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Role of music in World War II

World War II was the first conflict to take place in the age of electronically mass distributed music. Many people in the war and the need to listened to radio and long playing records en masse. By 1940, 96.2% of Northeastern American urban households had radio. The lowest American demographic to embrace mass distributed music, Southern rural families, still had 1 radio for every two households. Similar adoption rates of electronically mass distributed music occurred in Europe. During the Nazi rule, radio ownership in Germany rose from 4 to 16 million households; as the major powers entered the war, millions of citizens had home radio devices that did not exist in the First World War. During the pre-war period, sound was introduced to cinema and musicals were popular. Therefore, World War II was its relationship to warfare. Never before was it possible for not only single songs, but single recordings of songs to be so distributed to the population. Never before had the number of listeners to a single performance been so high.

Never before had states had so much power to determine not only what songs were performed and listened to, but to control the recordings not allowing local people to alter the songs in their own performances. Though local people still sang and produced songs, this form of music faced serious new competition from centralized electronic distributed music. "Lili Marlene" was the most popular song of World War II with both British forces. Based on a German poem, the song was recorded in both German versions; the poem was a hit with troops in the Afrika Korps. Mobile desert combat required a large number of radio units and the British troops in the North African Campaign started to enjoy the song so much that it was translated into English; the song was a propaganda tool. American troops had regular access to radio in all but the most difficult combat situations, not only did soldiers know specific songs, but specific recordings; this gave a nature to American troops music during WWII, not as much songs sung around a fire or while marching, but listened to between combat on Armed Forces Radio.

"Amor" - Andy Russell with Al Sack & His Orchestra "Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate The Positive" - Johnny Mercer "Bésame Mucho" - Andy Russell with Al Sack & His Orchestra "Be Careful, It's My Heart" - Composer: Irving Berlin - From: Movie Holiday Inn "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" - Andrews Sisters" "Comin' In On A Wing And A Prayer" - The Song Spinners "Der Fuehrer's Face" - Spike Jones and his City Slickers "Remember Pearl Harbor" - Sammy Kaye "Don't Fence Me In" - Bing Crosby and The Andrews Sisters "Don't Get Around Much Anymore" - Duke Ellington & His Orchestra "Don't Sit Under The Apple Tree" - Composer: Lew Brown, Sam H. Stept, Charlie Tobias "Ev'ry Time We Say Goodbye" - Composer: Cole Porter - From: musical Seven Lively Arts "G. I. Jive" - Johnny Mercer "I Don't Want To Walk Without You" - Harry James & His Orchestra Composer: Frank Loesser and Jule Styne - From: Movie Sweater Girl, performed by Betty Jane Rhodes "I Wonder" - Louis Armstrong I'll Be Seeing You - The Ink Spots/Bing Crosby Words by Irving Kahal, music by Sammy Fain "I'll Get By" - Ink Spots "I'll Walk Alone" - Martha Tilton "It's Been A Long, Long Time" - Harry James & His Orchestra "Long Ago" - Jo Stafford Composer: Ira Gershwin and Jerome Kern - From: Musical "Cover Girl" "Kiss The Boys Goodbye" - Composer: Frank Loesser and Victor Schertzinger - From: Movie "Kiss The Boys Goodbye" "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition" - Composer: Frank Loesser "Sentimental Journey" - Les Brown & His Orchestra.

In Sounds of War: Music in the United States during World War II, it is made clear that music composed had various purposes, but more it mentions the tension that grew between institutions in order to find the right way to use music for U. S overall interest. Examples can be seen throughout the different types of songs being produced and publicized during this time. Songs like I'll Be Seeing You and Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition were songs that kept the citizens back in the U. S calm and hopeful for the return of their loved ones. On the other hand, these songs had other effects on the soldiers fighting abroad. For them songs like these homesickness. With the war brewing through the 1940s, initiatives to help the soldiers continue fighting arose. With drafting numbers reaching close to 500,000, the Army along with other Defense institutions began to make military bands which would serve the purpose of boosting morale in the home front, while at the same time keeping patriotism and nationalism at an all-time high.

The first patriotic war song of WWII in the U. S. was "God Bless America," written by Irving Berlin for a World War I wartime revue, but was withheld and revised and used in World War II. There were many oth

Huan Xuan

Huan Xuan, courtesy name Jingdao, nickname Lingbao, formally Emperor Wudao of Chu, was a Jin Dynasty warlord who took over the imperial throne from Emperor An of Jin and declared his own state of Chu in 403, but was defeated by an uprising led by the general Liu Yu in 404 and killed. He was the youngest son of Huan Wen. Huan Xuan was born in 369, as the youngest son of Huan Wen the paramount general of Jin, his wife, Sima Xingnan the Princess of Nankang, the daughter of Emperor Ming of Jin; when Huan Wen died in 373, his title should have gone to his heir apparent his oldest son. However, Huan Chong, Huan Wen's brother whom Huan Wen entrusted the command of the army to, believed that Huan Xi was in a plot with another brother of Huan Wen's, Huan Mi, another son of Huan Wen's, Huan Ji, to assassinate him and take power, so detained Huan Xi, Huan Ji, Huan Mi. Instead, he declared that it was Huan Wen's desire that his title be passed to Huan Xuan, so Huan Xuan, at age four, inherited the title of Duke of Nan Commandery, with the dukedom corresponding to modern Jingzhou, Hubei.

As Huan Xuan grew in age, he became ambitious and wanted high posts, but the imperial government was suspicious of him and did not give him governmental posts until 391, when he became an assistant to Emperor Xiaowu's crown prince Sima Dezong. Around this time, he had an encounter with Emperor Xiaowu's younger brother Sima Daozi, the Prince of Kuaiji, that went badly—as at one feast where Sima Daozi invited Huan Xuan as a guest, after Sima Daozi became drunk, he made the statement, "Was it not true that when Huan Wen became old, he planned treason?" Huan Xuan was so struck by the statement that he fell prostrate on the ground, fearing that Sima Daozi would kill him, from this point he bore a grudge against the prince. Huan Xuan became the governor of Yixing Commandery, but felt that the post was not sufficient for his talent, he therefore resigned and returned to his dukedom, he wrote a report to Emperor Xiaowu, accusatory in tone in which he claimed that Emperor Xiaowu had much to owe to Huan Wen, Emperor Xiaowu ignored the report.

During Huan Xuan's year at Nan Commandery, the people of the commandery were far more fearful of him than of the governor of Jing Province, Yin Zhongkan. Yin himself was respectful and fearful of Huan as well. Huan Xuan got his way with both the people and the governor, whatever he wanted. After Emperor Xiaowu's death in 396, Emperor An became emperor, as he was developmentally disabled, Sima Daozi, as his uncle, served as regent. Sima Daozi was incompetent, his trusted associates Wang Guobao and Wang Xu took the opportunity to become wealthy from corruption, they feared the military powers that Yin Zhongkan and Wang Gong the governor of Yan and Qing Provinces possessed and persuaded Sima Daozi to reduce their domains. In response, Wang Gong sent messengers to Yin to discuss a campaign to seek the removal of Wang Guobao and Wang Xu. Huan Xuan, believing that a disturbance would help his cause, encouraged Yin to join Wang Gong's campaign. Wang Gong, believing that Yin would join him started the campaign, intimidated Sima Daozi into executing Wang Guobao and Wang Xu.

In 398, Huan Xuan requested the post of governor of Guang Province, Sima Daozi, afraid that he would start a new disturbance with Yin, was quite willing to give him the post. Huan Xuan accepted the post but did not report to Panyu, the capital of Guang Province; that year, angry that Sima Daozi had seized part of his domain and given it to his associate Wang Yu, Yu Kai the governor of Yu Province persuaded Wang Gong and Yin to start another rebellion aimed at the removals of Wang Yu and another associate of Sima Daozi's, Sima Shangzhi the Prince of Qiao. However, not being a military man himself, Yin gave the commands of the forward armies to Huan Xuan and Yang Quanqi, they advanced toward the capital Jiankang, but Wang Gong's general Liu Laozhi turned against him and executing him. With Wang Gong dead, Sima Daozi next tried to destroy Yin's coalition by ordering him deposed and giving his post to Huan Xuan's cousin Huan Xiu, while giving Jiang Province to Huan Xuan and Yong Province to Yang.

Huan and Yang hesitated—not willing to turn against Yin but wanting to accept the powerful posts. This caused an immediate withdrawal of Yin's troops, as Yin wanted to resecure his Jing Province, soon forced Sima Daozi to return the post to him, but the seeds of dissension between Huan and Yang were sown. Yin, apprehensive of Huan, soon entered into an alliance with Yang. However, he was apprehensive of Yang, therefore stopped Yang's plans to attack Huan together. Around the new year 400, Jing Province was suffering under a major flood, Yin exhausted his food supplies for flood relief. Huan took this opportunity to make a major attack on Yin. Yang came to Yin's aid, but with the troops poorly supplied, Huan defeated both Yin and Yang and killed them, seizing their provinces, becoming in control of two thirds of Jin territory. Huan became more ambitious, had people offer him signs of fortune to try to show that he wa

New realism (philosophy)

New realism was a philosophy expounded in the early 20th century by a group of six US based scholars, namely Edwin Bissell Holt, Walter Taylor Marvin, William Pepperell Montague, Ralph Barton Perry, Walter Boughton Pitkin and Edward Gleason Spaulding. The central feature of the new realism was a rejection of the epistemological dualism of John Locke and of older forms of realism; the group maintained that, when one is conscious of, or knows, an object, it is an error to say that the object in itself and our knowledge of the object are two distinct facts. If we know a particular cow is black, is the blackness on that cow or in the observer's mind? Holt wrote: "That color out there is the thing in consciousness selected for such inclusion by the nervous system's specific response." Consciousness is not physically identical with the nervous system: it is "out there" with the cow, all throughout the field of sight and identical with the set of facts it knows at any moment. The nervous system is a system of selection.

This position, which belongs to a broader category of views sometimes called neutral monism or, following William James, radical empiricism, has not worn well over the subsequent century because of the problem of the nature of abstract ideas such as blackness. It seems natural to locate blackness as an abstract idea in the mind that's useful in dealing with the world; the new realists did not want to acknowledge representationalism at all but embraced something akin to Aristotle's form of realism: blackness is a general quality that many objects have in common, the nervous system selects not just the object but the commonality as a fact. But Arthur Lovejoy showed in his book The Revolt Against Dualism that the perception of black varies so much, depending on context in the visual field, the perceiver's personal history and cultural usage, that it cannot be reduced to commonalities within objects. Better, Lovejoy thought. In the framework of continental hermeneutics, as a reaction against its constructivist or nihilistic outcomes, Maurizio Ferraris has proposed the so-called new realism, a philosophical orientation shared by both analytic philosophers, continental philosophers, such as Mauricio Beuchot, Markus Gabriel.

In South America, Rossano Pecoraro proposes a political philosophy based on the Italian New Realism. For new realism, the assumption that science is not systematically the ultimate measure of truth and reality does not mean that we should abandon the notions of reality, truth, or objectivity, as was posited by much of twentieth century philosophy. Rather, it means that philosophy, as well as jurisprudence, linguistics, or history, has something important and true to say about the world. In this context, new realism presents itself as a negative realism: the resistance that the outside world poses to our conceptual schemes should not be seen as a failure, but as a resource – a proof of the existence of an independent world. If this is the case, this negative realism turns into a positive realism: in resisting us reality does not set a limit we cannot trespass, but it offers opportunities and resources; this explains how, in the natural world, different life-forms can interact in the same environment without sharing any conceptual scheme and how, in the social world, human intentions and behaviors are made possible by a reality, first given, that only at a time may be interpreted and, if necessary, transformed.

Critical realism Holt, Edwin B. The New Realism: Cooperative Studies in Philosophy. New York: The Macmillan Company. A New Look at New Realism: The Psychology and Philosophy of E. B. Holt. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers

Loving More

Loving More is a non-profit organization formed to support and advocate on behalf of polyamorous people. The organization began as Polyfidelitous Educational Products founded in Eugene, Oregon, in the fall of 1984 by Ryam Nearing and her two male partners, they published the subscription-supported newsletter PEPtalk, launched a series of casual get-togethers in their hometown for nonmonogamous people, which expanded to include annual retreats at Harbin Hot Springs. After relocation to Captain Cook, the dissolution of the original triad, conversion to polyamory, PEP was moved to Colorado. With encouragement from Robert Rimmer, author of The Harrad Experiment, others attending the fall East Coast Conference in 1994, Nearing joined with Deborah Anapol of the pro-polyfidelity IntiNet Resource Center to form Loving More magazine and conferences. "Loving More" was trademarked in 1996 by Nearing. Anapol left the organization in 1996 to pursue other interests, including publishing one of the first books on polyamory, Love Without Limits.

Mary Wolf took over as Managing Editor in 2001. Trask incorporated Loving More as a not-for-profit corporation, with the intent to become a non-profit 5013 charitable organization; the organization has been running conferences and retreats since the mid-eighties in order to educate and support people in multi-partnered families and relationships. The three most visible projects of Loving More are Loving More magazine, the Loving More website and two annual Loving More conferences, one on the east coast and the other on the west coast of the United States. Despite long hiatuses in publishing and outreach work, Loving More claims to be the oldest and longest-running polyamory organization, with over 3,000 members. In recent years, Loving More has ceased magazine publication, shifting focus to a push for polyamory awareness by reaching out to therapists, doctors and media to educate the public to possibilities beyond monogamy in loving relationships. Official website Time Magazine Times of India 1

Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada

Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada, 542 U. S. 177, is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that statutes requiring suspects to disclose their names during a police Terry stop did not violate the Fourth Amendment if the statute first required reasonable and articulable suspicion of criminal involvement. Under the rubric of Terry v. Ohio, 392 U. S. 1, the minimal intrusion on a suspect's privacy, the legitimate need of law enforcement officers to dispel suspicion that an individual is engaged in criminal activity, justified requiring a suspect to disclose his or her name. The Court held that the identification requirement did not violate Hiibel's Fifth Amendment rights since he did not articulate a reasonable belief that his name would be used to incriminate him; the Hiibel decision was narrow in that it applied only to states that have stop and identify statutes. Individuals in states without such statutes cannot be lawfully arrested for refusing to identify themselves during a Terry stop.

Nevada has a "stop-and-identify" law that allows police officers to detain any person they encounter "under circumstances which reasonably indicate that the person has committed, is committing or is about to commit a crime". In turn, the law requires the person detained to "identify himself", but does not compel the person to answer any other questions put to him by the officer; the Nevada Supreme Court has interpreted that "identify himself" to mean to state his name. As of April 2008, 23 other states have similar laws. On the evening of May 21, 2000, the sheriff's department in Humboldt County, Nevada received a report that a man had assaulted a woman in a red and silver GMC truck on Grass Valley Road; the responding deputy found a truck parked on the side of the road. A man was smoking a cigarette beside the truck, a young woman was sitting inside it; the deputy observed skid marks in the gravel behind the vehicle, leading him to believe the vehicle had come to a sudden stop. The deputy explained to the man that there had been a report of a fight between the man and the young woman, asked the man if he had any identification on him.

The man protested that he had no reason to provide identification, became ill-tempered when the deputy continued to press him for his identification. The man asked the deputy what crime he was being accused of, as the deputy continued his requests for identification, stating that he was "conducting an investigation"; the man persisted in his refusal to provide identification, asking instead to be handcuffed and taken to jail. The deputy continued to ask for the man's identification, stating that the man would face arrest if he did not cooperate and provide identification. In response, the man declared, he turned around and was arrested by the deputy. That man was Larry Dudley Hiibel, the petitioner in this case, the young woman was his daughter Mimi Hiibel. Larry Hiibel was charged with "willfully resist, delay, or obstruct a public officer in discharging or attempting to discharge any legal duty of his office." In the Justice Court for Union Township, Hiibel was convicted of this charge and fined $250.

He appealed to the Sixth Judicial District Court. He appealed to the Nevada Supreme Court, arguing that the requirement that he identify himself to any police officer upon request violated the Fourth Amendment prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures and his Fifth Amendment rights against self-incrimination; the Nevada Supreme Court rejected these arguments, Hiibel asked the U. S. Supreme Court to hear the case. Stop-and-identify laws have their roots in early English vagrancy laws under which suspected vagrants were subject to arrest unless they gave a "good account" of themselves. Modern stop-and-identify laws combine aspects of the old vagrancy laws with a guide for police officers conducting investigatory stops, such as those authorized under Terry v. Ohio, 392 U. S. 1. However, the Court has identified a constitutional difficulty with many modern vagrancy laws. In Papachristou v. Jacksonville, 405 U. S. 156, the Court held that a traditional vagrancy law was void for vagueness because its "broad scope and imprecise terms denied proper notice to potential offenders and permitted police officers to exercise unfettered discretion in the enforcement of the law."

In Brown v. Texas, 443 U. S. 47, the Court struck down Texas's stop-and-identify law as violating the Fourth Amendment because it allowed police officers to stop individuals without "specific, objective facts establishing reasonable suspicion to believe the suspect was involved in criminal activity." And in Kolender v. Lawson, 461 U. S. 352, the Court struck down a California stop-and-identify law that required a suspect to provide "credible and reliable identification" upon request. The words "credible and reliable" were vague because they "provided no standard for determining what a suspect must do to comply with, resulting in unrestrained power to arrest and charge persons with a violation." "The present case begins. Here there is no question that the initial stop was based on reasonable suspicion, satisfying the