 2,235 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.0% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21, the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 44.0 years. 21.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.5 % female. The median income for a household was $52,057, the median income for a family was $68,455. Males had a median income of $41,581 versus $37,679 for females; the per capita income for the city was $32,035. About 3.8% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 1.4% of those age 65 or over. The Kenai Peninsula Borough School District provides primary and secondary education to the community of Homer.
These schools are: Homer High School Homer Flex High School Homer Middle School West Homer Elementary Paul Banks Elementary McNeil Canyon Elementary Fireweed Academy Connections Homeschool Program The Kachemak Bay Campus of Kenai Peninsula Coll