La Pampa Province
La Pampa is a sparsely populated province of Argentina, located in the Pampas in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise San Luis, Córdoba, Buenos Aires, Río Negro, Neuquén and Mendoza. In 1604 Hernandarias was the first European explorer to reach the area, but it was not until the 18th century. Resistance of the local indigenous people prevented much expansion until the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, it did not cease until Julio Roca's conquest of the desert in the 19th century. The territory was divided between the officers, they erected the first Spanish settlements; the Territorio Nacional de La Pampa Central was erected in 1884, containing the Río Negro Province and parts of other surrounding provinces. It had around 25,000 inhabitants. By 1915 there were a reflection of movement to that area. In 1945 the territory was divided and La Pampa became a province. In 1952 its constitution was written and the province was renamed after Eva Peron. In 1955 after the government changed and the Peróns went into exile, both La Pampa and Chaco, named for Juan Perón, were reverted to their original names.
There are only two major rivers in the province: the Colorado on the border with the Province of Río Negro, the Salado crossing it. The Salado's level has been dropping, as its tributaries in the Province of Mendoza are diverted for irrigation; the general aspect of the central-eastern part of the province is that of a plain tilted to the east, dissected by valleys. The surface of the plain has a calcrete crust; the valleys of La Pampa, known as the transverse valleys are NE-SW oriented, with breads of various kilometers and lengths of tens of kilometers. Some of the valleys host large fossil inland dunes. Functioning as windfunnels for sand at present these valleys are an ecotone region between the Dry and Humid Pampas. While flat the province do contains mountains like Sierra de Lihuel Calel where a variety of landforms can be observed including inselbergs, flared slopes, nubbins, tors and gnammas. Most of Sierra de Lihuel Calel is made up ignimbrite, a volcanic rock type, violently erupted by ancient volcanoes.
Being located in the Pampas, the province has a cool temperate climate. In general, the province is dominated by two different types of climates: a temperate one in the east and a semi-arid one in the west. Precipitation decreases from east to west and from north to south. Being characterized by large thermal amplitudes, the climate of the province has continental characteristics in the west where thermal amplitudes are much larger; the general atmospheric circulation is one of the most important factors that influence the climate on a regional scale. During summer, the South Atlantic High is displaced to the southeast, which brings hot and humid air masses from the north and northeast; the South Pacific High in summer is responsible for bringing cooler air masses from the southwest which when these two contrasting air masses meet lead to precipitation occurring. In contrast, winters are dry due the northward displacement of the South Atlantic high and the topographic barrier of the Andes north of 40oS which prevents frontal systems that bring precipitation from reaching the province.
Any winds from the southwest during winter bring in cold and dry weather since most of the precipitation and humidity are released in the Andes. As such, most of the precipitation occurs during summer. Mean annual temperatures in the province range between 14 to 16 °C although the thermal amplitude is large. In summer, mean temperatures in the warmest month range from 24 °C in the north and northeastern parts to 22 °C in the west and southwestern parts of the province. Temperatures tend to be cooler in the west owing to the higher altitudes. In winter, mean temperatures in the coldest month range from 8 °C in the north to 6 °C in the west and southwest; the northern parts are the warmest parts of the province. The lowest temperatures recorded range from −10 °C in the northeast to −17 °C in the southwest. One characteristic of the precipitation in the province is that most of the precipitation occurs from October to March with little precipitation during winter. Mean annual precipitation ranges from a low of 260 mm in the southwest to 820 mm in the northeast.
Precipitation decreases from northeast to southwest. Most of the precipitation is caused by frontal systems. Precipitation is variable from year to year. La Pampa, long Argentina's most economically agricultural province, produced an estimated US$3.144 billion in output in 2006, or, US$10,504 per capita. Now, the GDP per capita of the province is of US$14.000. Agriculture contributes a fourth to La Pampa's economy, the most important activity being cattle ranching, with 3,632,684 head, which takes place all over the province. Other livestock include 140,498 goats and 64,118 pigs; the Northeast, on the more fertile lands, has an important activity with wheat, maize, alfalfa and other cereals. There's a dairy industry of 300 centres of extraction and 25 cheese factories, honey production, salt extraction from salt basins. La Pampa is home to little
Entre Ríos Province
Entre Ríos is a central province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region. It borders the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, Uruguay in the east, its capital is Paraná, which lies opposite the city of Santa Fe. Together with Córdoba and Santa Fe, since 1999, the province is part of the economic-political association known as the Center Region; the first inhabitants of the area, now Entre Ríos were the Charrúa and Chaná who each occupied separate parts of the region. Spaniards entered in 1520, when Rodríguez Serrano ventured up the Uruguay River searching for the Pacific Ocean; the first permanent Spanish settlement was erected in the current La Paz Department at the end of the 16th century. As governor of Asunción first and of Buenos Aires, Hernandarias conducted expeditions to Entre Ríos unexplored lands. Juan de Garay, after founding Santa Fe, explored this area. However, the region remained indigenous and uninhabited by Europeans until a group of colonists from neighbouring Santa Fe Province settled on the Bajada del Paraná in the late seventeenth century, now the site of the provincial capital.
At the same time towns appear, which we now know as Nogoyá, Gualeguay, Gualeguaychú, Concepción del Uruguay and Concordia. Tomás de Rocamora further explored the area in 1783 under the threat of a Portuguese invasion from Brazil, gave official status to many of the above-mentioned towns, he was the first to refer to the region as Entre Ríos. At this stage, European settlement was minimal, though during the May Revolution, the few colonists in the cities along the Paraná shore supported Manuel Belgrano and his army on his way to Paraguay. On September 29, 1820, the leader Francisco Ramírez declared the territory an autonomous entity, the Republic of Entre Ríos; this lasted until his assassination on July 10 of the next year. In 1853, in a meeting of all the provinces except Buenos Aires, Paraná was elected as the capital of the Argentine Confederation, the Governor of Entre Ríos and leader Urquiza as its first president; the provincial capital was moved to Concepción del Uruguay. Urquiza, who had first won against Buenos Aires at the Battle of Cepeda in 1859, let his troops move back in the Battle of Pavón in 1861, which allowed his rival Bartolomé Mitre from Buenos Aires to become president.
At the time he was fulfilling his third term as governor of the province from 1860 to 1864 and after a voluntary interruption was reelected in 1886, but he was assassinated in 1870 after altogether 16 years of governing before finishing his mandate, ordered by his supportor Ricardo López Jordán, not trusting him anymore. Urquiza encouraged immigration through "colonization contracts", setting up many agricultural colonies with European settlers. According to data of the 1903 census, of the 425,373 inhabitants of the province, 153,067 were immigrants. Entre Rios' economy is the sixth largest in Argentina, its output in 2006 was estimated at US$7.71 billion, or, US$6,710 per capita in 2006. In 2013, its output was estimated at $63.814 billon Pesos or, 48,327 pesos per capita at current market prices. This was 21% below the average GDP per capita of 69,678 pesos for Argentina in 2013 at current market prices, its economy has long been more agricultural than the median in Argentina, comprising about 15% of output.
Entre Rios' agricultural products include rice, wheat and citrus of which it is the second biggest producer, exporting 16% of the production to Europe. Livestock production focuses on cattle, in sheep production in a decreasing proportion, covering 60,000 km²; the dairy industry in expansion, produces 250 thousand tons per year of dairy products. Of the national production of chickens and eggs, Entre Ríos contributes 37% of the first and 25% percent of the second. Another emerging production is honey and its derivatives for export. Manufacturing has a sizable presence in Entre Rios, making up another 15% of output, its industries are linked to agriculture, as in food and drinks industry and flour and rice mills. Other industries include timber-wood, chemical and machinery; as part of the Mesopotamic region, the land is completely flat, with hills some 100 meters in height. There are two main systems of low hills, called lomadas or cuchillas: the Cuchilla de Montiel and the Cuchilla Grande, which are separated by the Gualeguay River.
The name of the province means "between rivers". Entre Ríos is limited and traversed by many rivers and streams: the Paraná River and its delta to the west and south. Two national parks are located within the province: El Palmar National Park and Predelta National Park. There are hot springs in several locations along the basin of the Uruguay River, located in cities like Federación, Villa Elisa, Colón, etc; the province is divided into 2 climatic regions: The first one is a humid, temperate climate that covers most of the central and southern parts of the province. Mean temperatures range from 10 °C in winter to 26 °C in summer while the mean annual precipitation in this region is 1,000 millimetres; the second climatic region is a subtropical climate located in the northern parts of the pr
La Rioja, Argentina
La Rioja is the capital city of the Argentine province of La Rioja, located in the east of the province. The city has a population of 150,000 according to the 2001 census. La Rioja is located on the foot of the Velasco Sierras, 1,167 km from Buenos Aires, 430 km from Córdoba, it was founded in 1591 by the governor of Tucumán Province. La Rioja has a semi-arid climate, with average temperatures of 5 °C to 19 °C in winter and 21 °C to 35 °C in summer, but with maximum temperatures of more than 45 °C; the average annual rainfall is 411.4 mm, falling exclusively during the summer when moist tropical air from the northeast enters the region. The highest recorded temperature was 46.4 °C on December 28, 1971 while the lowest recorded temperature was −7.2 °C on August 5, 1966. The Museo Folklórico is set in a 17th-century building, its displays include local chaya music and the Tinkunaco festival. Official page Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina.
City Information Universidad Nacional de La Rioja
Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region. It is surrounded by Paraguay to the northwest, Brazil to the north and south, Corrientes Province of Argentina to the southwest; this was an early area of Roman Catholic missionary activity by the Society of Jesus in what was called the Province of Paraguay, beginning in the early 17th century. In 1984 the ruins of four mission sites in Argentina were designated World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Indigenous peoples of various cultures lived in the area of the future province for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, it was occupied by the Kaingang and Xokleng followed by the Guarani; the first European to visit the region, Sebastian Cabot, discovered Apipé Falls while navigating the Paraná River in December 1527. In 1541 Álvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca reached the Iguazú Falls. In the 17th century, members of the Society of Jesus came to the region as missionaries.
They began to establish a string of Jesuit Reductions, most notably that of San Ignacio. In a few years they set up 30 mission villages, they crafts. Their crafts were sold and traded along the river and they shared in the Reductions' prosperity. In 1759 the Portuguese government, at the insistence of its anti-Jesuit Secretary of State, the Marquis de Pombal, ordered all Reductions closed in its territory; the Marquis prevailed in 1773 on Pope Clement XIV to have the Jesuit Order suppressed. With the abandoning of the missions, the prosperous trade surrounding these Reductions vanished. Colonists imposed a brutal plantation economy in the region, forcing the Guarani to act as slave labor. In 1814, Gervasio Posadas, the Director of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, declared Misiones annexed to Argentina's Corrientes. Argentina did not exert de facto control over Misiones, claimed by several countries and governed itself. In 1830 Argentine military forces from Corrientes Province took control of Misiones.
In 1838 Paraguay occupied Misiones, claiming the area on the basis that the Misiones population consisted of indigenous Guarani, the major ethnic group of Paraguay. In 1865 Paraguayan forces invaded Misiones again in. Following the defeat of Paraguay and its peace agreement with Argentina, Paraguay gave up its claim to the Misiones territory. Although Argentina had claimed Misiones since 1814, academics tend to interpret Argentine possession of Misiones as beginning with the defeat of Paraguay in the War of the Triple Alliance. Bethell writes that "the treaty of alliance contained secret clauses providing for the annexation of disputed territory in northern Paraguay by Brazil and regions in the east and west of Paraguay by Argentina... After a long and harrowing war, Argentina got it from a prostrate Paraguay territory in Misiones." Scobie states that "the political status of Misiones remained vague" and that Argentina gained the region "as a by-product of the Paraguayan war in the 1860s". The War of the Triple Alliance left Paraguay much impoverished, Misiones benefited economically from belonging to Argentina.
In 1876 the Argentine President Nicolás Avellaneda, assisted by his close friend, General Pietro Canestro, proclaimed the Immigration and Colonization Law. This law fostered the immigration of European colonists in order to populate the vast unspoiled Argentinian territories. Several colonizing companies formed under this law. One of them, Adolf Schwelm's Eldorado Colonización y Explotación de Bosques Ltda. S. A. founded the city of Eldorado in 1919 with a port on the Upper Paraná. Its agricultural colonies and experimental farms, the orange- and grapefruit-tree plantations, the cultivation of yerba mate, the mills and the dryers for such product are characteristic of this area. Swedish-Argentines became well known for growing yerba mate. Misiones received many immigrants from Europe, coming via Southern Brazil; some came from Buenos Aires, from Eastern Europe, in particular large numbers of Poles and Ukrainians. Since Misiones has continued to benefit economically and has developed politically within Argentina.
It has been integrated into the Argentine state. As of 2016 control of the province is not contested. On December 10, 1953 the "National Territory of Misiones" gained provincial status in accordance with Law 14.294, its constitution was approved on April 21, 1958. Misiones received more attention from national policy-makers following an international agreement to construct the Yacyretá hydroelectric dam on a point in the Paraná River shared by Paraguay and Corrientes Province; when the dam became operative in the 1990s, the Paraná's waters all along the Misiones shores rose. They flooded lands that the dam's authorities had failed to clear and condition adequately, resulting in the onset of mosquito-transmitted illnesses, such as leishmaniasis, yellow fever and malaria; the entire Misiones shores along the Paraná River is now confined by two dams, one of them Yaciretá, downstream of the river, the other Itaipú, located in Brazil and Paraguay, upstream of the river and north of Puerto Iguazú.
As of 2016 Argentina is pursuing an agreement with Paraguay to
La Rioja Province, Argentina
La Rioja is one of the provinces of Argentina and is located in the west of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Córdoba, San Luis and San Juan; the dinosaur Riojasaurus is named after the province. Petroglyphs created by early indigenous peoples at the Talampaya National Park is dated around 10,000 years BC. Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples developed here; the Diaguita and the Olongasta peoples inhabited the territory of present-day La Rioja Province at the time of encounter with the Spanish colonists in the 16th century. Juan Ramírez de Velazco founded Todos Los Santos de la Nueva Rioja in 1591 under the government of Tucumán of the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1630 the Calchaquí people revolted against the Spanish, but the governor Albornoz suppressed them. In 1783, after the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the control of the province of 10,000 inhabitants passed to the Córdoba independency; the province acquired independence from Córdoba in 1820.
Following attempts by Bernardino Rivadavia, the first elected President of Argentina, to impose a centralist constitution, the caudillo Juan Facundo Quiroga emerged as a popular leader. He represented their preference for more autonomy, for which they continued to press following Quiroga's 1835 assassination. After a period of internal instability in Argentina, the province joined the Argentine Confederation in 1853. La Rioja attracted fewer immigrants from Europe than did other Argentine provinces from 1890 to the 1930s; some Syrian and Lebanese immigrants did settle in the province, among whom the most well-known is the Menem family. Coming from what had been the Ottoman Empire, Saul Menem and his wife were of Armenian and Alawi ancestry, he sent his eldest son, Carlos Menem, to Spain for college. After the younger Menem was elected governor of La Rioja Province in March 1973, he implemented a number of reforms advocated by activists for the poor, rural majority those recommended by Bishop Enrique Angelelli.
Removed and imprisoned following the military ouster of President Isabel Perón in March 1976, Menem was kept in illegal confinement until the end of 1980. He was tortured during this time; the dictatorship repressed people in the province and was responsible for the brutal murder in August 1976 of Bishop Angelelli. After democracy was restored in 1983, Menem was overwhelmingly re-elected to office, he pursued conservative policies, leveraging La Rioja's dry, agreeable climate, its modest wage scale, skilled work-force, to attract La Rioja's first significant light industries bottling and food-processing. Having presided over a growing La Rioja economy as the nation's languished during the 1980s, Menem secured the Peronist Justicialist Party nomination for president in May 1988. Elected president of Argentina in 1988, Menem served until 1999. During those years, he steered billions in federal public works spending into La Rioja. Although the province remains less developed than the average in the nation, its economy today compares favorably with those of its neighbors.
Located in the Argentine Northwest area, its landscape is arid to semi-arid, the dry climate receives annually 200 mm of precipitations, has short winters and hot summers. From the Andes at the west, with peaks of up to 6,795 meters, the relief's height descents towards the sierras of the neighbouring dry Pampas zone. Most ranges in La Rioja are oriented in a north-south fashion; the province's two largest cities, La Rioja and Chilecito are separated by Sierra de Velasco and west of Chilecito and Famatina rises the Sierra de Famatina with heights of up to 6.250 m.a.sl.. The Talampaya National Park is a dry red-soil canyon of the ancient extinguished Talampaya river, which contains many walls and rock formations that make it an interesting tourist destination. La Rioja's economy, estimated at US$1.822 billion in 2006, is the second-smallest among Argentina's provinces. Its per capita output of US$6,283, though about 30% below the national average, makes it the most well-developed in northern Argentina.
Its economy is very well-diversified. Agriculture adds less than 5% to its output. La Rioja's agriculture lies on the banks of the few permanent rivers and oases that allow irrigation, with only 190 square kilometres of cultivated land. Vineyards and olive plantations are the most common, followed by cotton; the province's main crop is the grape, its associated wine production around the Chilecito area, with a production of 8 million litres per year. Cattle and goats are secondary activities for skin and leather. Clay represents the main mining activity, uranium is extracted near El Colorado. Manufacturing in La Rioja has expanded since Gov. Menem began attracting investment into the province, after 1983. Limited to light industry like bottling and food processing, it adds about 20% to La Rioja's output. Tourism is an expanding activity. Besides the Talampaya National Park, tourists visiting La Rioja go to the Chilecito town, Cerro de La Cruz, Termas de Santa Teresita hot springs and the village of Villa Sanagasta.
La Rioja's development plan is being designed by Proyectos Innovadores to encourage further economic growth in the province. The province experienced a wave of immigration from Eastern Europe, East or South Asian and Middle Eastern countries; the province is divided in 18 departments (Spanish departam
Salta is a city located in the Lerma Valley, at 1,152 metres above sea level in the northwest part of Argentina. It is the name for the capital city of Salta Province. Along with its metropolitan area, it has a population of 619,000 inhabitants, which makes it the second most populated city in the northwest of the country, it is situated in the Lerma Valley, 1,152 metres above sea level, at the foothills of the Andes mountains. The weather is warm and dry, with annual averages of 756 millimetres of rainfall and an average temperature of 16.4 °C. January and March are the months with the greatest rainfall. During the spring, Salta is plagued by severe, week-long dust storms. Nicknamed Salta la Linda, it has become a major tourist destination due to its old, colonial architecture, tourism friendliness, excellent weather and natural scenery of the valleys westward. Attractions in the city proper include the 18th century Cabildo, the neo-classical style Cathedral, the 9 de julio central square along with San Bernardo hill and its surroundings.
The city's museums exhibit a wide range of artifacts and art work from the native civilizations that flourished in the area, as well as from the 16th century Spanish conquest and the colonial and post-colonial periods. Salta used to be the starting point of the "Train to the Clouds", on the way to red-soiled Cafayate, as well as to other nearby tourist destinations; the Martín Miguel de Güemes Airport, 6 kilometres 6 kilometres southwest of the city, has regular domestic flights to Buenos Aires, Tucumán, Jujuy, Córdoba, Puerto Iguazú. Salta was founded on April 16, 1582 by the Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma, who intended the settlement to be an outpost between Lima and Buenos Aires; the origin of the name Salta is a matter of conjecture, with several theories being advanced to explain it. During the war of independence, the city became a commercial and military strategic point between Perú and the Argentine cities. Between 1816 and 1821, the city was led by local military leader General Martín Miguel de Güemes, who under the command of General José de San Martín, defended the city and surrounding area from Spanish forces coming from further north.
Salta emerged from the War of Independence politically in disarray and financially bankrupt, a condition that lingered throughout much of the 19th century. However, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the arrival of Italian and Arab immigrants Syrians and Lebanese, revived trade and agriculture all over the area while further enhancing the city's multicultural flavor. Salta has a subtropical highland climate, it is characterized by pleasant weather year-round. Located in the subtropical north, but at an altitude of 1,200 metres, Salta enjoys 4 distinct seasons: summers are warm with frequent thunderstorms, with daytime highs around 26 to 28 °C and pleasant, refreshing nights around 15 or 16 °C. Fall brings dry weather, pleasant days at around 22 °C and mild nights at around 10 °C. By winter, the dryness is extreme, with few rain episodes. Nights are cool at 3 °C on average, but daytime heating allows for high temperatures of 19 °C. Snow is rare and frost is quite common, with temperatures reaching down to −7 °C during the coldest nights.
Spring brings sunny weather with warm days and mild nights: days range from 25 to 28 °C with nights between 10 to 14 °C. Salta's winters are rather warm for its elevation and far inland position for a location being just outside the tropics. Of the over 700 millimetres of rain that Salta receives yearly, over 80% falls between December and March, when thunderstorms occur daily. During the rest of the year, blue skies dominate the region. Incessant summer thunderstorms rejuvenate the surrounding mountainous landscape, making the various hills and mountainsides within the vicinity of the city green and lush once again. Salta receives 1863 hours of about 5.1 hours per day. The highest recorded temperature was 39.9 °C on November 28, 1972 while the lowest recorded temperature was −9.4 °C on August 5, 1966. The city centre features a number of buildings dating back to the 18th and 19th and early 20th centuries. Clockwise around the Ninth of July Square are the neoclassical Cathedral Shrine, the French style Museum of Contemporary Art, the Cabildo and the neoclassical Museum of High Mountain Archaeology, which houses artifacts from the Inca civilization, including the mummies of three Inca children.
The Plaza is completely surrounded by a gallery. Within walking distance of the 9th July Square are the Saint Francis Church and the city's three pedestrian streets: Alberdi, Florida and "Caseros"; the three blocks in Balcarce street closest to the train station are now the centre of night life in Salta, with restaurants and cafés on both sidewalks and concerts every night. Rising in the east is San Bernardo Hill, its summit, from which visitors can get a view of the city and the entire valley, can be reached by car, cable car or stairway. Salta is the most Spanish city in Argentina by physical appearance: so
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous