Pelobates fuscus is a species of toad in the family Pelobatidae, native to an area extending from Central Europe to Western Asia. It is known as the common spadefoot, garlic toad, the common spadefoot toad and the European common spadefoot; the common spadefoot grows to a length of 6.5 centimetres for males and 8 centimetres for females. The skin colouration varies depending upon habitat and region, but is light-grey to beige-brown on the dorsal surface; the skin is mottled by darker marks. The belly is white, sometimes with grey mottling. Albino specimens have been observed. Two subspecies are traditionally recognised: Pelobates fuscus fuscus and Pelobates fuscus insubricus. In reality there is no physical or behavioural character allowing to distinguish these supposed subspecies. A recent study showed that there is no haplotype segregation for the populations of Northern Italy, therefore, are not to be ascribed to a different subspecies. Haplotypes from some Northern Italian valleys are characteristic and support a different conception in terms of conservation: not for a different taxonomic position but, for a peculiar differentiation.
Populations from eastern Europe appear sufficiently different that they may warrant a separate species status. When alarmed, it emits a loud call and it can exude a noxious secretion which smells like garlic, hence the common name "garlic toad". Pelobates fuscus are seen in the Posavina region; the first findings of tadpoles and the reproductive site of the common spadefoot toad in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In Croatia, this species is found along the Mura and Sava rivers
Adductor longus muscle
In the human body, the adductor longus is a skeletal muscle located in the thigh. One of the adductor muscles of the hip, its main function is to adduct the thigh and it is innervated by the obturator nerve, it forms the medial wall of the femoral triangle. The adductor longus arises from the superior ramus of the pubis, it lies ventrally on the adductor magnus, near the femur, the adductor brevis is interposed between these two muscles. Distally, the fibers of the adductor longus extend into the adductor canal, it is inserted into the middle third of the medial lip of the linea aspera. The adductor longus is in relation by its anterior surface with the pubic portion of the fascia lata, near its insertion with the femoral artery and vein. By its posterior surface with the adductor brevis and magnus, the anterior branches of the obturator artery and nerves, near its insertion with the profunda artery and vein. By its outer border with the pectineus, by the inner border with the gracilis, its main actions is to laterally rotate the thigh.
As part of the medial compartment of the thigh, the adductor longus is innervated by the anterior division of the obturator nerve. The obturator nerve exits via the anterior rami of the spinal cord from L2, L3, L4. Adductor longus is derived from the myotome of spinal roots L2, L3, L4. Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna PTCentral
The Megophryidae are a large family of frogs native to the warm southeast of Asia, from the Himalayan foothills eastwards, south to Indonesia and the Greater Sunda Islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, extending to the Philippines. As of 2014 it encompasses 180 species of frogs divided between 9 genera. For lack of a better vernacular name, they are called megophryids; the megophryids are notable for their camouflage those that live in forests, which look like dead leaves. The camouflage is accurate to the point of some having skin folds that look like leaf veins, at least one species, the long-nosed horned frog has sharp projections extending past the eye and nose, which disguise the frog shape. Megophryids range in size from 2 to 12.5 cm in length. The adults' tongues are noticeably paddle-shaped, their tadpoles can be found in a variety of waters, but ponds and streams. The tadpoles are diverse in form because of the variety of habitats they inhabit. Family Megophryidae includes the following nine genera: Borneophrys Delorme, Grosjean & Ohler, 2006 Brachytarsophrys Tian and Hu, 1983 Leptobrachella Smith, 1925 Leptobrachium Tschudi, 1838 Leptolalax Dubois, 1980 Megophrys Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822 Ophryophryne Boulenger, 1903 Oreolalax Myers and Leviton, 1962 Scutiger Theobald, 1868 Of these, Borneophrys is monotypic.
Genera no longer recognized include Vibrissaphora. Furthermore, genus Xenophrys Günther, 1864 has been merged to Megophrys to resolve the paraphyly of Xenophrys, awaiting a better solution; this makes Megophrys the most speciose genus within Megophryidae. However, other sources continue to recognize Xenophrys; the following phylogeny of Megophryidae is from Wiens. The Bornean genera Leptobrachella and Borneophrys have not been included. Megophryidae is a sister taxon to Pelobatidae. Borneophrys and Leptobrachella are endemic to Borneo. Megophrys is spread throughout Sundaland. Ophryophryne is endemic to Mainland Southeast Asia. Brachytarsophrys is in Mainland Southeast Asia. Leptobrachium and Leptolalax have widespread Sundaland distributions, including both Mainland Southeast Asia and Island Southeast Asia. Oreolalax and Scutiger are located in the Eastern Himalayas in Sichuan province, China. Oreolalax, Scutiger and Ophryophryne can be found in higher-altitude montane habitats. Geographical distributions for small-range Himalayan montane species are listed below.
China Anhui Megophrys huangshanensis: Huangshan mountains, Anhui Guangdong Megophrys acuta: Heishiding, Fengkai County, Guangdong Megophrys obesa: Heishiding, Fengkai County, Guangdong Leptolalax laui: Shenzhen and Hong Kong Guangxi Leptolalax maoershanensis: Maoershan Nature Reserve, Guangxi Leptobrachium guangxiense: Pinglong'ao, Shangsi County, China.
The marsupial frogs are a disputed family in the order Anura. When treated as a separate family, it consists of two genera and Flectonotus; the frogs are native to Neotropical America. Under the dominant view, they are treated as part of the family of Hemiphractidae
In human anatomy, the neurocranium known as the braincase, brainpan, or brain-pan is the upper and back part of the skull, which forms a protective case around the brain. In the human skull, the neurocranium includes the skullcap; the remainder of the skull is the facial skeleton. In comparative anatomy, neurocranium is sometimes used synonymously with endocranium or chondrocranium; the neurocranium is divided into two portions: the membranous part, consisting of flat bones, which surround the brain. In humans, the neurocranium is considered to include the following eight bones: 1 ethmoid bone 1 frontal bone 1 occipital bone 2 parietal bones 1 sphenoid bone 2 temporal bonesThe ossicles are not included as bones of the neurocranium. There may variably be extra sutural bones present. Below the neurocranium is a complex of openings and bones, including the foramen magnum which houses the neural spine; the auditory bullae, located in the same region, aid in hearing. The size of the neurocranium is variable among mammals.
The roof may contain ridges such as the temporal crests. The neurocranium arises from paraxial mesoderm. There is some contribution of ectomesenchyme. In Chondrichthyes and other cartilaginous vertebrates this portion of the cranium does not ossify; the neurocranium is formed by the endocranium, the lower portions of the cranial vault, the skull roof. These are not fused in fishes, a proper neurocranium is only found in land vertebrates. Evolutionarily, the human neurocranium has expanded from comprising the back part of the mammalian skull to being the upper part: during the evolutionary expansion of the brain, the neurocranium has overgrown the splanchnocranium; the upper-frontmost part of the cranium houses the evolutionarily newest part of the human brain, the frontal lobes. Cranial cavity
The Bombinatoridae are referred to as fire-bellied toads because of their brightly colored ventral sides, which show they are toxic. This family includes two genera and Bombina, both of which have flattened bodies. Bombina species are warty, aquatic toads about 7 cm in length, most noted for their bright bellies, they display the unken reflex when disturbed. This acts as a warning to predators; the vocal behavior of some Bombina species are unusual in that the call is produced during inhalation rather than exhalation as in other frogs. They lay pigmented eggs in ponds. Barbourula species occur in the Philippine Islands and Borneo, while Bombina species are found throughout Eurasia, they are less colored than Bombina, possess webbed fingers in addition to webbed toes. Characteristics of tadpoles of Barbourula are unknown. Barbourula was considered to be situated intermediate between Discoglossus and Bombina, but closer to the latter, so was added to the Bombinatoridae when that family was split from the Discoglossidae.
Fossil Bombina specimens are known from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene. The earliest fossil specimens are Eobarbourula from the Eocene of India, Hatzegobatrachus from Late Cretaceous of Hateg island, Romania Family Bombinatoridae Genus Barbourula - Jungle Toads Barbourula busuangensis - Philippine flat-headed frog or Busuanga jungle toad Barbourula kalimantanensis - Bornean flat-headed frog or Kalimantan jungle toad Genus Bombina - Firebelly Toads Bombina bombina – fire-bellied toad Bombina maxima – Yunnan firebelly toad or large-webbed bell toad Bombina microdeladigitora – Hubei firebelly toad or small-webbed bell toad Bombina fortinuptialis – large-spined bell toad or Guangxi firebelly toad, now considered a synonym of B. microdeladigitora Bombina lichuanensis – Lichuan bell toad, now considered a synonym of B. microdeladigitora Bombina orientalis – Oriental fire-bellied toad Bombina pachypus – Apennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata – yellow-bellied toad San Mauro, Diego. "Phylogenetic relationships of discoglossid frogs based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear genes".
Gene. 343: 357–66. Doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.10.001. PMID 15588590. San Mauro, Diego. "Initial diversification of living amphibians predated the breakup of Pangaea". American Naturalist. 165: 590–9. Doi:10.1086/429523. PMID 15795855
John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray, FRS was a British zoologist. He was the elder brother of zoologist George Robert Gray and son of the pharmacologist and botanist Samuel Frederick Gray; the standard author abbreviation J. E. Gray is used to indicate this person as the author. Or zoological name. Gray was Keeper of Zoology at the British Museum in London from 1840 until Christmas 1874, before the Natural History holdings were split off to the Natural History Museum, he published several catalogues of the museum collections that included comprehensive discussions of animal groups as well as descriptions of new species. He improved the zoological collections to make them amongst the best in the world. Gray was born in Walsall, he assisted his father in writing The Natural Arrangement of British Plants. After being blackballed by the Linnean Society of London, Gray shifted his interest from botany to zoology, he began his zoological career by volunteering to collect insects for the British Museum at age 15. He joined the Zoological Department in 1824 to help John George Children catalog the reptile collection.
In some of his early articles, Gray adopted William Sharp Macleay's quinarian system for classifications of molluscs, echinoderms and mammals. In 1840 he took over Children's position as Keeper of Zoology, which he held for 35 years, publishing well over 1,000 papers, he named many cetacean species, genera and families. During this period he collaborated with Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins, the noted natural history artist, in producing Gleanings from the Menagerie at Knowsley; the menagerie at Knowsley Hall, near Liverpool, founded by Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, at the Stanley ancestral seat, was one of the largest private menageries in Victorian England. Gray married Maria Emma Smith in 1826, she helped him with his scientific work with her drawings. In 1833, Gray was a founder of. Gray was a friend of the coleopterist Hamlet Clark, in 1856-57 they voyaged on Gray's yacht Miranda to Spain and Brazil. Gray was an accomplished watercolourist, his landscape paintings illustrate Clark's account of their journeys.
Gray was interested in postage stamps. On 1 May 1840, the day the Penny Black first went on sale, he purchased several with the intent to save them. During his fifty years employed at the British Museum Gray wrote nearly 500 papers, including many descriptions of species new to science; these had been presented to the Museum by collectors from around the world, included all branches of zoology, although Gray left the descriptions of new birds to his younger brother and colleague George. Gray was active in malacology, the study of molluscs. John Edward Gray was buried at Lewisham. Gray was one of the most prolific taxonomists in the history of zoology, he described more than 300 species and subspecies of reptiles, only surpassed by his successors at the British Museum, George A. Boulenger and Albert Günther and American zoologist Edward D. Cope. Gray described and named numerous marine snails including: The genus Lithopoma Gray, 1850 The genus Euthria Gray, 1850Genera named in his honour include: The snake genus Grayia Günther, 1858Species and subspecies named in his honour include: Ardeola grayii – Indian pond heron Mesoplodon grayi von Haast, 1876 – Gray's beaked whale Crocidura grayi Dobson, 1890 – Luzon shrew Ablepharus grayanus Delma grayii A. Smith, 1849 Microlophus grayii Naultinus grayii Bell, 1843 Salvelinus grayi Günther, 1862 Tropidophorus grayi Günther, 1861 Trachemys venusta grayi 1821: "A natural arrangement of Mollusca, according to their internal structure."
London Medical Repository 15: 229–239. 1821: "On the natural arrangement of Vertebrose Animals." London Medical Repository 15: 296–310. 1824: "A revision of the family Equidae." Zool. J. Lond. 1: 241-248 pl. 9. 1824: "On the natural arrangement of the pulmonobranchous Mollusca." Annals of Philosophy, 8: 107–109. 1824: "On the arrangement of the Papilionidae." Annals of Philosophy 8: 119-120. 1825: "A list and description of some species of shells not taken notice of by Lamarck." Annals of Philosophy 9: 407-415. 1825: "A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and Amphibia, with a description of some new species." Annals of Philosophy 10: 193-217. 1825: "An outline of an attempt at the disposition of the Mammalia into tribes and families with a list of the genera appertaining to each tribe." Annals of Philosophy 10: 337-344. 1825: "An attempt to divide the Echinida, or sea eggs, into natural families." Annals of Philosophy 10: 423-431. 1826: "Vertebrata. Mammalia.". P. 412-415 in King, P. P. Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia.
Performed between the years 1818 and 1822. With an Appendix, containing various subjects relating to hydrography and natural history. London: J. Murray Vol. 2. 1827: "Synopsis of the species of the class Mammalia." P. 1-391 in Baron Cuvier The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with additional descriptions by Edward Griffith and others.. London: George B. Whittaker Vol. 5. 1828: "Spicilegia Zoologica, or original figures and short systematic descriptions of new and unfigured animals." Pt 1. London: Treuttel, Würtz & Co. 1829: "An attempt to improve the natural arrangement of the genera of bat, from actual examination. Phil. Mag