Dot matrix printer
A dot matrix printer is an impact printer that prints using a fixed number of pins or wires. In contrast and laser printers technically exhibit dot matrix printing, but they are not considered "dot matrix printers". Impact vs. non-impact is one way. Dot-matrix impact printers, "the most common type still sold as of October of 2012," use "a vertical column of pins which fire". In the 1970s and 1980s, dot matrix impact printers were considered the best combination of cost and versatility, until the 1990s were by far the most common form of printer used with personal and home computers; the first impact dot matrix printer was the Centronics 101. Introduced in 1970, it led to the design of the parallel electrical interface, to become standard on most printers until it was displaced well over a decade by the Universal Serial Bus. Digital Equipment Corporation was another major vendor, albeit with a focus on use with their PDP minicomputer line, their LA30 30 character/second dot matrix printer, the first of many, was introduced in 1970.
By the dawn of the 1990s, inkjet printers became more common as PC printers. Unlike the LA30's 80-column, uppercase-only 5x7 dot matrix, DEC's product line grew. New models included: LA36: supported upper and lower case, with up to 132 columns of text LA34: a lower-cost alternative to the LA36 LA38: an LA34 with more features LA180: 180 CPS LS120: 120 CPS LA120: 180 CPS LA12: a portable terminal The DECwriter LA30 was a 30 character per second dot matrix printing terminal introduced in 1970 by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, MassachusettsIt printed 80 columns of uppercase-only 7×5 dot matrix characters across a unique-sized paper; the printhead was driven by a stepper motor and the paper was advanced by a noisy solenoid ratchet drive. The LA30 was available with both a serial interface. In 1972, a receive-only variation named; the LA30 was followed in 1974 by the LA36, which achieved far greater commercial success, becoming for a time the standard dot matrix computer terminal. The LA36 used the same print head as the LA30 but could print on forms of any width up to 132 columns of mixed-case output on standard green bar fanfold paper.
The carriage was moved by a much-more-capable servo drive using a DC electric motor and an optical encoder / tachometer. The paper was moved by a stepper motor; the LA36 was only available with a serial interface but unlike the earlier LA30, no fill characters were required. This was possible because, while the printer never communicated at faster than 30 characters per second, the mechanism was capable of printing at 60 characters per second. During the carriage return period, characters were buffered for subsequent printing at full speed during a catch-up period; the two-tone buzz produced by 60-character-per-second catch-up printing followed by 30-character-per-second ordinary printing was a distinctive feature of the LA36 copied by many other manufacturers well into the 1990s. Most efficient dot matrix printers used this buffering technique. Digital technology broadened the basic LA36 line into a wide variety of dot matrix printers; the DEC LA50 was designed to be a "dot matrix" printer. When in graphic mode, the printhead can generate graphic images.
When in graphics mode, the LA50 can print Sixel graphics format. The Centronics 101 was innovative and affordable at its inception; some selected specifications: Print speed: 165 characters per second Weight: 155 pounds Size: 27 ½" W x 11 ¼" H x 19 ¼ D Shipping: 200 pounds, wooden crate, unpacked by removal of 36 screws Characters: 62, 10 numeric, 26 upper case and 26 special characters Character size: 10 characters per inch Line spacing: 6 lines per inch Vertical control: punched tape reader for top of form and vertical tab Forms thickness: original plus four copies Interfaces: Centronics parallel, optional RS-232 serial In the mid-1980s, dot-matrix printers were dropping in price, being "faster and more versatile than daisywheel printers" they've continued to sell. Increased pincount of the printhead from 7, 8, 9 or 12 pins to 18, 24, 27, 36 permitted superior print-quality, necessary for success in Asian markets to print legible CJKV characters. Epson's 24-pin LQ-series rose to become the new de facto standard, at 24/180 inch.
Not only could a 24-pin printer lay down a denser dot-pattern in a single-pass, it could cover a larger area and print more quickly. Although the text-quality of a 24-pin was still visibly inferior to a true letter-quality printer—the daisy wheel or laser-printer, as manufacturing costs declined, 24-pin printers replaced 9-pin printers. To obtain the maximum output speed, albeit at a lower quality, each character and line is only printed once; this is called "draft mode". Near Letter Quality mode—informally specified as good enough to be used in a business letter—endowed dot-matrix printers with a simulated typewriter-like quality. By using multiple passes of the carriage, higher dot density, the printer could increase the effective resolution. In 1985, The New York Times described the use of "near letter-quality, or N. L. Q." and "near
A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers for connecting peripherals. The name refers to the way. To do this, parallel ports require multiple data lines in their cables and port connectors, tend to be larger than contemporary serial ports which only require one data line. There are many types of parallel ports, but the term has become most associated with the printer port or Centronics port found on most personal computers from the 1970s through the 2000s, it was an industry de facto standard for many years, was standardized as IEEE 1284 in the late 1990s, which defined the Enhanced Parallel Port and Extended Capability Port bi-directional versions. Today, the parallel port interface is non-existent because of the rise of Universal Serial Bus devices, along with network printing using Ethernet and Wi-Fi connected printers; the parallel port interface was known as the Parallel Printer Adapter on IBM PC-compatible computers. It was designed to operate printers that used IBM's eight-bit extended ASCII character set to print text, but could be used to adapt other peripherals.
Graphical printers, along with a host of other devices, have been designed to communicate with the system. An Wang, Robert Howard and Prentice Robinson began development of a low-cost printer at Centronics, a subsidiary of Wang Laboratories that produced specialty computer terminals; the printer used the dot matrix printing principle, with a print head consisting of a vertical row of seven metal pins connected to solenoids. When power was applied to the solenoids, the pin was pulled forward to strike the paper and leave a dot. To make a complete character glyph, the print head would receive power to specified pins to create a single vertical pattern the print head would move to the right by a small amount, the process repeated. On their original design, a typical glyph was printed as a matrix seven high and five wide, while the "A" models used a print head with 9 pins and formed glyphs that were 9 by 7; this left the problem of sending the ASCII data to the printer. While a serial port does so with the minimum of pins and wires, it requires the device to buffer up the data as it arrives bit by bit and turn it back into multi-bit values.
A parallel port makes this simpler. In addition to the seven data pins, the system needed various control pins as well as electrical grounds. Wang happened to have a surplus stock of 20,000 Amphenol 36-pin micro ribbon connectors that were used for one of their early calculators; the interface only required 21 of these pins, the rest were not connected. The connector has become so associated with Centronics that it is now popularly known as the "Centronics connector"; the Centronics Model 101 printer, featuring this connector, was released in 1970. The host sent ASCII characters to the printer using 7 of 8 data pins, pulling them high to +5V to represent a 1; when the data was ready, the host pulled the STROBE pin low, to 0 V. The printer responded by pulling the BUSY line high, printing the character, returning BUSY to low again; the host could send another character. Control characters in the data caused other actions, like the CR or EOF; the host could have the printer automatically start a new line by pulling the AUTOFEED line high, keeping it there.
The host had to watch the BUSY line to ensure it did not feed data to the printer too especially given variable-time operations like a paper feed. The printer side of the interface became an industry de facto standard, but manufacturers used various connectors on the system side, so a variety of cables were required. For example, NCR used the 36-pin micro ribbon connector on both ends of the connection, early VAX systems used a DC-37 connector, Texas Instruments used a 25-pin card edge connector and Data General used a 50-pin micro ribbon connector; when IBM implemented the parallel interface on the IBM PC, they used the DB-25F connector at the PC-end of the interface, creating the now familiar parallel cable with a DB25M at one end and a 36 pin micro ribbon connector at the other. In theory, the Centronics port could transfer data as as 75,000 characters per second; this was far faster than the printer, which averaged about 160 characters per second, meaning the port spent much of its time idle.
The performance was defined by how the host could respond to the printer's BUSY signal asking for more data. To improve performance, printers began incorporating buffers so the host could send them data more in bursts; this not only reduced delays due to latency waiting for the next character to arrive from the host, but freed the host to perform other operations without causing a loss of performance. Performance was further improved by using the buffer to store several lines and printing in both directions, eliminating the delay while the print head returned to the left side of the page; such changes more than doubled the performance of an otherwise unchanged printer, as was the case on Centronics models like the 102 and 308. IBM released the IBM Personal Computer in 1981 and included a variant of the Centronics interface— only IBM logo printers could be used with the IBM PC. IBM standardized the parallel cable with a DB25F connector on the PC side and the 36-pin Centronics connector on the printer side.
Vendors soon released printers compatible with the IBM implementation. The original IBM parallel printer adapter
WYSIWYG is an acronym for "what you see is what you get". In computing, a WYSIWYG editor is a system in which content can be edited in a form resembling its appearance when printed or displayed as a finished product, such as a printed document, web page, or slide presentation. WYSIWYG implies a user interface that allows the user to view something similar to the end result while the document is being created. In general, WYSIWYG implies the ability to directly manipulate the layout of a document without having to type or remember names of layout commands; the actual meaning depends on the user's perspective, e.g. In presentation programs, compound documents, web pages, WYSIWYG means the display represents the appearance of the page displayed to the end-user, but does not reflect how the page will be printed unless the printer is matched to the editing program, as it was with the Xerox Star and early versions of the Apple Macintosh. In word processing and desktop publishing applications, WYSIWYG means that the display simulates the appearance and represents the effect of fonts and line breaks on the final pagination using a specific printer configuration, so that, for example, a citation on page 1 of a 500-page document can refer to a reference three hundred pages later.
WYSIWYG describes ways to manipulate 3D models in stereo-chemistry, computer-aided design, 3D computer graphics. Modern software does a good job of optimizing the screen display for a particular type of output. For example, a word processor is optimized for output to a typical printer; the software emulates the resolution of the printer in order to get as close as possible to WYSIWYG. However, not the main attraction of WYSIWYG, the ability of the user to be able to visualize what they are producing. In many situations, the subtle differences between what the user sees and what the user gets are unimportant. In fact, applications may offer multiple WYSIWYG modes with different levels of "realism", including A composition mode, in which the user sees something somewhat similar to the end result, but with additional information useful while composing, such as section breaks and non-printing characters, uses a layout, more conducive to composing than to layout. A layout mode, in which the user sees something similar to the end result, but with some additional information useful in ensuring that elements are properly aligned and spaced, such as margin lines.
A preview mode, in which the application attempts to present a representation, as close to the final result as possible. Before the adoption of WYSIWYG techniques, text appeared in editors using the system standard typeface and style with little indication of layout. Users were required to enter special non-printing control codes to indicate that some text should be in boldface, italics, or a different typeface or size. In this environment there was little distinction between text editors and word processors; these applications used an arbitrary markup language to define the codes/tags. Each program had its own special way to format a document, it was a difficult and time-consuming process to change from one word processor to another; the use of markup tags and codes remains popular today in some applications due to their ability to store complex formatting information. When the tags are made visible in the editor, they occupy space in the unformatted text and so disrupt the desired layout and flow.
Bravo, a document preparation program for the Alto produced at Xerox PARC by Butler Lampson, Charles Simonyi and colleagues in 1974, is considered the first program to incorporate WYSIWYG technology, displaying text with formatting. The Alto monitor was designed so that one full page of text could be seen and printed on the first laser printers; when the text was laid out on the screen, 72 PPI font metric files were used, but when printed 300 PPI files were used—thus one would find characters and words off, a problem that continues to this day. Bravo was released commercially and the software included in the Xerox Star can be seen as a direct descendant of it. In parallel with but independent of the work at Xerox PARC, Hewlett Packard developed and released in late 1978 the first commercial WYSIWYG software application for producing overhead slides or what today are called presentation graphics; the first release, named BRUNO, ran on the HP 1000 minicomputer taking advantage of HP's first bitmapped computer terminal the HP 2640.
BRUNO was ported to the HP-3000 and re-released as "HP Draw". By 1981 MicroPro advertised that its WordStar word processor had WYSIWYG, but its display was limited to displaying styled text in WYSIWYG fashion. In 1983 the Weekly Reader advertised its Stickybear educational software with the slogan "what you see is what you get", with photographs of its Apple II graphics, but home computers of the 1970s and early 1980s lacked the sophisticated graphics capabilities necessary to display WYSIWYG documents, meaning that such applications were confined to limited-purpose, high-end workstations that were too expensive for the general public to afford. Towards the mid-1980s, things began to change. Improving technology allowed the production of cheaper bitmapped displays, WYSIWYG software started to appear for more popular computers, including LisaWrite
Thermal-transfer printing is a digital printing method in which material is applied to paper by melting a coating of ribbon so that it stays glued to the material on which the print is applied. It contrasts with direct thermal printing. Thermal transfer is preferred over direct thermal printing on surfaces that are heat-sensitive or when higher durability of printed matter is desired. Thermal transfer is a popular print process used for the printing of identification labels, it is the most used printing process in the world for the printing of high-quality barcodes. Printers like label makers can laminate the print for added durability. Thermal transfer printing was invented by SATO corporation; the world's first thermal-transfer label printer SATO M-2311 was produced in 1981. Thermal-transfer printing is done by melting wax within the print heads of a specialized printer; the thermal-transfer print process utilises three main components: a non-movable print head, a carbon ribbon and a substrate to be printed, which would be paper, card or textile materials.
These three components form a sandwich with the ribbon in the middle. A thermally compliant print head, in combination with the electrical properties of the ribbon and the correct rheological properties of the ribbon ink are all essential in producing a high-quality printed image. Print heads are available in 300 dpi and 600 dpi resolution options; each dot is addressed independently, when a dot is electronically addressed, it heats up to a pre-set temperature. The heated element melts the wax- or resin-based ink on the side of the ribbon film facing the substrate, this process, in combination with the constant pressure being applied by the print-head locking mechanism transfers it onto the substrate; when a dot "turns off", that element of the print head cools down, that part of the ribbon thereby stops melting/printing. As the substrate comes out of the printer, it is dry and can be used immediately. Carbon ribbons are fitted onto a spindle or reel holder within the printer; the used ribbon is rewound by a take-up spindle.
It is termed a "one-trip" ribbon because once it has been rewound, the used roll is discarded and replaced with a new one. If one were to hold a strip of used carbon ribbon up to the light, one would see an exact negative of the images that have been printed; the main benefit of using a one-trip thermal transfer ribbon is that providing the correct settings are applied prior to printing, a 100% density of printed image is guaranteed, in contrast to a pre-inked ribbon on a dot-matrix impact printer ribbon, which fades with usage. Thermal-printing technology can be used to produce color images by adhering a wax-based ink onto paper; as the paper and ribbon travel in unison beneath the thermal print head, the wax-based ink from the transfer ribbon melts onto the paper. When cooled, the wax is permanently adhered to the paper; this type of thermal printer uses a like-sized panel of ribbon for each page to be printed, regardless of the contents of the page. Monochrome printers have a black panel for each page to be printed, while color printers have either three or four colored panels for each page.
Unlike dye-sublimation printers, these printers cannot vary the dot intensity, which means that images must be dithered. Although acceptable in quality, the printouts from these printers cannot compare with modern inkjet printers and color laser printers; this type of printer is used for full-page printing, but is now employed for industrial label printing due to its waterfastness and speed. These printers are considered reliable due to their small number of moving parts. Printouts from color thermal printers using wax are sensitive to abrasion, as the wax ink can be scraped, rubbed off, or smeared. However, wax-resin compounds and full resins can be used on materials such as polypropylene or polyester in order to increase durability. So-called "solid ink" or "phaser" printers were developed by Tektronix and by Xerox. Printers like the Xerox Phaser 8400 uses 1 cubic inch rectangular solid-state ink blocks, which are loaded into a system similar to a stapler magazine in the top of the printer.
The ink blocks are melted, the ink is transferred onto a rotating oil-coated print drum using a piezo inkjet head. The paper passes over the print drum, at which time the image is transferred, or transfixed, to the page; this system is similar to water-based inkjets, provided that the ink has low viscosity at the jetting temperature 60 °C. Printout properties are similar to those mentioned above, although these printers can be configured to produce high-quality results and are far more economical, as they only use the ink needed for the printout, rather than an entire ribbon panel. Costs of upkeep and ink are comparable to color laser printers, while "standby" power usage can be high, about 200 W. MicroDry is a computer printing system developed by the ALPS corporation of Japan, it is a wax/resin-transfer system using individual colored thermal ribbon cartridges and can print in process color using cyan, magenta and black cartridges, as well as such spot-color cartridges as white, metallic silver, metallic gold, on a wide variety of paper and transparency stock.
Certain MicroDry printers can operate in dye-sublimation mode, using special cartridges and paper. Usage of TT printers in industry includes: Barcode labels (as labels printed with a th
Apple 410 Color Plotter
The Apple 410 Color Plotter is a color plotter printer, sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1983 to 1988. The colors came in either water- or oil-based inks; the printer could be connected to an Apple Apple III computer. Eagle.def entry "Apple Colour Plotter: Product Description". October 7, 1993. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2017. Documentation and driver for the Apple 410 Color Plotter. on GitHub Reviving the Apple 410 Color Plotter NYC Resistor Rare Apple 410 Color Plotter Unboxing on YouTube
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent representation of graphics or text on paper. While most output is human-readable, bar code printers are an example of an expanded use for printers; the first computer printer designed was a mechanically driven apparatus by Charles Babbage for his difference engine in the 19th century. The first electronic printer was the EP-101, invented by Japanese company Epson and released in 1968; the first commercial printers used mechanisms from electric typewriters and Teletype machines. The demand for higher speed led to the development of new systems for computer use. In the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similar to typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at much higher speed, dot matrix systems that could mix text and graphics but produced low-quality output; the plotter was used for those requiring high quality line art like blueprints. The introduction of the low-cost laser printer in 1984 with the first HP LaserJet, the addition of PostScript in next year's Apple LaserWriter, set off a revolution in printing known as desktop publishing.
Laser printers using PostScript mixed text and graphics, like dot-matrix printers, but at quality levels available only from commercial typesetting systems. By 1990, most simple printing tasks like fliers and brochures were now created on personal computers and laser printed; the HP Deskjet of 1988 offered the same advantages as laser printer in terms of flexibility, but produced somewhat lower quality output from much less expensive mechanisms. Inkjet systems displaced dot matrix and daisy wheel printers from the market. By the 2000s high-quality printers of this sort had fallen under the $100 price point and became commonplace; the rapid update of internet email through the 1990s and into the 2000s has displaced the need for printing as a means of moving documents, a wide variety of reliable storage systems means that a "physical backup" is of little benefit today. The desire for printed output for "offline reading" while on mass transit or aircraft has been displaced by e-book readers and tablet computers.
Today, traditional printers are being used more for special purposes, like printing photographs or artwork, are no longer a must-have peripheral. Starting around 2010, 3D printing became an area of intense interest, allowing the creation of physical objects with the same sort of effort as an early laser printer required to produce a brochure; these devices have not yet become commonplace. Personal printers are designed to support individual users, may be connected to only a single computer; these printers are designed for low-volume, short-turnaround print jobs, requiring minimal setup time to produce a hard copy of a given document. However, they are slow devices ranging from 6 to around 25 pages per minute, the cost per page is high. However, this is offset by the on-demand convenience; some printers can print documents stored from digital cameras and scanners. Networked or shared printers are "designed for high-volume, high-speed printing", they are shared by many users on a network and can print at speeds of 45 to around 100 ppm.
The Xerox 9700 could achieve 120 ppm. A virtual printer is a piece of computer software whose user interface and API resembles that of a printer driver, but, not connected with a physical computer printer. A virtual printer can be used to create a file, an image of the data which would be printed, for archival purposes or as input to another program, for example to create a PDF or to transmit to another system or user. A barcode printer is a computer peripheral for printing barcode labels or tags that can be attached to, or printed directly on, physical objects. Barcode printers are used to label cartons before shipment, or to label retail items with UPCs or EANs. A 3D printer is a device for making a three-dimensional object from a 3D model or other electronic data source through additive processes in which successive layers of material are laid down under computer control, it is called a printer by analogy with an inkjet printer which produces a two-dimensional document by a similar process of depositing a layer of ink on paper.
The choice of print technology has a great effect on the cost of the printer and cost of operation, speed and permanence of documents, noise. Some printer technologies do not work with certain types of physical media, such as carbon paper or transparencies. A second aspect of printer technology, forgotten is resistance to alteration: liquid ink, such as from an inkjet head or fabric ribbon, becomes absorbed by the paper fibers, so documents printed with liquid ink are more difficult to alter than documents printed with toner or solid inks, which do not penetrate below the paper surface. Cheques can be printed with liquid ink or on special cheque paper with toner anchorage so that alterations may be detected; the machine-readable lower portion of a cheque must be printed using MICR ink. Banks and other clearing houses employ automation equipment that relies on the magnetic flux from these specially printed characters to function properly; the following printing technologies are found in modern printers: A laser printer produces high quality text and graphics.
As with digital photocopiers and multifunction printers, laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiers in
Itochu Corporation is a Japanese corporation based in Umeda, Kita-ku, Osaka and Aoyama, Tokyo. Itochu is one of the largest Japanese sogo shosha. Among Japanese trading companies, it is distinguished by not being descended from an historical zaibatsu group, but by the strength of its textiles business and its successful business operations in China, it has six major operational divisions specializing in textiles, metals/minerals, machinery, energy/chemicals and ICT/general products/real estate. Itochu was ranked 215th on 2017's list of Fortune Global 500 companies with an annual trading revenue of 44.65 billion USD. Itochu is a member of the Mizuho keiretsu. Itochu dates the start of its business to 1858, shortly after the opening of Japan to foreign trade, when Chubei Itoh began door-to-door wholesaling of linen in the regions between Osaka and Kyushu. Itoh founded the "Benichu" drapery store in the Honmachi district of Osaka in 1872; this site was renamed "Itoh Honten" in 1884 and became the Itoh Thread and Yarn Store in 1893, renamed "C. Itoh & Co." in 1914.
Chubei Itoh II took over the company following his father's death in 1903. The company opened an office in Shanghai in the 1890s and started business in Seoul in 1905, but had severe difficulties with these first overseas forays. Itoh travelled to London in 1910 and began direct procurement and financing for the business in the London markets, which improved its margins as it had used more expensive intermediaries in Japan. Itoh's company grew in the wake of World War I, with offices in the United States, the Philippines and China, the firm began to handle machinery and metals in addition to its core business of textiles. However, a recession in 1920 left the company in debt, unlike the major zaibatsu firms of the time, it had no captive bank to finance its business. In 1921, the company split with one half forming what is now known as Marubeni; the company's performance improved in the 1930s, but as World War II began in the latter half of the decade, all trading companies' business became war-oriented.
In 1941, Itoh and Marubeni re-combined to form Sanko Kabushiki Kaisha, which merged with two other companies to form Daiken Co. Ltd. in 1944. After World War II, the constituent companies of Daiken were spun off from each other in December 1949 as part of GHQ efforts to dismantle the war-era zaibatsu. Itoh re-listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1950. Itoh resumed business in the wake of the war by bartering Japanese textiles for foreign grain, resumed trading in petroleum, aircraft and machinery to meet UN forces requirements during the Korean War. After the war, Itoh absorbed many smaller trading operations that could no longer stand on their own. Itoh expanded its overseas mining and petroleum exploration activity in the late 1960s and early 1970s, followed by large-scale overseas industrial projects in the 1980s. Former Imperial Japanese Army staff officer Ryuzo Sejima joined Itoh in 1958 after spending 11 years in a Siberian prison. Four years he was promoted to director and became Itoh's head of corporate planning, implementing a military-style internal reporting system.
He went on to serve as president and chairman of the company, having developed a powerful group of followers known as the "Sejima Machine." In 1970, Sejima and his younger protege Minoru Murofushi arranged a joint venture between General Motors and Isuzu, one of the first tie-ups between US and Japanese automakers. In 1972 Itoh became the first Japanese trading company allowed to do business in the People's Republic of China. Itoh was headquartered near the site of Chubei Itoh's historical headquarters in Osaka until 1967, when it upgraded its Tokyo branch to the status of a co-headquarters. In the 1970s, the company became part of the "Kawasaki Group" within the keiretsu of Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank displacing Nissho Iwai as the keiretsu's dominant trading company. Itoh's affiliation with the keiretsu was looser than other keiretsu-affiliated trading companies, many firms within the DKB group did not use Itoh's services at all. Itoh absorbed Ataka & Co. the ninth largest general trading company in Japan, in 1977.
Ataka had suffered major losses from an oil development project in the United States and had undergone restructuring at the direction of its main lender, Sumitomo Bank. From the early 1970s Itoh was a major supplier of synthetic yarn to India's Reliance Industries Limited. Over the years, the close collaboration between both companies culminated in the co-promotion of a world-scale Polypropylene Project with a capacity of 250,000 tonnes per annum at a total project cost of Rs. 525 Crores, at Hazira in the State of Gujarat. With a $50 million for a 15 percent stake, it was at that point, the largest investment in India by a Japanese firm. Itoh marketed products—under their own label—as diverse as a line of bicycles, computer printers. Itochu began to develop a strong information technology business in the 1980s through its subsidiary C. Itoh Techno-Science, which acted as a Japan distributor for Sun Microsystems, Cisco and others. On October 1, 1992, C. Itoh & Co. Ltd. changed its English name to Itochu Corporation, a more direct transliteration of its Japanese name.
By the early 1990s Itochu had become the largest trading company in Japan, but losses from the Japanese asset price bubble domestic real estate investments, brought it down to third place by the middle of the decade. In the 1990s Itochu made several investments in the media