Mauricio Macri is the current President of Argentina and has been in office since 2015. A former civil engineer, Macri won the first presidential runoff ballotage in Argentina's history and is the first democratically-elected non-Radical or Peronist president since 1916, he was chief of government of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2015, represented the city in the lower house of the Congress of Argentina from 2005 to 2007. The reintegration of Argentina into the international community is central to Macri's agenda. Born in Tandil, Buenos Aires Province, Macri is the son of Franco Macri, a prominent Italian businessman in the industrial and construction sectors, was raised in an upper class home, he received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina and studied at Columbia Business School in New York City. Macri became president of Boca Juniors, one of Argentina's two most popular football clubs, in 1995. In 2005, he created the centre-right Republican Proposal party.
Although Macri was a potential presidential candidate in the 2011 general elections, he ran instead for reelection as mayor. He received about 47 percent of the vote in the mayoral election, which led to a runoff election on 31 July 2011 against Daniel Filmus in which Macri was reelected for a second consecutive term. On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of the presidential elections on 25 October, he received 51.34 percent of the vote to defeat Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and was inaugurated on 10 December 2015 in the Argentine Congress. In 2016, Macri was named one of the world's 100 most influential people and the most powerful president in Latin America by the U. S. news magazine Time. Macri was born in Tandil in the province of Buenos Aires, the son of Italian-born tycoon Francesco "Franco" Macri and Alicia Blanco-Villegas Cinque; the family moved to Buenos Aires a short time and kept their houses in Tandil as vacation properties. His father, his uncle Jorge Blanco Villegas, influenced Macri to become a businessman, Franco expected his son to succeed him as leader of his firms.
Macri preferred his uncle's company to constant scrutiny by his father. He was educated at Colegio Cardenal Newman, received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina. At this time Macri became interested in neoliberalism and joined the now-defunct Union of the Democratic Centre and a think tank led by former minister Álvaro Alsogaray. In 1985, he attended Columbia Business School, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and the Universidad del CEMA in Buenos Aires. Macri's professional experience began at SIDECO Americana, a construction company, part of his father's Socma Group holding company, where he worked for three years as a junior analyst and became a senior analyst. In 1984, he worked in the credit department of Citibank Argentina in Buenos Aires. Macri joined Socma Group the same year, became its general manager in 1985. In 1992, he became vice president of Sevel Argentina, became president two years later. In 1991, Macri was kidnapped for 12 days by officers of the Argentine Federal Police.
Kept in a small room with a chemical toilet and a hole in the roof to receive food, he was freed when his family paid a multimillion-dollar ransom. Macri has said, his first wife was daughter of race-car driver Juan Manuel Bordeu. They had three sons: Agustina and Francisco. After they divorced, Macri married model Isabel Menditeguy in 1994. Although the marriage reached a crisis when Macri became chairman of Boca Juniors, they did not divorce until 2005, he began a romance with María Laura Groba. Macri left Groba in 2010, began a relationship with businesswoman Juliana Awada and married Awada that year. At the wedding reception, he wore a fake moustache as part of his impersonation of singer Freddie Mercury. Macri accidentally swallowed the moustache, Minister of Health Jorge Lemus performed first aid to save his life. Macri intended to run for chairman of Boca Juniors in 1991, but his father convinced him to keep working at Sevel, he tried to buy the Deportivo Español team, but could not get support from the team's board of directors.
Macri supported Boca Juniors, paying coach César Luis Menotti's salary and buying players for the team. Franco, skeptical about his son's prospects for success allowed him to run Boca Juniors, he instructed aide Orlando Salvestrini to work with Mauricio for two reasons: to help him and to monitor his activities. Mauricio met with former Boca Juniors chairmen Antonio Alegre and Carlos Heller, tried to convince them to work with him. Macri sought the support of other groups in Boca Juniors winning the team's internal elections in 1995 with 7058 votes, his first years were unsuccessful. The only initial improvement was a partial reconstruction of the stadium, he arranged that the Boca Juniors institution worked in the stock exchange, to earn enough money to buy new players. Macri's first coach was Carlos Salvador Bilardo, who brought 14 new players to the team and finished the 1996 Apertura league in 10th place, his second coach, Héctor Veira performed poorly. New coach C
La Pampa Province
La Pampa is a sparsely populated province of Argentina, located in the Pampas in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise San Luis, Córdoba, Buenos Aires, Río Negro, Neuquén and Mendoza. In 1604 Hernandarias was the first European explorer to reach the area, but it was not until the 18th century. Resistance of the local indigenous people prevented much expansion until the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, it did not cease until Julio Roca's conquest of the desert in the 19th century. The territory was divided between the officers, they erected the first Spanish settlements; the Territorio Nacional de La Pampa Central was erected in 1884, containing the Río Negro Province and parts of other surrounding provinces. It had around 25,000 inhabitants. By 1915 there were a reflection of movement to that area. In 1945 the territory was divided and La Pampa became a province. In 1952 its constitution was written and the province was renamed after Eva Peron. In 1955 after the government changed and the Peróns went into exile, both La Pampa and Chaco, named for Juan Perón, were reverted to their original names.
There are only two major rivers in the province: the Colorado on the border with the Province of Río Negro, the Salado crossing it. The Salado's level has been dropping, as its tributaries in the Province of Mendoza are diverted for irrigation; the general aspect of the central-eastern part of the province is that of a plain tilted to the east, dissected by valleys. The surface of the plain has a calcrete crust; the valleys of La Pampa, known as the transverse valleys are NE-SW oriented, with breads of various kilometers and lengths of tens of kilometers. Some of the valleys host large fossil inland dunes. Functioning as windfunnels for sand at present these valleys are an ecotone region between the Dry and Humid Pampas. While flat the province do contains mountains like Sierra de Lihuel Calel where a variety of landforms can be observed including inselbergs, flared slopes, nubbins, tors and gnammas. Most of Sierra de Lihuel Calel is made up ignimbrite, a volcanic rock type, violently erupted by ancient volcanoes.
Being located in the Pampas, the province has a cool temperate climate. In general, the province is dominated by two different types of climates: a temperate one in the east and a semi-arid one in the west. Precipitation decreases from east to west and from north to south. Being characterized by large thermal amplitudes, the climate of the province has continental characteristics in the west where thermal amplitudes are much larger; the general atmospheric circulation is one of the most important factors that influence the climate on a regional scale. During summer, the South Atlantic High is displaced to the southeast, which brings hot and humid air masses from the north and northeast; the South Pacific High in summer is responsible for bringing cooler air masses from the southwest which when these two contrasting air masses meet lead to precipitation occurring. In contrast, winters are dry due the northward displacement of the South Atlantic high and the topographic barrier of the Andes north of 40oS which prevents frontal systems that bring precipitation from reaching the province.
Any winds from the southwest during winter bring in cold and dry weather since most of the precipitation and humidity are released in the Andes. As such, most of the precipitation occurs during summer. Mean annual temperatures in the province range between 14 to 16 °C although the thermal amplitude is large. In summer, mean temperatures in the warmest month range from 24 °C in the north and northeastern parts to 22 °C in the west and southwestern parts of the province. Temperatures tend to be cooler in the west owing to the higher altitudes. In winter, mean temperatures in the coldest month range from 8 °C in the north to 6 °C in the west and southwest; the northern parts are the warmest parts of the province. The lowest temperatures recorded range from −10 °C in the northeast to −17 °C in the southwest. One characteristic of the precipitation in the province is that most of the precipitation occurs from October to March with little precipitation during winter. Mean annual precipitation ranges from a low of 260 mm in the southwest to 820 mm in the northeast.
Precipitation decreases from northeast to southwest. Most of the precipitation is caused by frontal systems. Precipitation is variable from year to year. La Pampa, long Argentina's most economically agricultural province, produced an estimated US$3.144 billion in output in 2006, or, US$10,504 per capita. Now, the GDP per capita of the province is of US$14.000. Agriculture contributes a fourth to La Pampa's economy, the most important activity being cattle ranching, with 3,632,684 head, which takes place all over the province. Other livestock include 140,498 goats and 64,118 pigs; the Northeast, on the more fertile lands, has an important activity with wheat, maize, alfalfa and other cereals. There's a dairy industry of 300 centres of extraction and 25 cheese factories, honey production, salt extraction from salt basins. La Pampa is home to little
Catamarca is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. The province had a population of 334,568 as per the 2001 census, covers an area of 102,602 km2, its literacy rate is 95.5%. Neighbouring provinces are: Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Córdoba, La Rioja. To the west it borders the country of Chile; the capital is San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca shortened to Catamarca. Other important cities include Andalgalá, Belén. Most of Catamarca’s territory of 102,602 square kilometers, is covered by mountains, which can be grouped into four differentiated systems: the Pampean sierras, in the east and center. Located in an arid and semi-arid climate zone, the scarce water resources determine the human settlement pattern. Agricultural activities are concentrated in the valleys between the mountains. In the east the population is concentrated around a number of water courses, water being distributed by canals and irrigation ditches; the province is located with the semi–arid region of Argentina.
Mean annual precipitation of the province is around 400 to 500 millimetres which decreases to the west. The province is characterized by the presence of different microclimates based on variations in altitude. In general, there are three different climatic zones found within the province; the northeastern parts of the province has a subtropical highland climate, characterized by abundant rainfall and high temperatures. Summers are hot. At the highest peaks of Sierra del Aconquija, snow cover is permanent. Most of the province and its intermontane valleys have an arid climate. Within these valleys which includes the provincial capital, the climate is characterized by its extreme aridity, large thermal amplitudes and strong northeastern winds; the region is characterized by abundant sunshine with winds predominantly coming from the northeast and southeast. Nonetheless, there is large variation between different locations owing to differences in altitude and differences in the relief and altitudes of the surrounding mountains that enclose the valleys.
Mean annual precipitation ranges from 500 to 700 millimetres in the eastern parts of the region to less than 150 millimetres in the west. In the arid valleys, mean annual precipitation is around 160 millimetres. Most of the precipitation occurs during summer, falling as short but heavy bursts with the rest of the year being dry. Mean annual temperatures range between 16 to 18 °C with eastern and central parts having mean annual temperatures of 20 °C. In summer, the mean temperature is 25 °C although they can reach up to 45 °C. Winters, with a mean temperature of 10 °C are characterized by frequent frosts. Locations in the west experience colder winters due to their higher altitudes with temperatures that can decrease to −30 °C. During winter, the Zonda wind occurs, leading to dry conditions that can lead to dust storms. In the extreme west of the province is the Puna region located in the Antofagasta de la Sierra Department; the region has a desert climate with low precipitation. This is due to the mountains.
Mean annual precipitation decreases from north to south and from east to west. Owing to its high altitude, the climate is characterized by low temperatures; the thermal amplitude is large, reaching up to 40 °C due to the combination of low humidity and high solar radiation. Before the arrival of the Spanish conquest, most of today's Catamarca was inhabited by the Diaguitas indigenous people, including the fierce Calchaquí tribe. In 1558 Juan Pérez de Zurita founded San Juan de la Ribera de Londres, but since it was under attack by indigenous people its population remained small; the sixth foundation was by Fernando de Mendoza Mate de Luna on July 5, 1683, with the name San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca. When the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created in 1776, Catamarca obtained the title of Subintendencia under the Salta intendency. In 1821, the province claimed its autonomy, Nicolás Avellaneda y Tula was elected as the first governor of the province; the name is believed to come either from Quechua cata'slope' and marca'fortress', or from Aymara catán'small' and marca'town'.
Catamarca remained isolated from the rest of Argentina by its mountains until 1888, when the expanding railways first appeared in the province. Attracting immigrants with its spacious, fertile valleys and dry, agreeable weather, Catamarca was soon favored by immigrants from Lebanon and Iran, who found Catamarca reminiscent of the fertile, orchard-lined mountain valleys of the homes they left behind. One such family, the Saadis, became prominent in local commerce and politics. In 1949, the newly designated province elected Vicente Saadi as governor. Saadi, a Peronist, would become indispensable to local politics, exerting influence by proxy. Passing away in 1988, he was succeeded by his son Ramon. In 1990, close friends of the Saadis were involved in the
Río Negro Province
Río Negro is a province of Argentina, located at the northern edge of Patagonia. Neighboring provinces are from the south clockwise Chubut, Neuquén, Mendoza, La Pampa and Buenos Aires. To the east lies the Atlantic Ocean, its capital is Viedma. Other important cities include the ski resort town of General Roca and Cipolletti. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European explorer to visit the coasts of the provinces in 1520. Italian priest Nicolás Mascardi founded the Jesuit mission Nuestra Senora de Nahuel Huapi in 1670 at the shore of the Nahuel Huapi Lake, at the feet of the Andes range. Part of the Argentine territory called Patagonia, in 1884 it was organised into the Territorio Nacional del Río Negro and General Lorenzo Vintter was appointed as the territory's first governor, it was only in 1957. Río Negro is one of the six provinces, it is bounded to the north by the Colorado River which separates it from La Pampa Province, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and to the west by the Andes and the Limay River.
The 42nd parallel south marks the southern limit of the province. With an area of 203,013 square kilometres, it is the 4th largest province by area; the climate of the province is temperate at low elevations, cold in the higher Andean peaks. The mean annual temperatures in the province are cold for its latitude owing to the marine currents to the east and higher altitude to the west. Mean annual temperatures in the province can vary, depending on distance from the sea; the northern parts of the province are the warmest, with a mean annual temperature of more than 15 °C while the coldest areas are found in the Cordillera where the mean annual temperatures are less than 10 °C. At the highest peaks, the mean annual temperature is less than freezing. Summer temperatures can exceed 40 °C although the mean January temperatures range from 20 to 24 °C. In contrast, the Andean region has milder summers with mean January temperatures of 15 °C or less, depending on the altitude. In July, mean temperatures range from 7 to 8 °C on the coast in the north to around 2 to 3 °C in the central plateau.
Relative humidity is lower in the central plateau where they average 50%. Along the coastal regions, humidity is higher with a mean annual humidity of 60% while the Andean region has the highest humidity with an average annual humidity exceeding 65% due to the lower temperatures there. In all locations, humidity is lower in the summer and higher in the winter owing to the higher temperatures in the summer; the Andes block most of the moisture from the Pacific Ocean from coming in, causing it to release most of the precipitation on its western slopes and as such, most of the province is dry, with a mean annual precipitation around 200 millimetres. Coastal areas and northern parts of the province receive a higher precipitation, where it can average above 300 millimetres a year; the Andean region receives the most precipitation with areas receiving a mean annual precipitation of 200 to 1,000 millimetres in which the precipitation gradient is strong and increases westwards. In some places, precipitation can exceed 3,000 millimetres a year.
Most of the Andean region has a rainfall pattern, Mediterranean like, similar to Central Chile in which most of the precipitation falls during the winter months and summers are dry. One dominant characteristic of the climate is the strong winds that are observed throughout the province. Summers tend to be windier than winters. Winds coming from the west and northwest are common, occurring 50% of the time. There is some tendency for the winds to come from the east on the coastal regions when sea breezes from the east can occur when westerly winds are weak, which can be felt up to 10 kilometres from the coast; the mean wind speed throughout the province varies with the northern parts having the lowest wind speeds while the highest altitude areas being the windiest. Except for the northern parts of the province, mean annual wind speeds exceed 4 metres per second. Cloud cover varies throughout the province, ranging from more than 60% in the Andean region to about 40% in the coastal areas; the central plateaus have intermediate amounts of cloud cover between these 2 regions.
As such, the Andean region is cloudier than the rest of the province. Sunshine ranges from 10–11 hours of sunshine/day in January to about 5 hours of sunshine/day to less than 3 hours of sunshine/day in July. According to the results from the 2010 census, the province has a population of 638,645 with 316,774 males and 321,871 females, it constitutes 1.6% of the total population in Argentina. This represented a 15.5% increase in the population compared to 2001 census which had 552,822 inhabitants. Amongst of all the provinces in Patagonia, it is the most populous, containing 30.4% of the total population in Patagonia. The province is home to four indigenous groups: The Tehuelches, the Puelches, the Pehuenches, the Mapuches. All of the indigenous population in the province are the Mapuches with the rest being small in number where their few descendants live in the neighbouring provinces; the Mapuches along with some of the Pehuenches lived in the western parts of the province although today, they live in the southern
Santa Fe Province
The Province of Santa Fe is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Chaco, Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Santiago del Estero. Together with Córdoba and Entre Ríos, the province is part of the economico-political association known as the Center Region. Santa Fe's most important cities are Rosario, the capital Santa Fe, Villa Gobernador Gálvez, Venado Tuerto and Santo Tomé; the adult literacy rate in the province is 96.3% The aboriginal tribes who inhabited this region were the Tobas, Timbúes, Mocovíes, Pilagás, Guaycurúes, Guaraníes. They were nomadic, lived from hunting and fruit recollection; the first European settlement was established in 1527, at the confluence of the Paraná and Carcarañá rivers, when Sebastián Gaboto, on his way to the north, founded a fort named Sancti Spiritus, destroyed two years by the natives. In 1573 Juan de Garay founded the city of Santa Fe in the surroundings of present town Cayastá, but the city was moved in 1651 and 1660 to its present location.
In 1812 the lawyer and general Manuel Belgrano created and displayed for the first time the Argentine flag on the banks of the Paraná River, at Rosario, 160 km south of Santa Fe. In 1815, while Alvear's central government felt due to Ignacio Álvarez Thomas' rebellion, Francisco Candioti, the local militia chief, took over, peacefully, of government, thus starting the era of Santa Fe as an autonomous province; this period was short lived, since that same year Candioti died and central government reestablished the dependent government. However, in 1816, the caudillos Mariano Vera and Estanislao López deposed the governor delegate and proclaimed the sovereignty of the province and its membership into Artigas's Free Peoples League. López drew, in 1818, a provincial constitution of a conservative flavour, after rejecting a project proposed by a provincial assembly. During the civil strifes of 1820, Santa Fe troops were decisive in the defeat of Buenos Aires' centralist army. So, in time, López became the Federation's Patriarch, establishing himself as the central figure of the Federal Party until his death in 1838.
After López's death it was José María Cullen the one elected governor. However, being Cullen a potential rival of Buenos Aires governor and Confederation's Foreign Affairs Representative, Juan Manuel de Rosas, he sought and got Cullen's capture and execution, naming pro-Rosas Juan Pablo López as governor; the new governor maintained in power, alterning with Pascual Echagüe, until the province invasion by Justo José de Urquiza's Great Army in 1851, during his term the province adopted a new constitution in 1841. After the organization of the nation, the province entered an era of prosperity; the political hegemony of the conservative groups was challenged by the new ideas brought by the European immigrants gave birth to the Radical Civic Union and the Progressive Democratic Party, the creation of the Argentine Agrarian Federation. These two parties had many strong electoral contests with the province's conservative parties. After the Electoral Reform of Roque Sáenz Peña in 1912, the UCR reached the government and stayed until the coup of 1930.
During this time, more in 1919, the National University of the Littoral was founded. In 1932 it was the PDP; the contentious 1958 elections brought an ally of President-elect Arturo Frondizi to power in Santa Fe, Dr. Carlos Sylvestre Begnis. Gov. Begnis steered budgets into sorely needed public works, most notably the construction of the Hernandarias Tunnel, a 10-mile -long connection between the city of Santa Fe and neighboring Paraná; the tunnel, most of which runs under the massive Paraná River, is the longest in Argentina. Forced to resign after conservative pressure drove Pres. Frondizi from office in 1962, Begnis had the satisfaction of seeing Hernandarias open in 1969 and voters overwhelmingly return him to office in 1973. Santa Fe suffered the violence of the late'70s and the depression of the 1980s more than most other provinces, it continued to languish economically during the prosperous 1990s, as the revalued Argentine peso put pressure on its productive sectors. Touching bottom around 2002, its economy has grown by 7% a year since then.
The heart of Argentina's lucrative soy harvest, the province's importance has continued to grow, now rivaling Buenos Aires Province as the nation's leading agricultural producer, with Rosario as one of the most important ports in Argentina. Most of the province consists of green flatlands, part of the humid Pampas, bordering to the north with the Gran Chaco region. There are low sierras to the west; the north has higher temperatures, with an annual average of 19 °C and precipitations of up to 1,100 millimetres in the east, decreasing towards the west, where there is a distinctive dry season during the winter. The south presents lower temperatures, averaging 14 °C, less precipitations. Summers are hot and humid throughout the province, with average highs ranging from 30 °C in the south to 34 °C
2011 Argentine general election
Argentina held national presidential and legislative elections on Sunday, 23 October 2011. Incumbent president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner secured a second term in office after the Front for Victory won just over half of the seats in the National Congress. Mercosur Parliamentarians were popularly elected for the first time. Another novelty was the introduction of open and mandatory primaries; these took place 14 August 2011 to select the candidates of each political coalition. The nation's myriad parties forged seven coalitions, of which five became contenders for a possible runoff election: Front for Victory: the ruling party, led by President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, allies, including the New Encounter; the FpV is based on the center-left Justicialist Party factions that support the current government. Federal Peronism, or Dissident Peronism: centrist or conservative PJ figures opposed to the government and allies, including the Republican Proposal; this coalition remained divided between Eduardo Duhalde's Popular Front and Alberto Rodríguez Saá's Federal Commitment both before and after the August primaries.
Union for Social Development: the Radical Civic Union, led by Congressman Ricardo Alfonsín, allies, which included Federal Peronist Francisco de Narváez. Broad Progressive Front: the Socialist Party, led by Governor Hermes Binner, allies, including GEN and the New Party. Proyecto Sur had joined this coalition. Civic Coalition: the party, led by Congresswoman Elisa Carrió, had been part of the Civic and Social Agreement, but separated from the latter in August 2010. Other coalitions of note include the Workers' Left Front, led by Jorge Altamira, Proyecto Sur, led by Pino Solanas; the Civic and Social Agreement was an alliance between the UCR and most of what became the Progressive Ample Front and the Civic Coalition, with other, minor allies. This coalition proved unwieldy as the 2011 campaign progressed, though various forms of it will be retained in certain provinces for strategic purposes; the Front for Victory candidate for the Justicialist Party primaries was current President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.
Her husband and predecessor, Néstor Kirchner, was considered a top candidate to succeed Fernández until his death on 27 October 2010. Fernández had suffered a significant decline in approval during the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector and the subsequent recession, the ruling Front for Victory lost its absolute majority in both houses of Congress during the June 2009 mid-term elections; the economy, her approval ratings, recovered during 2010, the 2011 electoral season began with Fernández' job approval at around 58 percent, with polling indicating that she would be reelected in the first round. Fernández avoided committing herself to running for a second term during the early months of 2011. Two days before the 23 June deadline, she announced her decision to run for reelection, she nominated Amado Boudou, as her running mate on 25 June. Their ticket won a landslide victory in the 14 August primaries, obtaining just over 50% and besting the runner-up by nearly 38%.
Support for Fernández was strongest among the poor and those aged 30 to 44. Her support was weakest among the upper middle class, though she remained over 24% ahead of the runner-up among those polled within that segment; the leaders of the center-right Federal Peronism were torn between running for primary elections within the PJ against the Front for Victory, or running instead in the general election through another political alliance. Former President Eduardo Duhalde was the first to informally start his pre-candidacy campaign, announcing hypothetical cabinet picks as early as December 2009; the Governors of Chubut, Mario Das Neves, of San Luis, Alberto Rodríguez Saá, as well as former Governor of Buenos Aires Province Felipe Solá stated their intention to run for president. Das Neves became the first Federal Peronist to drop out, while Solá boosted his own prospects by securing an alliance with the conservative Republican Proposal on 16 May. Duhalde narrowly defeated Rodríguez Saá in a Buenos Aires Federal Peronism primary held on 22 May, though both men remained front-runners for their party's nomination.
Each ran on separate Federal Peronist tickets. Duhalde formally announced his Popular Union candidacy on 9 June, nominating Das Neves as his running mate. Rodríguez Saá, in turn, nominated former Santa Fe Governor José María Vernet as his running mate on his Federal Commitment ticket. Solá, who struggled in the polls, withdrew on 11 June, encouraging local candidates in his fold to form alliances with Duhalde and the party's candidate for Buenos Aires Governor, Francisco de Narváez. De Narváez endorsed Rodríguez Saá. Support for Duhalde was strongest among weakest among young voters. Rodríguez Saá polled best among upper middle class voters and those age 30 to 44; the center-left Radical Civic Union had scheduled primaries for 28 April. Both Ricardo Alfonsín, son of the late former President Raúl Alfonsín, current party leader Ernesto Sanz started pre-candidacy campaigns. Vice President Julio Cobos, considered a UCR primary candidate, had stated his intention to run only in August, during the coalition primaries.
The UCR and the Socialist Party (partners in the Civic and
Foreign relations of Argentina
This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina. At the political level, these matters are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Relations known as the Cancillería, which answers to the President; the Minister of Foreign Relations, since June 2016, is Chancellor Jorge Faurie. Owing to its geographical remoteness, local authorities in what is today Argentina developed an early sense of autonomy. Based on economic needs, during colonial times their pragmatism led to a flourishing unofficial market in smuggled goods, out of the then-small port of Buenos Aires, in blatant contravention of the Spanish mercantilist laws. With the Enlightened despotism of the late-eighteenth-century Bourbon kings and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, trade increased as the political importance of the port-city of Buenos Aires soared; the urgency for a complete liberalization of commerce remained a powerful political cause for Criollos and Mestizos, further stimulated by the politically egalitarian and revolutionary ideals spread by the French and Anglo-American revolutions.
The actual experience of defending without Spanish aid the viceroyalty from a foreign invader during the 1806–1807 British invasions of the Río de la Plata, triggered a decisive quest for greater autonomy from the colonial metropolis. Between 1808 and 1810, the Napoleonic French Empire invaded Spain, after deposing King Ferdinand VII and taking him prisoner. A Spanish resistance formed an emergency government, the Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom in order to govern themselves and the Spanish Empire in the absence of Ferdinand VII. But, when the Supreme Central Junta dissolved itself on 29 January 1810, under extreme pressure from Napoleonic forces, most of the main cities of Spanish America refused to acknowledge its successor, a Regency Council, as the legitimate depositary of sovereignty, they proceed to name their own local juntas, as a means to exercise government in the absence of the prisoner king. On 25 May 1810, a Criollo-led cabildo abierto formally assumed the authority from Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros.
However, the ensuing United Provinces of South America declared itself independent on 9 July 1816, after Ferdinand VII was restored in 1815. During the Independence Wars no sovereign state recognized the United Provinces; until the fall of the Royalist stronghold of Lima in 1821, the Battle of Ayacucho of 1824, territorial integrity was sustained by the military brilliance of Generals José de San Martín and Manuel Belgrano, the continuous efforts of northern provinces defenders Martín Miguel de Güemes and Juana Azurduy, among many others. However, during this same period, internecine power conflicts among diverse leaders, ideological and economical struggles developed between Buenos Aires Province and much of the rest of the United Provinces, with many of the Provinces bonding themselves into a Federal League, inspired by Federalist José Gervasio Artigas' leadership. In practice, each side treated the other's grievances as a "foreign policy" matter; the Unitarian Constitution of 1819 was rejected by the provinces, a state of anarchy ensued following the Battle of Cepeda.
The only cause that could regain unity among the hostile factions was the 1825 invasion of what today is Uruguay on the part of Brazilian Empire. Uruguay known as the Province of the Eastern Bank of the Uruguay River, was considered a somewhat breakaway Province, since Montevideo served as the seat of the Royalist Viceroy Francisco Javier de Elío during its war on the May Revolution; the war crisis led to a new Constitution and a first semblance of a united national government, at the same time it represented the first foreign policy crisis of the young nation, as it forced the nation into war with Brazil. The common cause the crisis provided did lead to enough institutional stability to have the British Empire recognize Argentina and led to the election of the first President of Argentina; the opportunity for unity, was wasted because the new President, Bernardino Rivadavia, pushed a new Constitution more biased towards Buenos Aires' agenda than the failed 1819 document. The war with Brazil, went badly.
Land battles were won, early on, despite some heroic feats on the part on Irish-born Admiral Guillermo Brown, the war dragged on, resulting in bankruptcy. This and the hated new constitution led to the end of the first republic by 1828. 26 September 1828 treaty itself became another foreign policy crisis, as it triggered a violent coup d'état by generals opposed to what they saw as a unilateral surrender. The murder of the man responsible for the treaty, Buenos Aires Governor Manuel Dorrego, itself led to a countercoup that brought with it the promise of a lasting peace; the countercoup brought in a new governor for the Buenos Aires Province, who would in time become the leading figure of a loose confederation of Argentine Provinces. Juan Manuel de Rosas made it his mission to stabilize Argentina in a confederacy under the tutelage of Buenos Aires Province; this led to repression, massacres of Native