List of Atlantic hurricanes in the 18th century

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The List of Atlantic hurricanes in the 18th century encompasses all known Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1700 to 1799. While not all data for every storm that occurred is available, some parts of the coastline were populated enough to give data of hurricane occurrences.

1700–1724[edit]

Year Location Date Deaths Damage/Notes
1700 Charleston South Carolina and Virginia September 13-14 [O.S. September 2-3] [1] 98 Rising-Sun Hurricane of 1700. A hurricane struck the South Carolina coastline while the Rising-Sun, a Scottish warship, was prevented from entering Charleston Bay from the Atlantic by a sandbar across the mouth, it had already been badly damaged by a storm in the Gulf of Mexico, being dismasted, and was seeking repairs. The ship and passengers and crew were returning to Scotland from a failed Scottish attempt to establish a colony at 'Darien', what we now call 'Panama', the crew was in the process of 'lightening the ship', to gain entry to the bay, and as part of that, 15 passengers were taken ashore in a small boat. In the ensuing hurricane the ship was thrust up on the beach, broken up, and all left aboard were drowned, the only survivors from the ship were those who had gone ashore earlier, and ended up having to bury the dead on the beach the next day. Ships docked in the harbor at Charleston were also wrecked. Charleston was devastated and flooded by this ferocious hurricane. [2] [3]
1700 Barbados September 20 [O.S. September 9] [4]
1702 Barbados September 24-26 [O.S. September 13-15] [5]
1703 Virginia, Maryland, New England coastline October 18–19 [O.S. October 7–8] [6] N/A Great wind and flood damage; many ships were lost. [7]
1703 England / British Isles December 7–8 [O.S. November 26–27] Many thousands The Great Storm of 1703. Most powerful wind force ever experienced in modern England history and caused more death and destruction that any known storm before or after. One third of British Navy fleet sunk during this storm. Storm likely originated from an Atlantic based formed hurricane. [8]
1705 Havana Cuba, southeast coast of Florida August 16-18 [O.S. August 5-7] [9] Many were lost 4 ships lost
1706 Barbados to New York and Connecticut October 5-15 [O.S. September 24-October 4] [10] Strong wind and heavy rains reported in NY (14th) and CT (16th) Unusual and heavy flooding occurred In many areas in NY and CT [11]
1706 Off of Virginia coast November 6–7 [O.S. October 26–27] N/A Hurricane at sea. England bound fleet of ships from America was scattered by a raging hurricane at sea. Many had to return to Virginia for repairs, other ships were lost at sea. No landfall believed to be known. [12]
1707 St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua, St. Thomas, Montserrat September 9-11 [O.S. August 30-September 1] [13] N/A Nevis was "nearly ruined" and several ships were wrecked off the coast of St. Kitts
1707 St. Augustine, Florida September 30 [O.S. September 19] [14] N/A Heavy flooding and damage
1708 Veracruz N/A 578 N/A
1712 Barbados, Jamaica, Cuba September 6-10 [O.S. August 26-31] [15] 400 Many houses destroyed; occurred on September 8
1712 Barbados September 19 [O.S. September 8] [16]
1713 Lesser Antilles, Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Thomas, Puerto Rico September 4–6 [17] 100 in Martinique San Zacarias Hurricane of 1713, caused a storm surge in southern Puerto Rico.[18]
1713 North of Antigua to South Carolina Charleston, North Carolina, Virginia September 10–17 [O.S. September 1–6] [19] Many Carolina Hurricane of 1713. Charleston town was once again inundated by the sea (see 1700), the death toll reportedly was significant from the high storm surge that washed in with this storm. On Sullivan's Island, "The new Look out made of wood, built eight square and eighty feet high, was blown down." In Charleston's harbor, all but one of the vessels were driven ashore and "all the front wall and mud parapet before Charlestown undermined and washed away" The two rivers on both sides of the town were connected for a period of unknown time during the storm. The storm was reportedly more violent north of Charleston suggesting landfall was made north of the town, the effects were most significant in Currituck county, North Carolina near the Virginia-North Carolina border, where the storm surge breached the Outer Banks and opened several inlets into the Currituck Sound. William Byrd, one of the commissioners who established the Virginia-North Carolina boundary, stated "There was no tide in Currituck until 1713, when a violent storm opened a new inlet five miles south of the old one. One of the new inlets carved out by the storm became the location where the Virginia-North Carolina line begins on the Atlantic coast.[20]
1713 Puerto Rico October 3rd Hurricane San Cándido of 1713 Caused a lot of storm damage in the south coast.
1714 Florida Keys Late June Many drowned Many ships sank
1714 Guadeloupe August 13–14[21]
1714 Jamaica August 29[21]
1714 Cuba[21]
1715 Bahamas, Florida East Coast July 31 1000–2500 Florida Treasure Coast Hurricane of 1715 Occurred near southeastern Bahamas and straights of Florida. Due to numerous delays, the fleet of twelve ships did not depart from Havana, Cuba until late. Once the heavy-laden treasure ships turned into the Bahamas channel they encountered northeasterly winds, the hurricane overtook the fleet as it emerged from the Bahamas channel. Three ships were sunk in deep water and the remainder were driven to the Florida coast wrecked on the rocks and reefs just north of present day Vero Beach, the fleet captain Spanish Admiral Don Juan de Ubilla was drown in the storm along with over a thousand other sailors. See 1715 Treasure Fleet and Florida Treasure Coast, the surviving sailors tried to live on the uninhabited Florida coast were their ships had wrecked. After the sinking of the ships, the Spanish government tried to recover some of the treasure, some of which they were able to, but most remains unclaimed to this day, this area off of the Florida coast would be named the "Treasure Coast" for the millions in gold, silver, and jewels these ships from this fleet took down with them from this storm. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. [22]
1715 Mexico August 26[23]
1716 Massachusetts / Boston, Martha's Vineyard October 24–25 [O.S. October 13–14] The New England Hurricane of 1716 Hurricane with strong winds and rains affecting Eastern Massachusetts, Boston and Martha's Vineyard. Maybe no direct landfall.[24]
1717 Alabama Late Summer Pelican Harbor on Dauphin Island was destroyed by shifting sands [25][26]
1718 Nevis September[21]
1720 Puerto Rico N/A 500 N/A
1722 Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Carolinas August 28 – September 3 280,[21] 400 [1] Passed south of Port Royal, which was devastated by a 16–18 foot storm surge. [2]
1722 Jamaica, Louisiana, South Carolina September 11,23-24 [O.S. September 1,12-13] 400 Great Louisiana Hurricane of 1722. Moved through Lesser Antilles on September 11, this hurricane is the first tropical storm to strike the region for which there are adequate first-hand accounts and almost completely destroyed the city's fragile existing infrastructure. Storm made landfall in Louisiana on September 23 with 15 hours of hurricane winds and an 8-foot storm surge flooding. Hurricane force winds lasted 15 hours; in 1718, 3 feet (1m) high levees protected New Orleans from both river and tidal overflow (today they are 17 feet (5.2 m) high). The buildings in New Orleans suffered extensive destruction, though they were not of high grade construction having been hastily constructed when New Orleans was initially selected to be the capital of the Louisiana Company in 1717-18, the bayou between New Orleans and Biloxi was filled with two to three feet (0.6-0.9 m) of water as a result of the storm and all ships at port were destroyed. Rainfall and flooding were reported to have lasted for five days, this storm was responsible for moving Mobile from its old site 27 miles (43 km) north of the mouth of the Mobile River to its present-day site. This same storm likely re-curved northeast and headed into South Carolina as they reported three days of flooding rains in SC around the 27th.[27]
1724 Maryland / Chesapeake Bay, Virginia August 23 [O.S. August 12] N/A The Great Gust of 1724. Almost all tobacco and much of the corn crops were destroyed by this violent tropical storm, which struck Chesapeake Bay. Violent floods of rain and prodigious gust of wind were seen upon the James river, some homes were wrecked and several vessels were driven ashore. Storm was likely followed by a second hurricane just five days later causing rain for many straight days that caused the Virginia floods of 1724. [28]
1724 Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania August 28 [O.S. August 17] Second of two hurricanes that passed through the area within 5 days. Another violent storm system came through affecting Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania with violent winds, flooding and rain, this system and The Great Gust of 1724 systems are among the most significant tropical storms to affect the Mid-Atlantic during the colonial period of the late 1600s and 1700s. [29]
1724 Hispaniola September 12 121 N/A

1725–1749[edit]

Year Location Date Deaths Damage/Notes
1725 Martinique[21]
1726 Jamaica November 2 18+ Devastated Port Royal, sinking some 50 ships. Observed based on damage information to be a very small hurricane, but very powerful.[30] Perhaps same as 22 October on Julian calendar.
1727 Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Massachusetts/Boston September 27 [O.S. September 16] The New England Hurricane of 1727 Very strong hurricane caused considerable damage, uprooted many trees, damaged property and washed ships in port ashore. Center of the storm likely past over eastern Massachusetts. Severe destruction noted in Essex county. [31]
1728 Antigua August 19[21]
1728 Carolinas August 13 [O.S. August 2] The Carolina Hurricane of 1728. Fourth major hurricane to hit Charleston area. [32]
1729 Nassau Bahamas first week of August The Woodes Rodgers Hurricane of 1729 First report of major storm damage at a settlement in the Bahamas. Dated occurrence three weeks prior to the arrival of the first royal governor of the Bahamas, Woodes Rodgers in August 25th 1729. Storm blew down greatest parts of the houses on the island. Royal Assembly on the island was not able to conduct business of the colony because of the extensive damage done to the island. [33]
1729 Puerto Rico[23]
1730 Jamaica, Puerto Rico August 31, September 1 N/A Hurricane Santa Rosa of 1730 Passed south of Puerto Rico on August 31st and caused damage to houses and plantations. Made its way to Jamaica on September 1st. One ship, including the ex-president of Panama, lost.
1731 Windward Passage June 24 1+ two ships destroyed
1731 Barbados[21]
1733 St. Kitts June 30[21] Several At least one ship wrecked
1733 Cuba, Bahamas, Florida Keys[21] July 15–16 A twenty-two ship Spanish treasure fleet was struck by a hurricane trying to cross the Bahamas channel leaving 16 ships sunk or grounded. One of the sunken ships, the Pedro, is located in 20 feet of water off the Indian Key in the Florida Keys.
1734 Jamaica September 1[21]
1737 St. Kitts, Montserrat, Dominican Republic September 9[21] Several people drowned Many ships destroyed
1738 Guadeloupe, St. Thomas, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic[21] August 30 N/A Hurricane Santa Rosa of 1738 caused damage to agriculture and to many homes in Puerto Rico. It is estimated that it entered Puerto Rico in the east and crossed the entire island, then passing on to the Dominican Republic.[18]
1738 Puerto Rico September 12 N/A Hurricane San Leoncio of 1738 caused damage to agriculture and to many homes on the south side of Puerto Rico. No reported damage from San Juan. Headed to Hispaniola on September 13th.
1740 Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic August 3rd[23] Hurricane San Esteban of 1740 Hurricane passed close to the south of the island and then later affected northeast Dominican Republic. The city of Ponce reported the most damage. First of two hurricanes that impacted Puerto Rico in 1740.
1740 Puerto Rico[21] September 11–12 N/A Hurricane San Vicente of 1740,[34] Affected San Juan on the northern side of the island. Two ships destroyed. Not a strong hurricane.
1740 Mobile Alabama; Louisiana September 22-23 N/A Twin Mobile Hurricanes of 1740. Destroyed town of La Balize [35]
1740 Mobile Alabama September 29 N/A Twin Mobile Hurricanes of 1740 [36]
1742 Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico October 27-28st N/A Hurricane San Judas Tadeo of 1742 Passed at some distance on the north side of Puerto Rico affecting St. Thomas. Strong winds caused high seas damaging ships.
1743 Jamaica October 20 "Great number" N/A
1743 Philadelphia, Boston areas November 1-2 [O.S. October 21-22] Ben Franklin's ‘Eclipse Hurricane’ because it occurred during the night of a total lunar eclipse. First tropical storm in American history to be accurately measured with scientific instruments. Ben Franklin noted the difference in the start times the storms that started in Philadelphia and Boston and rationalized that it must have been the same storm traveling northward, this is referred as the first tangible progress towards understanding the "law of storms" [37]
1744 Jamaica October 31–November 1[21] 182 N/A
1745 Caribbean Islands[21]
1746 Caribbean Sea N/A N/A Thirteen ships destroyed
1747 Virginia September 15 50+ Indentured servant ship destroyed
1747 St. Christopher, Leeward Islands October 2[21]
1747 North Carolina, Massachusetts October 8 "Many" Seven ships destroyed
1747 Bermuda October 10 "Violent gale of wind"
1747 St. Kitts November 4[21] "Upwards of 20 sail of vessels lost"
1748 Off Virginia Capes September 11 "Dispersed fleet"
1748 Bermuda October 13 Up to £20,000 damage
1749 North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland October 18–19 [O.S. October 7-8] The Coastal Hurricane of 1749. Severe flooding, high tides, and tree damage. Wind effects also recorded in New York City, Philadelphia, and Boston. Estimated to be one of the strongest hurricanes to hit the Mid-Atlantic region, perhaps a category 4 based on recorded tidal surge. Hurricane produced a huge tidal surge of 15 feet. Responsible for creating Willoughby Spit a small area of land near Norfolk that was inside the Chesapeake Bay. Ben Franklin had this storm under watch and it helped confirm his hypothesis from the 1743 hurricane he observed that coastal storms moved from the southwest and were preceded by northeasterly winds. [38]

1750–1770[edit]

Year Date Location Deaths Damage/Notes
1750 August Bahamas[23]
1750 August 29 [O.S. August 17] Offshore North Carolina, Cape Hatteras N/A Four ships lost
1751 July 24 St. Kitts Entire crew one ship lost
1751 September 2 unknown unknown [39]
1751 October Jamaica, Havana, Cuba[40]
1752 September 15 South Carolina Great Hurricane of 1752 One of the most severe hurricanes to hit the Charlestown area in colonial times. Rated similar to hurricanes that hit the area in 1804 and 1893. [41]
1752 September 23, 26 Bahamas, Cuba N/A Sixteen ships lost off north shore of Havana. Struck Bahamas on 23rd, Cuba on 26th. Likely same hurricane as Second Great Hurricane of 1752 in Carolinas.
1752 September 30 - Oct 1 South Carolina, North Carolina The Second Hurricane of 1752 One of the most severe hurricanes to hit the Charlestown area in colonial times. Rated similar to hurricanes that hit the area in 1804 and 1893. Began moving northward up the Carolina coast to Wilmington, North Carolina. [42]
1752 October 22 Offshore Florida 7+ twelve ships lost
1752 November 3 Pensacola Florida [43]
1754 September Santo Domingo[21] N/A twelve ships lost
1756 September 12 Martinique[21]
1757 August 11 Florida to Boston Rain for 3 days; great SW-NW-N gusts
1758 August 23 Barbados, South Carolina [21]
1758 November 10 St. Kitts 200 N/A
1758 N/A St. Marks, Florida 40 N/A
1759 September SW Florida, Gulf of Mexico[21]
1760 August 12 Pensacola Florida [44]
1760 September 7–8 Vera Cruz, Mexico[23]
1760 October 25 Barbuda 50 N/A
1761 September 20–23 Outer Banks of North Carolina N/A A "severe equinoctial storm" made a breach through the Outer Banks of North Carolina eight miles above its present entrance near haul-over, and it was named New Inlet. This inlet was subsequently closed in 1881, costing $600,000 in that year's dollars.[45][46]
1761 October 23–24 Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Eastern Massachusetts/Boston [47] The Southeastern New England Hurricane of 1761. Major hurricane overnight. Strong wind damage. Said to be the worst storm in Boston since the great hurricane of 1727. Many buildings were destroyed and bridges washed out from Providence to Newport, Rhode Island and north to Boston and across Cape Cod. [48]
1765 July 31 Martinique, St. Eustatius, Guadeloupe[21]
1765 November 13–14 St. Domingo[21]
1766 July 17 Bahamas[23] First of many hurricanes produced during the 1766 season
1766 August 13–14 Martinique[21] 440 N/A
1766 August 16 West of Jamaica[21]
1766 September 4 Galveston, Texas N/A The Gulf Hurricane of 1766 Strong storm struck Galveston. Next strong storm to hit Galveston wouldn't be until 1818. Five Spanish treasure fleet ships enroute from Vera Cruz to Havana were destroyed, but the crew and items were saved. A Spanish mission named Nuestra Senora De la Luz and the presidio San Augustine de Ahumado on the lower Trinity River was destroyed. Constance Bayou in Louisiana was named after one of the wrecked ships from this storm.[49] [50]
1766 September 11 Virginia[21]
1766 September 13-19 St. Christopher, Montserrat, Puerto Rico N/A Hurricane San Genaro of 1766 Severe hurricane that impacted Puerto Rico. Destroyed half the town and many ships.
1766 September 21 St. Eustatius, Tortuga[21]
1766 October 6–8 Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico[21] N/A Hurricane San Marcos of 1766, passed first across Guadalupe, there it sunk twelve slave ships, killing all aboard. Hurricane also devastated the French owned Caribbean island Martinique ruining its sugarcane business there. One of the families affected was that of Joseph Tascher who was financially ruined from the hurricane. Distressed about the well-being of his family following the storm, he sent his daughter Rose Tascher to live in France. Rose later married Napoleon Bonaparte who rechistened his new bride as Josephine [51]. Later it crossed Puerto Rico from south east to north west, it affected the entire island. [34]
1766 October 22–23 Northwest Florida[21] N/A Sunk one ship, killing the entire crew except for three.
1766 October 29 Havana[23]
1767 August 5-7th Martinique, Puerto Rico 1,600 drowned Hurricane San Cayetano of 1767 "A powerful hurricane". Caused big flooding and crop damage on Puerto Rico. 1,600 people drowned on the island of Martinique. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.
1767 September 21 Coastal North Carolina N/A Caused a number of vessels to be lost. Floods struck Virginia, with a mill entirely destroyed in Warwick county.[52]
1767 October 16-17 North Carolina N/A [53]
1768 August 10 Grenada[21]
1768 October 15 Havana, Cuba[21] 1000 Destroyed 96 public buildings and 4,048 houses. Appeared to pass over the island from west to east. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. [3]
1769 September 7-8 North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, New England coast [54] At least 6 The Great Chesapeake Bay Hurricane of 1769. It made landfall near New Bern, North Carolina and laid that town in ruin as tides rose 12 feet above normal. Hurricane center was close to Williamsburg. Many old houses in eastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia were destroyed, particularly around Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Norfolk due to 13 hours of high winds from the northeast to northwest. Most notably, it caused widespread damage to the Stratford Hall plantation which belonged to the family of famous confederate General Robert E. Lee. [55]
1769 September 25 – September 28 Northeast coast of Florida & Charleston, South Carolina N/A Approached Florida and may have hit St. Augustine, Florida on the 25th, but it turned northeastward, and hit near Charleston on the 28th. Damage was minimal in the Carolinas, but crop damage occurred in northeast Florida.
1769 October 29 Florida East Coast [56]
1770 June 6 Charleston, South Carolina[21]

1770s[edit]

Year Date Location Deaths Damage/Notes
1770 October 20 New England coastline Connecticut to Maine [57] Strong winds, hail, high tides that caused major flooding. Highest tides reported since 1723 area harbor flooding
1771 May 23–24 Jamaica and Cuba [21] N/A N/A
1771 November 30-December 1 Vera Cruz, Mexico[23]
1772 August 1–7 Hispaniola, Cuba[40]
1772 August 27 - September 4 Greater Antilles including Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Croix, Puerto Rico, Jamaica; Mobile, Alabama; New Orleans, Louisiana At least 280 Hurricane San Agustin of 1772 The Alexander Hamilton Hurricane of 1772 or Bernard Roman's Gulf Coast Hurricane of 1772. Strong hurricane that passed through Leeward islands, St. Thomas, St. Croix, and crossed Puerto Rico on August 29th. Damage to Puerto Rico was severe. Alexander Hamilton famously wrote an account on the storm in Saint Croix, which was later published in the American colonies; community planters in St. Kitts were impressed by his writings, and they raised a fund for Hamilton to receive an education in the colonies, launching him into his career as an American founding father. By 1774 Hamilton was a student at King's College (now Columbia University) in New York City, it is also talked about in multiple songs from the hit musical Hamilton. Nevis had very little houses standing after the storm. Later the hurricane made its way past West Florida and into the Gulf of Mexico eventually heading into the Pensacola, Florida and Mobile, Alabama area. Many ships were destroyed in Alabama. Mobile got severely flooded and many houses were flooded, the storm impact in the Mobile area was detailed in Bernard Romans' book published in 1776. [58] [59]
1772 August 31st Puerto Rico, Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis Hurricane San Ramón of 1772 Second hurricane to hit Puerto Rico just three days after the last one passed. Affected Barbados, St. Thomas, Leeward islands, St. Kitts and Nevis, and northeast side of Puerto Rico with lesser damage than the one a few days before, on St. Kitts the damage was considerable from this hurricane, the second of three in a row this year to hit the islands, leaving many houses flattened.
1772 September 3? Saint Kitts and Nevis "Several" Three successive hurricanes hit the island group during the year in 1772. Third storm of the three. [60]
1772 September 1 North Carolina 50 14 vessels forced ashore
1773 August 26 Virginia Unknown Damage to ships in the area
1773 September 13–14 Colombia[23]
1773 September 30 - October 2 Virginia Unknown Three days of rainfall across the region
1774 August 24–25 Virginia Unknown "August nor'easter" that caused two days of heavy rainfall
1774 September 3 Annapolis, Maryland Unknown The Maryland capitol building in Annapolis saw roof damage from a hurricane that began on September 3 and lasted about 24 hours.[61] A "stormy" northeast wind was seen in Westmoreland County Virginia, along with a "flood of rain."[62]
1774 October Havana, Cuba[40]
1775 August 1 Puerto Rico Unknown Tropical Storm San Pedro of 1775 Passed close to southwest corner of Puerto Rico and then over the Dominican Republic. Storm effects are unknown.
1775 August 28–29 Havana[23]
1775 August 29 - September 9 Outer Banks, Virginia, Newfoundland 4,163 The Newfoundland Hurricane of 1775 or Independence Hurricane of 1775. Deadliest known Atlantic hurricane at the time before it until it was passed a year later by the Guadeloupe Hurricane of 1776 and the San Calixto Hurricane of 1780. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. Eighth known deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history.

Moved onshore in North Carolina and traveled up through Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. Traveled up through New England. A localized, storm surge is reported to have reached heights of between 20 and 30 feet in Newfoundland destroying many English and Irish ships. Many sailors drowned, over 4,000 people died off of Newfoundland mainly from storm surge and still is Canada's deadliest natural disaster.[63][64]

1775 November 2 Caicos Islands 11 Several English warships lost
1776 June South coast of Cuba[40]
1776 June New Orleans, Louisiana[40]
1776 July 10 Virginia Unknown Affected a Revolutionary War battle in Virginia; it caused supply ships to sink in the Chesapeake Bay area, and resulted in moderate damage to the area.
1776 August Off northern coast of Cuba[40]
1776 September 5 to 12 Pointe-à-Pitre, Antigua, Martinique, Guadeloupe and Louisiana 6,000+ The Pointe-à-Pitre Guadeloupe Hurricane of 1776 On Guadeloupe, the hurricane killed over 6,000 people, more than any known hurricane before it. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. The hurricane hit Martinique on September 5th and hit Pointe-à-Pitre Bay in Guadeloupe the next day killing over 6,000 from storm surge and other causes. Seventh known deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history.

An analysis by hurricane scholar Michael Chenoweth indicated the tropical cyclone was of at least hurricane strength, or with maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (119 km/h), when it struck Guadeloupe. The same analysis indicated the storm also affected Antigua and Martinique early in its duration, and later it struck Louisiana on September 12.[65] The storm struck a large convoy of French and Dutch merchant ships, sinking or running aground 60% of the vessels, the ships were transporting goods to Europe.[66]

1777 June Florida Several One ship sunk; no one recovered
1777 August 26 Chesapeake Bay Unknown Hampered General Howe's march on Philadelphia. Caused Washington to seek refuge at Hermitage in Elkton, MD
1777 September 10 to 16 Central Atlantic, Pennsylvania Unknown September 10 - The Ariadne, Ruffel, from Dominica to London sunk, all hands saved. 5 others of the fleet missing. September 16 - Pre-empted Battle of the Clouds in Chester County, PA.
1777 October Oriente, Cuba and St. Dominigue[40]
1778 August 12–13 North Carolina, Mid-Atlantic/New England coastline Ordering of Providence Hurricane of 1778 Prevented a naval battle between the British and French in the Revolutionary War, causing them to separate as the hurricane moved up the coast. [67]
1778 August–September Havana, Cuba[40]
1778 October 7-10 Florida, Louisiana October of 1778 Storm. Gulf Coast was struck by hurricanes in three successive years during the Revolutionary War. Hurricane hit near Pensacola, Florida, the resulting tidal surge from the storm impacted the Louisiana delta destroying Belize, Bayou St. John, and Tigouyou. [68]
1778 October 28 Cuba Several N/A
1778 November 1 Cape Cod, Massachusetts 50-70 Possibly related to the previous storm
1779[21] May 25–26 Jamaica N/A N/A
1779 August 18 Havana, Cuba, Louisiana Unknown Dunbar's Hurricane. All but one warship in a Spanish fleet were sunk off the coast. Ships in the New Orleans harbor were pushed well inland, causing heavy damage. Many houses in New Orleans were destroyed, many ships sunk and trees knocked down. William Dunbar, who happened to be in New Orleans at this time, first uncovered the true nature of tropical storms and hurricanes from this hurricane in 1779 that a hurricane revolves around a vortex in the center and had progressive forward movement, he presented his findings to the American Philosophical Society in 1801 [69] [70]
1779 August 28 Martinique "Many" N/A
1779 December 3 Atlantic coast 120 N/A

1780s[edit]

The 1780 Atlantic hurricane season was extraordinarily destructive, and was the deadliest Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history with over 25,000 deaths. Four different hurricanes, three in October and one in June, caused at least 1,000 deaths each; this event has never been repeated and only in the 1893 and 2005 seasons were there two such hurricanes. The season also held the deadliest Atlantic tropical cyclone of all time.

Additionally, 1780 was a turning point in Caribbean habitation and trade, marking the end of a long period of economic boom that started in the early 1500s and marked the beginning of economic decline for the region as news of the devastating hurricanes spread. Eight different storms battered the West Indies including three killer storms in the month of October alone. Tens of thousands were killed across the Caribbean onshore from storm surge, powerful winds and many thousands more killed offshore on sunken ships, the hurricanes struck the Caribbean in the midst of the American Revolutionary War as British and French navies were vying for control over the region and the hurricanes did considerable damage to both fleets wrecking numerous ships and drowning many.[71]

Year Date Location Deaths Damage/Notes
1780 June 13 Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, Dominican Republic 4000-5000 San Antonio Hurricane of 1780 or The St. Lucia Hurricane of 1780. On June 13, a hurricane "caused deaths and losses" on Puerto Rico, after having also struck St. Lucia, where it killed around 4,000 to 5,000, it later went on to the Dominican Republic. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.
1780 August 24 Louisiana 25 The Louisiana Hurricane of 1780 New Orleans experienced a powerful hurricane on August 24, with winds gusting over 160 mph completely destroying 39 of the 43 buildings in Grand Isle, Louisiana then the eye passing over New Orleans that night, severely damaging structures in what is now known as the French Quarter, causing harvest-ruining crop damage, severe flooding, and tornadoes.
1780 August 25 St. Kitts Tropical storm or hurricane
1780 October 1-5 St. Lucia, Montego Bay Jamaica, Cuba, Bahamas 3,000 The Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane of 1780 Early on, it sank the British transport ship Monarch, killing several hundred Spanish prisoners and the ship's entire crew. The hurricane began to move northwest towards Jamaica, where it destroyed the port and settlement of Savanna-la-Mar on October 3, as many of the town's residents gathered at the coast to see the large waves coming in, a 20 foot surge came in engulfed the onlookers, docked ships, and many of the town's buildings. In the nearby port village of Lucea, 400 people and all but two structures perished, with 360 people also killed in the nearby town of Montego Bay, it would go on to sink the British frigate Phoenix (killing 200 of it crew), the Monarch with its crew and several hundred Spanish prisoners onboard, and ships-of-the-line Victor, Barbadoes, and Scarborough and crippled many others. It continued its direction, and hit Cuba on October 4, followed by a pass over the Bahamas. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. [72] [73]
1780 October 10 Lesser Antilles 20,000 - 27,500 Great Hurricane of 1780, San Calixto Hurricane of 1780, or Great Hurricane of the Antilles. Deadliest known hurricane on record in the Atlantic which still stands today. Killed over 20,000 people and estimates as high as 27,500 people. 4,000-5,000 people were killed on St. Eustatius, 9,000 people on Martinique, 1,000 people in St. Pierre which had all of its homes destroyed, and 4,326 people in Barbados, many of the deaths were due to storm surge. [74] See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.

Winds estimated to be 135mph and category 4 strength, the hurricane destroyed the island of Barbados with winds possibly exceeding 320 km/h (200 mph) which would make it an extreme category 5 strength hurricane, leaving the island completely decimated with nearly all buildings and plantations destroyed. The town of Bridgetown in Barbados was completely destroyed, the force of the winds were so intense that most of the island's trees were knocked down and the ones that remained standing had their bark stripped off. [75] It also severely affected St. Vincent and Grenada, the hurricane then moved to Saint Lucia, Martinique, and St. Eustatius. Coming in the midst of the American Revolution, the storm caused heavy losses to British and French fleets in conflict in the area, the hurricane later passed near Puerto Rico and over the eastern portion of Hispaniola. There, it caused heavy damage near the coastlines and then sank 50 ships in Bermuda, it ultimately turned to the northeast without striking the United States. [76]

1780 October 18-21 Cuba, Gulf of Mexico 2000+ Solano's Hurricane A powerful hurricane in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico struck a Spanish war fleet of 64 vessels under José Solano en route from Havana, Cuba to attack Pensacola, Florida, then the capital of British West Florida. The ships had 4,000 men aboard under the military command of Bernardo de Gálvez, and 2,000 died, the slow-moving hurricane was first noted near Jamaica on October 15. Progressing northwestwards it likely crossed the western end of Cuba, before shifting northeastwards to Apalachee Bay, it struck Solano's fleet on October 20. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. [77]
1780 October 23 Barbados, St. Lucia Lesser Antilles Hurricane
1780 November 17 New England A tropical cyclone moved up the east coast of the United States disrupting the British blockade of the New England states.
1781 August 1 Jamaica N/A Many ships washed ashore
1781 August 23 New Orleans, Louisiana N/A N/A
1781 Unknown Offshore Florida 2000 See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.
1782 July Havana, Cuba[40]
1782 September 16 Central Atlantic coast 3,000 The Central Atlantic hurricane of 1782 was a hurricane that hit the fleet of Admiral Thomas Graves as it sailed across the North Atlantic in September 1782. It is believed to have killed some 3,000 people. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.
1783 September 19 North Carolina N/A 3 ships sunk
1783 October 7–9 South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia N/A The Charleston Hurricane of 1783 Charleston saw excessive rain and wind with the cyclone. Strongest reported tropical storm in Charleston since 1752. Winds shifted from northwest to northeast as the storm passed offshore. Extensive damage was also seen in North Carolina. Richmond saw violent northeast gusts for 24 hours, but no damage. Norfolk and Portsmouth reported a "25 foot tide" which caused damage. [78]
1783 October 18–19 New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut [79] Heavy rains and winds in New Brunswick, NJ and New Haven, CT. Brought snowfall to western Connecticut and Vermont.
1784 June Florida Straits
1784 July 30 Jamaica 9 "Captain [Paul] Cox got in here from St. Ann’s the 30th ult[ima]. but a few hours before a most violent hurricane came on, which began about 8 at night, and at nine the brig parted her cables, and was drove on shore. Captain Rice, in a brig from Salem, and a ship belonging to Bristol, are also on shore, the ship Britannia, of between 4 and 500 tons rode it out—In consequence of the calamity occasioned by this hurricane, it is expected the ports of this island will be opened for six months. Captain Rice, with six of his people, taking to their boat, were lost, it is said, he had between 4 and 5000 dollars with him. Scarce a vessel in the harbour of Kingston but was either lost or drove on shore. St. Thomas's in the east has received the greatest damage. Scare a house or plantation but has suffered. Captain Gray in a brig belonging to Salem, lay at Morant Bay, have heard nothing from him in particular; but the report is, that every vessel that lay there, except one ship, is either lost or drove on shore. No perfect account of the damage is yet come to hand."[80]
1784 Unknown Curaçao N/A Many ships damaged or destroyed
1785 August 24–29 St. Croix, Greater Antilles including Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Cuba 142 N/A [81]
1785 September 1 Delaware 181 One of the few hurricanes on record in the state. Wrecked the ship the Faithful Steward.
1785 September 23–24 Mid-Atlantic states N/A The Equinoctial Storm. Impacted the coastline shortly after the Sept 23 equinox. Led to the "highest tide ever before known in Norfolk." It struck the lower Chesapeake Bay. Portsmouth experienced a strong northeast to northwest gale for 3 days. The storm in Virginia was noted in both the Virginia Gazette of October 1, and the New Jersey Gazette of October 1 (from Ludlum 1963 p. 30). The Annual Register the next year reported that several ships had been driven ashore by the tide and the wind, with a total damage estimated at around £30,000, the two parallel track storms of 1785 led to the building of the lighthouse in Cape Henry which opened seven years later in 1792.
1785 September 25 Puerto Rico N/A San Lupo Hurricane of 1785 devastated agricultural fields. Governor Juan Dabán visited the islands affected area to inspect and help with the damages; it was the first time a governor of Puerto Rico did that after a Hurricane.[82]
1786 September 2 Barbados "Several" Several houses destroyed
1786 October 5 Eastern Virginia N/A Heavy rainfall accompanied the storm. According to George Washington, tides were "occasionally high" at Mount Vernon, with "high freshes." James Madison at Montpelier saw the Rapidan River overflow its banks. The center may have passed very near his location, as the winds shifted from southeast to southwest.
1786 October 20 Jamaica 7 N/A
1787 September 2–4 Belize, Vera Cruz, Mexico 100 It has been identified as ‘Event 6’ in Belizean sedimentary records by McCloskey and Keller.[83] Several injuries were caused by this hurricane in Vera Cruz.[84]
1787 September 19 Georgia, South Carolina 23 A storm moved just offshore the Georgia and South Carolina coastline to lead to a storm surge that caused 23 people to perish, as well as flooding and crop damage between Savannah and Georgetown.[85]
1787 September 23 Honduras 100 N/A
1788 July 22-24 Mid-Atlantic States N/A George Washington's Hurricane. George Washington reported from Mount Vernon a "very high northeast wind" the previous night, which sank ships and blew down trees. A "more violent and severe a hurricane than for many years." Madison at Montpelier reports a "great wind and rain." According to the Philadelphia Independent Gazette on August 8, the storm in Norfolk began from the northeast at 5 p.m. on the 23rd, then blew a "perfect hurricane" from the south at 12:30 a.m.. The tide was lower than in 1785. Alexandria also saw the winds switch from east-northeast to south, which caused the highest known tide in the Potomac. [86]
1788 August 14–19 Martinique, Dominica, Bahamas, New England 600-700 Hurricane San Roque of 1788
1789 August 19 New Jersey, New England N/A Heavy damage

1790s[edit]

Year Date Location Deaths Damage/Notes
1791 June 21–22 Cuba 3000 The Great Cuba Hurricane of 1791. Powerful storm impacted Havana killing at least 3,000 people and 11,700 cattle perished on the island, mainly due to storm surge. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. [87]
1791 Unknown Southern Texas N/A Flooded Padre Island and the mainland nearby. A herd of 50,000 cattle belonging to a Spanish cattle baron drowned in the storm surge
1791 October 25 Puerto Rico[23]
1792 August 1 Lesser Antilles N/A Several ships destroyed
1792 October Havana, Cuba[40]
1793 August 13 Virgin Islands 28 Moved slowly through the area
1793 August Louisiana[23] N/A Caused crop damage and minor flooding
1794[21] May 28 Jamaica N/A N/A
1794 June 27 Jamaica N/A One ship destroyed in a tropical storm
1794 July 4 Mid-Atlantic states N/A Reported at Annapolis by William Faris in his diary. On the night of the 5th, it "raind and Blowd very Hard" (sic) all night, it finally cleared out between 10 and 11 am on the 6th.
1794 Late July Jamaica "Heavy deaths" N/A
1794 August 9–10 Havana[23]
1794 August 25–31 Havana Cuba and Louisiana 100+ Hurricane struck Havana on August 25th. 100 bodies recovered in the harbor the day after. Struck Florida Keys and the crew of the vessel Vigilant stayed on their damaged ship for two days. [88] In Louisiana, heavy flooding, high winds, crop damage, and unusually large hail occurred
1794 Early October Northeastern Florida N/A Caused beach erosion and damage
1794 October 26 Mid-Atlantic states N/A Caused 3.5 inches (89 mm) of rain at Madison's Montpelier estate. While the wind there was "brisk" on the morning on the 26th, Annapolis reported that "it Blow'd very Hard a near Hurrican [sic] and rained all night" from the 26th into the 27th.
1795 July 20 New Orleans[23]
1795 August 2-3 North Carolina; Virginia N/A Twin North Carolina Hurricanes of 1795. First of two parallel track hurricanes that occurred ten days apart. Several Spanish ships lost; brought heavy rain through the mid-Atlantic, disrupting mail service and damaging crops; at Annapolis, rain set it on the afternoon of the 2nd, before it escalated later in the day, when it "Blow'd a Harrican." Trees were levelled and the tide was so high that "one could not get to the Market House without a Boat." Vessels were driven ashore by the tempest (from the diary of William Faris). Thomas Jefferson recorded this hurricane in his journal as his plantation at Monticello suffered heavy crop losses. [89]
1795 August 12-13 North Carolina; Virginia N/A Twin North Carolina Hurricanes of 1795. Considered a major hurricane, caused additional flooding and crop damage after the previous storm; the damage could be "Modestly estimated at a year's rent", quoted by Thomas Jefferson. The "powerful torrent" of rain in Petersburg caused creeks to rise higher than noted in the previous 70 years (North Carolina Journal). Winds were gusty at Farmville, where a "great fresh" was reported. Annapolis reported strong winds and rains on August 13 as well. Thomas Jefferson recorded this hurricane in his journal as his plantation at Monticello suffered heavy crop losses, the two storms caused the Appomattox river to crest more than 12 feet above flood stage. [90]
1796 August 26–27 New Orleans[23]
1796 October 2 Pinar del Río, Cuba, Bahamas N/A Caused shipping delays
1797 September 5 North Carolina N/A One ship sunk
1797 October 15–21 Bahamas and South Carolina "Many" The Charleston Hurricane of 1797 Charleston saw excessive rain and wind with the cyclone. Strongest reported tropical storm in Charleston since 1783 and 1752 ones. Several ships lost. [91]
1799 September 23 Jamaica 27 Remained offshore, but rain, flooding, and winds were severe
1799 October Oriente, Cuba[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 42-43
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  5. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), M Chenoweth, Final Storm #3
  6. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), M Chenoweth, Final Storm #4
  7. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 19
  8. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 19
  9. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), Chenoweth, Final Storm #5
  10. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), Chenoweth, Final Storm #6
  11. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 20
  12. ^ Early American hurricanes 1492-1870, David Ludlum, pg 20
  13. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), Chenoweth, Final Storm #7
  14. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), Chenoweth, Final Storm #8
  15. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), Chenoweth, Final Storm #9
  16. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), Chenoweth, Final Storm #10
  17. ^ Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity 1700-1855 (2006), Chenoweth, Final Storm #11
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External links[edit]