3D computer graphics
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data, stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. Such images may be stored for viewing or displayed in real-time. 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer vector graphics in the wire-frame model and 2D computer raster graphics in the final rendered display. In computer graphics software, 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, 3D may use 2D rendering techniques. 3D computer graphics are referred to as 3D models. Apart from the rendered graphic, the model is contained within the graphical data file. However, there are differences: a 3D model is the mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object. A model is not technically a graphic. A model can be displayed visually as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in non-graphical computer simulations and calculations.
With 3D printing, 3D models are rendered into a 3D physical representation of the model, with limitations to how accurate the rendering can match the virtual model. William Fetter was credited with coining the term computer graphics in 1961 to describe his work at Boeing. One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld, which included an animation of a human face and a hand that had appeared in the 1972 experimental short A Computer Animated Hand, created by University of Utah students Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.3D computer graphic s software began appearing for home computers in the late 1970s. The earliest known example is 3D Art Graphics, a set of 3D computer graphics effects, written by Kazumasa Mitazawa and released in June 1978 for the Apple II. 3D computer graphics creation falls into three basic phases: 3D modeling – the process of forming a computer model of an object's shape Layout and animation – the placement and movement of objects within a scene 3D rendering – the computer calculations that, based on light placement, surface types, other qualities, generate the image The model describes the process of forming the shape of an object.
The two most common sources of 3D models are those that an artist or engineer originates on the computer with some kind of 3D modeling tool, models scanned into a computer from real-world objects. Models can be produced procedurally or via physical simulation. A 3D model is formed from points called vertices that define the shape and form polygons. A polygon is an area formed from at least three vertexes. A polygon of n points is an n-gon; the overall integrity of the model and its suitability to use in animation depend on the structure of the polygons. Materials and textures are properties that the render engine uses to render the model, in an unbiased render engine like blender cycles, one can give the model materials to tell the engine how to treat light when it hits the surface. Textures are used to give the material color using a color or albedo map, or give the surface features using a bump or normal map, it can be used to deform the model itself using a displacement map. Before rendering into an image, objects must be laid out in a scene.
This defines spatial relationships including location and size. Animation refers to the temporal description of an object; these techniques are used in combination. As with animation, physical simulation specifies motion. Rendering converts a model into an image either by simulating light transport to get photo-realistic images, or by applying an art style as in non-photorealistic rendering; the two basic operations in realistic rendering are scattering. This step is performed using 3D computer graphics software or a 3D graphics API. Altering the scene into a suitable form for rendering involves 3D projection, which displays a three-dimensional image in two dimensions. Although 3D modeling and CAD software may perform 3D rendering as well, exclusive 3D rendering software exists. 3D computer graphics software produces computer-generated imagery through 3D modeling and 3D rendering or produces 3D models for analytic and industrial purposes. 3D modeling software is a class of 3D computer graphics. Individual programs of this class are called modeling modelers.
3D modelers allow users to alter models via their 3D mesh. Users can add, subtract and otherwise change the mesh to their desire. Models can be viewed from a variety of angles simultaneously. Models can be rotated and the view can be zoomed in and out. 3D modelers can export their models to files, which can be imported into other applications as long as the metadata are compatible. Many modelers allow importers and exporters to be plugged-in, so they can read and write data in the native formats of other applications. Most 3D modelers contain a number of related features, such as ray tracers and other rendering alternatives and texture mapping facilities; some contain features that support or allow animation of models. Some may be able to generate full-motion video of a series of rendered scenes. Computer aided design software may employ the same fundamental 3D modeling techniques that 3D modeling software use but their goal differs, they are used in computer-aided engineering, computer-aided man
The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak. It was introduced in 1977 at the West Coast Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer, Inc, it is the first model in a series of computers which were produced until Apple IIe production ceased in November 1993. The Apple II marks Apple's first launch of a personal computer aimed at a consumer market – branded towards American households rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to the Apple II, Commodore PET 2001 and the TRS-80 as the "1977 Trinity." The Apple II had the defining feature of being able to display color graphics, this capability was the reason why the Apple logo was redesigned to have a spectrum of colors. By 1976, Steve Jobs had convinced the product designer Jerry Manock to create the "shell" for the Apple II – a smooth case inspired by kitchen appliances that would conceal the internal mechanics.
The earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas. The first computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, two game paddles, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displays 24 lines by 40 columns of monochrome, uppercase-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was $1,298 and $2,638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing has rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998. Most the Apple II was a catalyst for personal computers across many industries. In the May 1977 issue of Byte, Steve Wozniak published a detailed description of his design; this arrangement eliminated the need for a separate refresh circuit for the DRAM chips, as the video transfer accessed each row of the dynamic memory within the timeout period.
In addition, it did not require separate RAM chips for the video RAM, while the PET and TRS-80 had SRAMs for the video. Rather than use a complex analog-to-digital circuit to read the outputs of the game controller, Wozniak used a simple timer circuit whose period is proportional to the resistance of the game controller, used a software loop to measure the timer. A single 14.31818 MHz master oscillator was divided by various ratios to produce all other required frequencies, including the microprocessor clock signals, the video transfer counters, the color-burst samples. The text and graphics screens have a complex arrangement. For instance, the scanlines were not stored in sequential areas of memory; this complexity was due to Wozniak's realization that the method would allow for the refresh of the dynamic RAM as a side effect. This method had no cost overhead to have software calculate or look up the address of the required scanline and avoided the need for significant extra hardware. In the high-resolution graphics mode, color is determined by pixel position and thus can be implemented in software, saving Wozniak the chips needed to convert bit patterns to colors.
This allowed for subpixel font rendering, since orange and blue pixels appear half a pixel-width farther to the right on the screen than green and purple pixels. The Apple II at first used data cassette storage like most other microcomputers of the time. In 1978, the company introduced an external 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive, the Disk II, attached via a controller card that plugs into one of the computer's expansion slots; the Disk II interface, created by Wozniak, is regarded as an engineering masterpiece for its economy of electronic components. The approach taken in the Disk II controller is typical of Wozniak's designs. With a few small-scale logic chips and a cheap PROM, he created a functional floppy disk interface at a fraction of the component cost of standard circuit configurations. Steve Jobs extensively pushed to give the Apple II a case that looked visually appealing and sellable to people outside of electronics hobbyists, rather than the generic wood and metal boxes typical of early microcomputers.
The result was a futuristic-looking molded white plastic case. Jobs paid close attention to the keyboard design and decided to use dark brown keycaps as it contrasted well with the case; the first production Apple IIs had hand-molded cases. In addition, the initial case design ha
Novation was an early modem manufacturer whose CAT series were popular in the early home computer market in the late 1970s and early 1980s, notably on the Apple II. The Hayes Smartmodem 300, introduced in 1981, helped kill off Novation and many other early modem companies over the next few years. Novation's first CAT was an external 300 bit/s Bell 103-standard modem that connected to the phone lines using an acoustic coupler. Like most other acoustically coupled modems, the CAT required the user to dial the desired number on a normal telephone, listening to the call connecting and the eventual presence of a carrier signal. If the dialling was successful, the user pressed the handset down into rubber cups on the modem to connect; this was only possible because telephones were available only from Western Electric, all of a standardized size and layout. There was no sort of automated operation available. Novation introduced an internal direct-connect modem, the Apple-CAT II, which plugged into an expansion slot in an Apple II computer.
Due to the internal connection, the APPLE-CAT II was able to feature a full range of dialing commands, could report a wide range of call progress tones that many modems still lack today. These operations were handled directly by software on the host computer; the Apple-CAT II supported the Bell 202 protocol, which allowed half-duplex 1200 bit/s operation when connecting to another Apple-CAT II modem. This was an exceptionally rare feature. Since the 1200 bit/s mode was half-duplex, or one-way only, the users would have to decide in advance which direction transmissions would proceed. However, software was used to work around this limitation as well. File transfer programs are written for the Apple-CAT II's 202 mode, such as Catsend and the CatFur, periodically paused and reversed transmission direction, so the receiving computer could acknowledge receipt of a stream of data, and, in the case of CatFur, could add a short chat message to the sender in the middle of the one-way file transfer. Many bulletin board systems running CatSend and CatFur were set up to transfer warez.
The 202 CatFur protocol could only be used by a user running another APPLE-CAT II. In addition, the APPLE-CAT II had the ability to support CCITT v.21 and CCITT v.23, the European standards for 300 and 300/1200 baud operation. Though no known applications took advantage of this facility, it was possible to modify certain software such as ASCII Express by use of a hex editor to take advantage of this feature. Novation released a full-duplex Bell 212-compatible expansion board known as the Novation 212 Expansion Card, which plugged into the Apple II motherboard as well as an existing APPLE-CAT II via a ribbon cable; the card was expensive and seen. Novation created an'Expansion Pack' or external breakout box that would connect to the large pin header on the top middle of the card; this item allowed easy external access to the built-in serial port, phone line and handset connections. Due to its cost at the time, the item is rare; the APPLE-CAT II was popular with phone phreakers for its high half-duplex 1200 bit/s speed and its ability to detect various tones.
It had the ability to generate tones directly into the phone line. Several specialized applications such as TSPS, The Cats Meow and Phantom Access were used to mimic standard telephone sounds such as standard numeric DTMF dial tones as well as blue box tones, dial tones, call waiting alerts, busy signals, 2600 Hz tones, other effects such as payphone sounds. Due to these and other features, the APPLE CAT II could be used as a black box, red box, hacking tool, answering machine, war dialer, voice simulator, voice distorter, etc. BYTE criticized Novation, stating that "the company's literature should be explicit" about the modem's inability to communicate at 1200 baud with Bell 212 modems without the expansion card, but concluded that "Apple users shopping for a modem would be wise to consider this system carefully". Despite the APPLE-CAT II's popularity, its early years were faced with incompatibility with most telecommunications programs, as its native API is considered proprietary by today's standards.
To increase compatibility without re-coding these programs, Novation released a firmware upgrade kit allowing the modem to emulate the Hayes Micromodem II, including the MMII's IN#x control codes. At the APPLE-CAT II's peak, compatibility with its native API increased, MMII emulation became less of a necessity. A direct-connect version of the original 300 bit/s external modem was released as the D-CAT; the "D" stood for "direct": the modem was directly connected into the handset jack of the telephone instead of requiring acoustic coupling. To operate the D-CAT, a number was dialed on the telephone and the user waited for a carrier signal from the modem being called, just as with an acoustic modem; when a carrier signal was received, a button was pressed on the D-CAT which made it produce a carrier signal and establish a connection with the modem being called the handset would be left off-hook. A further improvement was the Auto-CAT, which allowed dialing the phone by entering the number when the modem was first started
WordStar is a word processor application that had a dominant market share during the early- to mid-1980s. It was published by MicroPro International, written for the CP/M operating system but ported to MS-DOS. Although Seymour I. Rubinstein was the principal owner of the company, Rob Barnaby was the sole author of the early versions of the program. Starting with WordStar 4.0, the program was built on new code written principally by Peter Mierau. WordStar was deliberately written to make as few assumptions about the underlying system as possible, allowing it to be ported across the many platforms that proliferated in the early 1980s; as all of these versions had similar commands and controls, users could move between platforms with equal ease. Popular, its inclusion with the Osborne 1 computer made the program become the de facto standard for much of the word-processing market; as the computer market became dominated by the IBM PC, this same portable design made it difficult for the program to add new features and affected its performance.
In spite of its great popularity in the early 1980s, these problems allowed WordPerfect to take WordStar's place as the most used word processor from 1985 onwards. Seymour I. Rubinstein was an employee of early microcomputer company IMSAI, where he negotiated software contracts with Digital Research and Microsoft. After leaving IMSAI, Rubinstein planned to start his own software company that would sell through the new network of retail computer stores, he founded MicroPro International Corporation in September 1978 and hired John Robbins Barnaby as programmer, who wrote a word processor, WordMaster, a sorting program, SuperSort, in Intel 8080 assembly language. After Rubinstein obtained a report that discussed the abilities of contemporary standalone word processors from IBM, Wang Laboratories, Barnaby enhanced WordMaster with similar features and support for the CP/M operating system. MicroPro began selling the product, now renamed WordStar, in June 1979. Priced at $495 and $40 for the manual, by early 1980, MicroPro claimed in advertisements that 5,000 people had purchased WordStar in eight months.
WordStar was the first microcomputer word processor to offer mail merge and WYSIWYG. Barnaby left the company in March 1980, but due to WordStar's sophistication, the company's extensive sales and marketing efforts, bundling deals with Osborne and other computer makers, MicroPro's sales grew from $500,000 in 1979 to $72 million in fiscal year 1984, surpassing earlier market leader Electric Pencil. By May 1983 BYTE magazine called WordStar "without a doubt the best-known and the most used personal computer word-processing program"; the company released WordStar 3.3 in June 1983. By 1984, the year it held an initial public offering, MicroPro was the world's largest software company with 23% of the word processor market. A manual that PC Magazine described as "incredibly inadequate" led many authors to publish replacements. One of them, Introduction to WordStar, was written by future Goldstein & Blair founder and Whole Earth Software Catalog contributor Arthur Naiman, who hated the program and had a term inserted into his publishing contract that he not be required to use WordStar to write the book, using WRITE instead.
WordStar 3.0, the first version for MS-DOS, appeared in April 1982. The DOS version was similar to the original, although the IBM PC had arrow keys and separate function keys, the traditional "WordStar diamond" and other Ctrl-key functions were retained, leading to rapid adoption by former CP/M users. WordStar's ability to use a "non-document" mode to create text files without formatting made it popular among programmers for writing code. Like the CP/M versions, the DOS WordStar was not explicitly designed for IBM PCs, but rather for any x86 machine; as such, it used only DOS's API avoided any BIOS usage or direct hardware access. This carried with it; the first DOS version was a port of the CP/M-86 version, thus the main program executable was a. COM file. Users learned they could make WordStar run faster by installing a RAM disk board, copying the WordStar program files into it. WordStar would still access the "disk" but the far faster access of the RAM drive compared to a floppy disk yielded a substantial speed improvement.
However, edited versions of a document were "saved" only to this RAM disk, had to be copied to physical media before rebooting. InfoWorld described WordStar as "notorious for its complexity", but by 1983 it was the leading word processing system. Although competition appeared early, WordStar was the dominant word processor on x86 machines until 1985, it was part of the software bundle. At that time, the evolution from CP/M to MS-DOS, with an "Alt" key, had taken place. WordStar had until never exploited the MS-DOS keyboard, and, one explanation for its demise. By that point, MicroPro had dropped the generic MS-DOS WordStar and version 4.0 was for IBM compatibles. It was the first version of
GEOS (8-bit operating system)
GEOS was an operating system from Berkeley Softworks. Designed for the Commodore 64 with its version being released in 1986, enhanced versions of GEOS became available in 1987 for the Commodore 128 and in 1988 for the Apple II family of computers. A lesser-known version was released for the Commodore Plus/4. GEOS resembles early versions of the classic Mac OS and includes a graphical word processor and paint program. A December 1987 survey by the Commodore-dedicated magazine Compute!'s Gazette found that nearly half of its readers used GEOS. For many years, Commodore bundled GEOS with its redesigned and cost-reduced C64, the C64C. At its peak, GEOS was the third-most-popular microcomputer operating system in the world in terms of units shipped, trailing only MS-DOS and Mac OS. Other GEOS-compatible software packages were available from Berkeley Softworks or from third parties, including a reasonably sophisticated desktop publishing application called geoPublish and a spreadsheet called geoCalc.
While geoPublish is not as sophisticated as Aldus Pagemaker and geoCalc not as sophisticated as Microsoft Excel, the packages provide reasonable functionality, Berkeley Softworks founder Brian Dougherty claimed the company ran its business using its own software on Commodore 8-bit computers for several years. Written by a group of programmers, the GEOS Design Team: Jim DeFrisco, Dave Durran, Michael Farr, Doug Fults, Chris Hawley, Clayton Jung, Tony Requist, led by Dougherty, who cut their teeth on limited-resource video game machines such as the Atari 2600, GEOS was revered for what it could accomplish on machines with 64–128 kB of RAM memory and 1–2 MHz of 8-bit processing power. Unlike many pieces of proprietary software for the C64 and C128, GEOS takes full advantage of many of the add-ons and improvements available for these systems. Commodore's 1351 mouse is supported by GEOS. GEOS 128 fully supports the C128's 640×200 high-resolution VDC display mode through a compatible RGB monitor.
The C64 version of GEOS incorporates a built-in fast loader, called diskTurbo, that increases the speed of drive access on the slow 1541. GEOS is the first Commodore software that could use a floppy disk as virtual memory. GEOS 128 can take advantage of the C128's enhanced "burst mode" in conjunction with the 1571 and 1581 drives; the Commodore version of GEOS uses a copy protection scheme that renders users' disks unbootable if it detects that the disk has been illegally duplicated. Via Berkeley's special geoCable interface converter or other third-party interfaces to connect standard RS-232 or Centronics printers to the Commodore serial bus, GEOS supports a wide variety of printers, including HP PCL printers and the Apple LaserWriter; this ability to print to high-end printers was a major factor in making GEOS a desktop publishing platform. The Apple II version of GEOS was released as freeware in August 2003; the Commodore 64/128 versions followed in February 2004. The latest GEOS desktop suite for IBM PC compatibles is Breadbox Ensemble.
Revivals were seen in the OmniGo handhelds, Brother GeoBook line of laptop-appliances, the NewDeal Office package for PCs. Related code found its way to earlier "Zoomer" PDAs, creating an unclear lineage to Palm, Inc.'s work. Nokia used GEOS as a base operating system for their Nokia Communicator series, before switching to EPOC. 1986: GEOS for Commodore 64 1987: GEOS for Commodore C128 1988: GEOS for Apple II, GEOS V2.0 for Commodore C64, GEOS V2.1 for Apple II 1989: GEOS V2.0 for Commodore C128 On August 19, 2016, Michael Steil posted in his blog that the source code for GEOS 2.0 for Commodore C64 had been reverse-engineered the cc65 compiler suite. The reverse-engineered source code has been made available at Github. Dozens of official and third-party applications and other products were produced for GEOS. Among the most important and popular were the following: geoBASIC geoCable geoCalc geoChart geoDex geoDraw geoFAX geoFile geoFont geoLabel geoPaint geoPrint geoProgrammer geoPublish geoSpell geoWrite geoWrite Workshop geoRAM Writer 64 Contiki Wheels PC/GEOS Farr, Michael.
The Official GEOS Programmer's Reference Guide. For Commodore 64/64C/128. Includes versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2. Bantam Books/Berkeley Softworks. ISBN 0-553-34404-8. Tornsdorf, Manfred. GEOS Out. An introduction to GEOS, its applications and internals. Abacus/Data Becker. ISBN 0-916439-81-X. Breadbox Home of the GEOS operating system The Commodore GEOS FAQ v1.5.0 – By Bo Zimmermann GEOS: The Graphical Operating System A lengthy review of GEOS and its history