Kea, known as Gia or Tzia, and, in antiquity, Keos, is a Greek island in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea. Kea is part of the Kea-Kythnos regional unit and it is the island of the Cyclades complex that is closest to Attica and is 20 km from Cape Sounio as well as 60 km SE of Athens. Its climate is arid, and its terrain is hilly, Kea is 19 km long from north to south and 9 km wide from west to east. The area is 128.9 km2 with the highest point being 560 m above sea level, the municipality, which includes the island Makronisos, has an area of 148.926 km2. Its capital, Ioulis, is inland at an altitude and is considered quite picturesque. Other major villages of Kea are the port of Korissia and the village of Vourkari. After suffering depopulation for many decades, Kea has been rediscovered by Athenians as a convenient destination for weekend. The population in 2011 was 2,455, in the Archaic period, the island was divided between four city-states, Karthaia and Koressos. During the classical period, Kea was the home of Simonides and of his nephew Bacchylides, coins retrieved from the island from the 3rd century BC feature dogs or stars with emanating rays, highlighting Sirius importance.
During the Byzantine period, many churches were built and the prosperity of the island rose and it was Byzantine until, in 1204, it was captured by the Venetians in the wake of the Fourth Crusade. The Archbishop of Athens, Michael Choniates, came here in exile after his city fell to the Crusaders in 1205 and it was recaptured by the Byzantines under Licario in 1278. In around 1302 during the Byzantine–Venetian War, it fell to the Venetians. Kea was taken from the Venetians by the Ottoman Turks in 1537, along with the rest of the Cyclades, Kea joined Greece following the Greek War of Independence in 1821. HMHS Britannic, the largest ship sunk in World War I, which was the ship to the RMS Titanic. It is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see, the island is famous for scuba diving, with excellent visibility, rich marine life, and wall and wreck diving. The water temperature ranges from 20°-26°C, the highlight for recreational divers is the wreck of the unique paddle/wheeler steamship Patris which sank in 1868.
She was a passenger steamer 66 m long, in service in the Aegean Sea, owned by the Hellenic Steamship Co. based on Syros island and she hit the reef off Koundouros Bay at Makriopounda, Kea island on 24 February 1868 with about 120 passengers aboard. No casualties were reported owing to the proximity of land, the world-famous wreck of the HMHS Britannic, sister ship of the Titanic, located 1.5 nautical mile offshore, is at a depth of about 120 m
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Although the list, in its current form, did not stabilise until the Renaissance, the first such lists of seven wonders date from the 1st-2nd century BC. The original list inspired innumerable versions through the ages, often listing seven entries, of the original Seven Wonders, only one—the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest of the ancient wonders—remains relatively intact. The Colossus of Rhodes, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis, the location and ultimate fate of the Hanging Gardens are unknown, and there is speculation that they may not have existed at all. The Greek conquest of much of the western world in the 4th century BC gave Hellenistic travellers access to the civilizations of the Egyptians, Persians. Impressed and captivated by the landmarks and marvels of the various lands, instead of wonders, the ancient Greeks spoke of theamata, which means sights, in other words things to be seen. Later, the word for wonder was used, the list was meant to be the Ancient Worlds counterpart of a travel guidebook.
The first reference to a list of seven such monuments was given by Diodorus Siculus, — Greek Anthology IX.58 Another 2nd century BC observer, who claimed to be the mathematician Philo of Byzantium, wrote a short account entitled The Seven Sights of the World. However, the surviving manuscript only covered six of the supposedly seven places. Earlier and lists by the historian Herodotus and the architect Callimachus of Cyrene, housed at the Museum of Alexandria, survived only as references. The Colossus of Rhodes was the last of the seven to be completed, after 280 BC, all seven existed at the same time for a period of less than 60 years. The list covered only the sculptural and architectural monuments of the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions, extant sites beyond this realm were not considered as part of contemporary accounts. The primary accounts, coming from Hellenistic writers, influenced the places included in the wonders list. Five of the seven entries are a celebration of Greek accomplishments in the arts, the seven wonders on Antipaters list won praises for their notable features, ranging from superlatives of the highest or largest of their types, to the artistry with which they were executed.
Their architectural and artistic features were imitated throughout the Hellenistic world, the Greek influence in Roman culture, and the revival of Greco-Roman artistic styles during the Renaissance caught the imagination of European artists and travellers. Paintings and sculptures alluding to Antipaters list were made, while adventurers flocked to the sites to personally witness the wonders. Legends circulated to further complement the superlatives of the wonders, of Antipaters wonders, the only one that has survived to the present day is the Great Pyramid of Giza. Its brilliant white stone facing had survived intact until around 1300 AD, the existence of the Hanging Gardens has not been proven, although theories abound. Records and archaeology confirm the existence of the other five wonders, the Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by fire, while the Lighthouse of Alexandria and tomb of Mausolus were destroyed by earthquakes
Theocritus, the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of Theocritus beyond what can be inferred from his writings and we must, handle these with some caution, since some of the poems commonly attributed to him have little claim to authenticity. Theocritus was from Sicily, as he refers to Polyphemus, the cyclops in the Odyssey and he probably lived in Alexandria for a while, where he wrote about everyday life, notably Pharmakeutria. It is speculated that Theocritus was born in Syracuse, lived on the island of Kos and he says, Bucolic muses, once were ye scattered, but now one byre, one herd is yours. The second epigram is anonymous, and runs as follows, The Chian is another, I, who wrote these songs, am of Syracuse, a man of the people, the son of Praxagoras and famed Philina. I never sought after a strange muse, the last line may mean that he wrote nothing but bucolic poems, or that he only wrote in Doric. The assertion that he was from Syracuse appears to be upheld by allusions in the Idylls, the information concerning his parentage bears the stamp of genuineness, and disposes of a rival theory based upon a misinterpretation of Idyll 7—which made him the son of one Simichus.
Some persons attribute to him the following, Daughters of Proetus, Hymns, Dirges, Elegies, the first of these may have been known to Virgil, who refers to the Proetides at Eclogue 6.48. The spurious poem 21 may have one of the Hopes, and poem 26 may have been one of the Heroines, elegiacs are found in 8. 33—60. The other classes are all represented in the collection which has come down to us. The distinction between these is that the scenes of the former are laid in the country and those of the latter in a town, the most famous of the Bucolics are 1,6,7 and 11. In Idyll 1 Thyrsis sings to a goatherd about how Daphnis, in the poem, a series of divine figures from classical mythology, including Hermes and Aphrodite herself, interrogate the shepherd about his lovesickness. Finally, the goddess of love, appears to taunt Daphnis for his hubris, “‘Thou indeed, didst boast that thou wouldst bend Love. Hast not thou, in thine own person, been bent by grievous love. ”The failure of these figures to comfort Daphnis in his dying moments thematizes classical beliefs about the folly of mortals who challenge the gods.
In Idyll 11 Polyphemus is depicted as in love with the sea-nymph Galatea, in Idyll 6, he is cured of his passion and naively relates how he repulses the overtures now made to him by Galatea. The monster of Homers Odyssey has been written up to date after the Alexandrian manner and has become a gentle simpleton, Idyll 7, the Harvest Feast, is the most important of the bucolic poems. The scene is laid in the isle of Kos, the poet speaks in the first person and is called Simichidas by his friends. Other poets are introduced under feigned names, Theocritus speaks of himself as having already gained fame, and says that his songs have been brought by report even unto the throne of Zeus
Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greco-Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the city of Antakya, Turkey. Antioch was founded near the end of the 4th century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, the citys geographical and economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, and the Persian Royal Road. It eventually rivaled Alexandria as the city of the Near East. It was the center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Most of the development of Antioch was done during the Roman Empire. Antioch was called the cradle of Christianity as a result of its longevity, the Christian New Testament asserts that the name Christian first emerged in Antioch. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, a single route proceeds south in the Orontes valley. The settlement of Meroe pre-dated Antioch, a shrine of the Semitic goddess Anat, called by Herodotus the Persian Artemis, was located here. This site was included in the suburbs of Antioch.
There was a village on the spur of Mount Silpius named Io and this name was always adduced as evidence by Antiochenes anxious to affiliate themselves to the Attic Ionians—an eagerness which is illustrated by the Athenian types used on the citys coins. Io may have been an early colony of trading Greeks. John Malalas mentions a village, Bottia, in the plain by the river. Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great is said to have camped on the site of Antioch and this account is found only in the writings of Libanius, a 4th-century orator from Antioch, and may be legend intended to enhance Antiochs status. But the story is not unlikely in itself, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, his generals divided up the territory he had conquered. Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, and he proceeded to found four sister cities in northwestern Syria, one of which was Antioch and he is reputed to have built sixteen Antiochs. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means, an eagle, the bird of Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the site to which the eagle carried the offering.
Seleucus did this on the 22nd day of the month of Artemisios in the year of his reign
Regions of ancient Greece
The regions of ancient Greece were areas identified by the ancient Greeks as geographical sub-divisions of the Hellenic world. These regions are described in the works of ancient historians and geographers, there is no clear theme to the structure of these regions. Some, particularly in the Peloponnese, can be seen primarily as distinct units, defined by physical boundaries such as mountain ranges. These regions retained their identity, even when the identity of the living there changed during the Greek Dark Ages. Nevertheless, these regions survived the upheaval of the Greek Dark Ages, outside the Peloponnese and central Greece, geographical divisions and identities did change over time suggesting a closer connection with tribal identity. Over time however, all the regions acquired geo-political meanings and these traditional sub-divisions of Greece form the basis for the modern system of regional units of Greece. However, there are important differences, with many of the ancient regions not represented in the current system.
To fully understand the ancient history of Greece therefore requires more detailed description of the ancient regions, continental Greece was a geographic region of Greece. In English the area is usually called Central Greece, but the equivalent Greek term is rarely used. Today it forms the part of the regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. The capital and principal city in ancient times was Stratos, the north side of Acarnania of the Corinthian Gulf was considered part of the region of Epirus. Acarnanias foundation in Greek mythology was traditionally ascribed to Acarnan, son of Alcmaeon, Aeniania or Ainis was a small district to the south of Thessaly. The lowland border in the Spercheios valley with Malis ran approximately north-south along from Oeta to the spur of Othrys. During the Archaic and Classical periods, the Aenianians were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, the country has a level and fruitful coastal region, but an unproductive and mountainous interior. The mountains contained many wild beasts, and acquired fame in Greek mythology as the scene of the hunt for the Calydonian Boar, Ancient Aperantia was a small region of Aetolia, south of Dolopia.
The name of Attica was said to be derived from Atthis, daughter of Cranaus, Attica is bounded on the east by the Aegean sea, on the west by Megaris and the Saronic gulf and on the north by Boeotia. It is separated from Boeotia by a range of mountains, in the Archaic and Classical periods, the Atticans were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and shared the two Ionian votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Euboeans. The region of Boeotia, along many of the cities that existed there in the Classical period, is described in the catalogue of ships
Syrias capital and largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Sunnis, Alawites, Mandeans, Salafis, Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, in the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a number of military coups. In 1958, Syria entered a union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, in the past, others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon.
However, the discovery of the inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. The area designated by the word has changed over time, since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic, archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps preceded by only those of Mesopotamia. The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla near present-day Idlib, gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Eblas contact with Egypt. One of the earliest written texts from Syria is an agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c.2300 BC.
The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages, Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia, Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet. The Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC, Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon. Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh, the Hurrians states, the army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam
Bacchylides was a Greek lyric poet. Later Greeks included him in the canonical list of nine lyric poets which included his uncle Simonides, the elegance and polished style of his lyrics have been noted in Bacchylidean scholarship since at least Longinus. Some scholars, have characterized these qualities as superficial charm and he has often been compared unfavourably with his contemporary, Pindar, as a kind of Boccherini to Pindars Haydn. Marvel for missing the grandeur of Milton, Bacchylides lyrics do not seem to have been popular in his own lifetime. It has been inferred from the elegance and quiet charm of his lyrics that he gradually acquired fame towards the end of his life. Being drawn from sources compiled long after his death, the details of Bacchylidess life are sketchy, according to Strabo, he was born in Ioulis, on the island of Ceos, and his mother was the sister of Simonides. According to Suda, his fathers name was Meidon and his grandfather, named Bacchylides, was a famous athlete, most modern scholars however treat Bacchylides as an exact contemporary of Pindar, placing his birth around 518 BC.
Being only thirteen miles from the Athenian cape Sunium, Ceos was in fact necessarily responsive to Athenian influences. Simonides introduced his nephew to ruling families in Thessaly and to the Sicilian tyrant, Hieron of Syracuse, whose glittering court attracted artists of the calibre of Pindar and Aeschylus. Bacchylides was commissioned by Hieron in 470 BC, this time to celebrate his triumph in the race at the Pythian Games. Pindar composed an ode for this victory, including however stern. Alexandrian scholars in fact interpreted a number of passages in Pindar as hostile allusions to Bacchylides and Simonides, as a composer of choral lyrics, Bacchylides was probably responsible for the performance, involving him in frequent travel to venues where musicians and choirs awaited instruction. Ancient authorities testify to his visit to the court of Hieron and this is indeed indicated by his fifth Ode, verses 15 and 16 of his third ode, for Hieron, indicate that he might have composed that work at Syracuse.
All that remained of Bacchylidess poetry by 1896, were sixty-nine fragments and these few remains of his writings were collected by Brunck, Bland and Neue. The oldest sources on Bacchylides and his work are scholia on Homer, Pindar, Aristophanes,11 Strabo – notice 57 Plutarch – frag. 26 Etymologicum Magnum – frag. s 25,30 Palatine Anthology – frag. s 33,34 and it was snapped up for a preposterous price by the great Egyptologist Wallis Budge, of the British Museum. Budges plan to return to the museum with the papyrus was unacceptable to the British Consul, in an elaborate plan involving a crate of oranges, switched trains and covert embarcations, he eventually sailed from the Suez with the papyrus dismembered and disguised as a packet of photographs. He presented his find in 1896 to Frederic Kenyon in the British Museums Department of Manuscripts, Kenyon reassembled 1382 lines, of which 1070 were perfect or easily restored and, the following year, he published an edition of twenty poems, six of them nearly complete
Anacreon was a Greek lyric poet, notable for his drinking songs and hymns. Later Greeks included him in the canonical list of nine lyric poets, Anacreon wrote all of his poetry in the ancient Ionic dialect. Like all early lyric poetry, it was composed to be sung or recited to the accompaniment of music, Anacreons poetry touched on universal themes of love, disappointment, parties and the observations of everyday people and life. Anacreon was born at Teos, an Ionian city on the coast of Asia Minor, the name and identity of his father is a matter of dispute, with different authorities naming four possibilities, Eumelus, Parthenius, or Aristocritus. It is likely that Anacreon fled into exile with most of his fellow-townsmen who sailed to Thrace when their homeland was attacked by the Persians, there they founded a colony at Abdera, rather than remaining behind to surrender their city to Harpagus, one of Cyrus the Greats generals. Cyrus was, at the time, besieging the Greek cities of Asia Minor, Anacreon seems to have taken part in the fighting, in which, by his own admission, he did not distinguish himself.
From Thrace he travelled to the court of Polycrates of Samos, in return for his favour and protection, Anacreon wrote many complimentary odes about his patron. Like his fellow-lyric poet, who was one of his great admirers, John Addison, writing in 1735, relates a story told by Stobaeus about Anacreon. Having received a treasure of five gold talents from Polycrates, Anacreon couldnt sleep for two nights in a row and he returned it to his patron, However considerable the sum might be, its not an equal price for the trouble of keeping it. In Athens he became acquainted with the poet Simonides, and other members of the brilliant circle which had gathered around Hipparchus, according to others, before returning to Teos, he accompanied Simonides to the court of Echecrates, a Thessalian dynast of the house of the Aleuadae. Lucian mentions Anacreon amongst his instances of the longevity of eminent men, for a long time, Anacreon was popular in Athens, where his statue was to be seen on the Acropolis, together with that of his friend Xanthippus, the father of Pericles.
On several coins from Teos he is represented holding a lyre in his hand, sometimes sitting, a marble statue found in 1835 in the Sabine district, and now in the Galleria Borghese, is said to represent Anacreon. Anacreon wrote all of his poetry in the ancient Ionic dialect, like all early lyric poetry, it was composed to be sung or recited to the accompaniment of music, usually the lyre. Anacreons verses were primarily in the form of monody rather than for a chorus, in keeping with Greek poetic tradition, his poetry relied on meter for its construction. Metrical poetry is a rhythmic form, deriving its structure from patterns of phonetic features within. The phonetic patterning in Anacreons poetry, like all the Greek poetry of the day, is found in the alternation of long. The Ionic dialect had an aspect to it that lends a natural melodic quality to the recitation. The Greek language is well suited to this metrical style of poetry
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
Ancient Greek comedy
Ancient Greek comedy was one of the final three principal dramatic forms in the theatre of classical Greece. Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy, New Comedy is known primarily from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander. The philosopher Aristotle wrote in his Poetics that comedy is a representation of laughable people, C. A. Trypanis wrote that comedy is the last of the great species of poetry Greece gave to the world. These divisions appear to be arbitrary, and ancient comedy almost certainly developed constantly over the years. The most important Old Comic dramatist is Aristophanes, born in 446 B. C. his works, with their pungent political satire and abundance of sexual and scatological innuendo, effectively define the genre today. He was one of a number of comic poets working in Athens in the late 5th century, his most important contemporary rivals being Hermippus. The Old Comedy subsequently influenced European writers such as Rabelais, Swift, in particular, they copied the technique of disguising a political attack as buffoonery.
For ancient scholars, the term may have meant little more than than Aristophanes and his contemporaries, for at least a time, mythological burlesque was popular among the Middle Comic poets. Stock characters of all sorts emerge, parasites, philosophers, boastful soldiers, because no complete Middle Comic plays have been preserved, it is impossible to offer any real assessment of their literary value or genius. But many Middle Comic plays appear to have revived in Sicily and Magna Graecia in this period, suggesting that they had considerable widespread literary. New Comedy followed the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and lasted throughout the reign of the Macedonian rulers and it is comparable to situation comedy and comedy of manners. The three best-known playwrights belonging to this genre are Menander and Diphilus, Menander was the most successful of these three comedians. His comedies not only provided their audience with a respite from reality. This led an ancient critic to ask if life influenced Menander in the writing of his plays or if the case was vice versa and this seems to be what made him more successful than the other Greek comedians who wrote in the same genre.
These plays were much less satirical than preceding comedies, the other two comedians are Philemon and Diphilus. Philemon was a comedian whose comedies dwelt on philosophical issues and Diphilus was a comedian whose comedies were noted for their broad comedy, philemons comedies survive only in fragments, but Diphilus comedies were translated and adapted by Plautus. Examples of these comedies are Plautus Asinaria and Rudens, based on the translation and adaptation of Diphilus comedies by Plautus, one can conclude that he was skilled in the construction of his plots. Substantial fragments of New Comedy have survived, but no complete plays, the most substantially preserved text is the Dyskolos by Menander, discovered on a papyrus, and first published in 1958
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty and he was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of historys most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16, after Philips assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia, in 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of battles, most notably the battles of Issus. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety, at that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.
He sought to reach the ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea and invaded India in 326 BC and he eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexanders surviving generals, Alexanders legacy includes the cultural diffusion which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt, Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and he is often ranked among the most influential people in human history.
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his wife, Olympias. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his wife for some time. Several legends surround Alexanders birth and childhood, sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wifes womb with a seal engraved with a lions image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of dreams, that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb. On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and it was said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception