Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park known as The Arms Park and the BT Sport Cardiff Arms Park for sponsorship reasons from September 2014, is situated in the centre of Cardiff, Wales. It is known as a rugby union stadium, but it has a bowling green; the Arms Park was host to the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1958, hosted four games in the 1991 Rugby World Cup, including the third-place play-off. The Arms Park hosted the inaugural Heineken Cup Final of 1995–96 and the following year in 1996–97; the history of the rugby ground begins with the first stands appearing for spectators in the ground in 1881–1882. The Arms Park had a cricket ground to the north and a rugby union stadium to the south. By 1969, the cricket ground had been demolished to make way for the present day rugby ground to the north and a second rugby stadium to the south, called the National Stadium; the National Stadium, used by Wales national rugby union team, was opened on 7 April 1984, however in 1997 it was demolished to make way for the Millennium Stadium in 1999, which hosted the 1999 Rugby World Cup and became the national stadium of Wales.
The rugby ground has remained the home of the semi-professional Cardiff RFC yet the professional Cardiff Blues regional rugby union team moved to the Cardiff City Stadium in 2009, but returned three years later. The site is owned by Cardiff Athletic Club and has been host to many sports, apart from rugby union and cricket; the site has a bowling green to the north of the rugby ground, used by Cardiff Athletic Bowls Club, the bowls section of the Cardiff Athletic Club. The National Stadium hosted many music concerts including Michael Jackson, David Bowie, Bon Jovi, The Rolling Stones and U2; the Cardiff Arms Park site was called the Great Park, a swampy meadow behind the Cardiff Arms Hotel. The hotel was built by Sir Thomas Morgan, during the reign of Charles I. Cardiff Arms Park was named after this hotel. From 1803, the Cardiff Arms Hotel and the Park had become the property of the Bute family; the Arms Park soon became a popular place for sporting events, by 1848, Cardiff Cricket Club was using the site for its cricket matches.
However, by 1878, Cardiff Arms Hotel had been demolished. The 3rd Marquess of Bute stipulated that the ground could only be used for "recreational purposes". At that time Cardiff Arms Park had a cricket ground to the north and a rugby union ground to the south. 1881–2 saw the first stands for spectators. The architect was Archibald Leitch, famous for designing Ibrox Stadium and Old Trafford, among others. In 1890, new standing areas were constructed along the entire length of the ground, with additional stands erected in 1896. By 1912, the Cardiff Football Ground, as it was known, had a new south stand and temporary stands on the north and west ends of the ground; the south stand was covered, while the north terrace was without a roof. The improvements were funded by the Welsh Rugby Union; the opening ceremony took place on 5 October 1912, with a match between Newport RFC and Cardiff RFC. The new ground was opened by Lord Ninian Crichton-Stuart; this new development increased the ground capacity to 43,000 and much improved the facilities at the ground compared to the earlier stands.
In 1922 John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute, had sold the entire site and it was bought by the Cardiff Arms Park Company Limited for £30,000, it was leased to the Cardiff Athletic Club for 99 years at a cost of £200 per annum. During 1934 the cricket pavilion had been demolished to make way for the new North Stand, built on the rugby union ground, costing around £20,000. However, in 1941 the new North Stand and part of the west terracing was badly damaged in the Blitz by the Luftwaffe during the Second World War. At a general meeting of the WRU in June 1953 they made a decision "That until such time as the facilities at Swansea were improved, all international matches be played at Cardiff". At the same time, plans were made for a new South Stand, estimated to cost £60,000; the new South Stand opened in time for the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. This brought the overall capacity of the Arms Park up to 60,000 spectators, of which 12,800 were seated and the remainder standing.
The Arms Park hosted the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, used for the athletics events, but this event caused damage to the drainage system, so much so, that other rugby unions complained after the Games about the state of the pitch. On 4 December 1960, due to torrential rain, the River Taff burst its banks with the Arms Park pitch being left under 4 feet of water; the Development Committee was set up to resolve these issues on a permanent basis. They looked at various sites in Cardiff, they could not agree a solution with the Cardiff Athletic Club, so they purchased about 80 acres of land at Island Farm in Bridgend, used as a prisoner-of-war camp. It is best known for being the camp where the biggest escape attempt was made by German prisoners of war in Great Britain during the Second World War. Due to problems including transport issues Glamorgan County Council never gave outline planning permission for the proposals and by June 1964 the scheme was aba
1904 British Lions tour to Australia and New Zealand
The 1904 British Isles tour to New Zealand and Australia was the sixth tour by a British Isles rugby union team and the third to New Zealand or Australia. It is retrospectively classed as one of the British Lions tours, as the Lions naming convention was not adopted until 1950. Led by Scotland captain David Bedell-Sivright and managed by Arthur O'Brien the tour included 19 matches, 14 in Australia and 5 in New Zealand. Four of the fixtures were test matches – three against Australia and one against the New Zealand All Blacks; the Lions lost the All Blacks' game. This was the first time that a British team played both New Zealand in the same tour, it was the last series until 1989 in which Australian matches were the major component. The team's captain, Bedell-Sivright, a veteran of the 1903 tour of South Africa, was requested to lead the team by England's Rugby Football Union. Bedell-Sivright broke his leg in the opening match of the New Zealand leg of the tour and Teddy Morgan took over the captaincy.
The uniforms wore by the Lions remained the same than previous tours, blue used in thick hoops and the red and white in thin bands. Manager: Arthur O'Brien Chris Stanger-Leathes John Fisher Rhys Gabe Fred Jowett Willie Llewellyn Teddy Morgan Pat McEvedy Arthur O'Brien Percy Bush Tommy Vile Frank Croft Hulme David Bedell-Sivright Sid Bevan Sidney Nelson Crowther John Sharland Denys Dobson Charlie Patterson Reg Edwards Arthur Harding Burnett Massey Ron Rogers Stuart Saunders D. H. Traill Blair Swannell Complete list of matches played by the British Lions: Test matches Australia: Jack Verge, Charlie White, Jack Hindmarsh, Stan Wickham, Charlie Redwood, Lew Evans, Snowy Baker, Alec Burdon, Eric Dore, Frank Nicholson, Billy Richards, Denis Lutge, Thomas Colton, Harold Judd, Patrick Walsh British Isles: Christopher Stanger-Leathes, Willie Llewellyn, AB O'Brien, Rhys Gabe, T Morgan, P Bush, Frankie Hulme, Darkie Bedell-Sivright, DH Trail, D Dobson, S Bevan, Stuart Saunders, SN Crowther, B Swannell, Boxer Harding Australia: Jack Verge, Stan Wickham, Phil Carmichael, Doug McLean, Snr.
Charlie Redwood, John Manning, Snowy Baker, Alec Burdon, Allen Oxlade, Voy Oxenham, Alex McKinnon, Denis Lutge, Puddin Colton, Harold Judd, Patrick Walsh British Isles: AB O'Brien, Willie Llewellyn, Rhys Gabe, Pat McEvedy, T Morgan, P Bush, Tommy Vile, Reg Edwards DH Trail, D Dobson, S Bevan, Stuart Saunders, SN Crowther, B Swannell, Boxer Harding Australia: Charlie Redwood, Fred Nicholson, Frank Futter, Stan Wickham, Doug McLean, Snr. Lew Evans, Francis Finley, Jack Meibusch, Allen Oxlade, Billy Richards, Blue Dixon, Denis Lutge, Jim White, Harold Judd, Patrick Walsh British Isles: AB O'Brien, Willie Llewellyn, Rhys Gabe, Pat McEvedy, T Morgan, P Bush, Tommy Vile, Reg Edwards DH Trail, D Dobson, S Bevan, Burnett Massey, SN Crowther, Blair Swannell, Boxer Harding New Zealand: RW McGregor, Duncan McGregor, Eric Harper, ME Wood, Billy Wallace, Billy Stead, Patrick Harvey, Dave Gallaher, George Tyler, Paddy McMinn, WS Glenn, Tom Cross, BJ Fanning, George Nicholson, Charlie Seeling British Isles: AB O'Brien, PF McEvedy, Willie Llewellyn, Rhys Gabe, T Morgan, P Bush, Tommy Vile, RJ Rogers, DH Trail, Denys Dobson, Sid Bevan, RW Edwards, SN Crowther, Blair Swannell, Arthur Harding Notes Thomas, Clem.
The History of The British and Irish Lions. Mainstream Books. Pp. 50–54. ISBN 1-84596-030-0. "1904: Australia & New Zealand". British Lions Ltd. Retrieved 6 August 2015. "The Lions down under: 1904". British Lions Ltd. 21 December 2009. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2015
Andersons Bay is a suburb of the New Zealand city of Dunedin. It is located in the southeast of the city's urban area, 2.8 kilometres southeast of the city's centre. The suburb of Andersons Bay extends south from the Andersons Bay Inlet, an indentation in the southern shore of the Otago Harbour, across the isthmus joining the Otago Peninsula to the mainland. In 2001 Andersons Bay had a population of 2,532; the suburb's name is occasionally used by Dunedinites for the area extending north along the Southern Endowment, an area of land reclaimed from the harbour which sits close to its western shore - towards the suburb of South Dunedin. This area, reclaimed during the mid-twentieth century, was the location of the bay for which the suburb is named; the Southern Endowment used for light industrial purposes includes a sports complex, the Edgar Centre. South of the Anderson's Bay Inlet, it is bounded by Musselburgh in the west and southwest, Shiel Hill in the east, the coastal suburbs of Tahuna and Tainui in the south.
These two smaller suburbs, which lie close to the Pacific Ocean, are considered part of either Andersons Bay or Musselburgh. The rocky outcrops of the Musselburgh Rise stand to the west and south of the Andersons Bay Inlet. Close to the northern edge of the Andersons Bay Inlet a large memorial stone commemorates the Taranaki Māori prisoners of the New Zealand Land Wars who were transported south to Dunedin, many of whom constructed the causeway across the head of the inlet and much of Dunedin's foreshore roads as forced labour. A branch railway ran along Portobello Road in this area from the 1870s until 1912. One of Dunedin's secondary schools, Bayfield High School stands on reclaimed land at the southern end of the inlet; this school lies close to the boundary of the suburbs of Andersons Musselburgh. Andersons Bay's main roads include Portobello Road and Portsmouth Drive (in the industrial area north of the inlet, Musselburgh Rise, Silverton Street, Somerville Street. Shore Street and Marne Street skirt the eastern shores of the inlet.
Māori named the area Puketai or Puketahi meaning "single or isolated hill". It is that a pa of this name was sited somewhere in the vicinity on the rise overlooking Tomahawk Lagoon in what is now the suburb's southeast, or on some section of the Musselburgh Rise; such a site would have commanded a strategic position prior to the reclamation of land from the harbour and from swamp, as it would have controlled all land passage to the Otago Peninsula. Andersons Bay gained its current name due to early settler James Anderson and his son and daughter-in-law John and Isabella, who were the first European settlers in the district in 1844 - four years before the official founding of the Otago Settlement and Dunedin. James's grandson John was the first European child born in the area, in 1846, their home was close to what is now the corner of Somerville and Silverton Streets, a corner known for many years by the now almost-forgotten name of Ross's Corner. Andersons Bay Inlet, once known as Andersons Cove, represents the remnant of a far larger expanse of water which included the long-reclaimed Tainui Inlet.
Much of this was reclaimed in the 1950s to provide grounds for Bayfield High School. In the late 19th century both a railway and ferry service connected this area with central Dunedin, but neither has survived; the ferry operated only during the 1890s, the railway operated from 1877 until the early years of the twentieth century. Rail planners envisaged a railway line running along the shore of the peninsula to Portobello, but Andersons Bay was the furthest the line reached. Andersons Bay had its own council the Bay Town Board; this administered the area from 1905 until its amalgamation with Dunedin City in 1912. Andersons Bay hit news headlines in 1995 after one of New Zealand's most notorious crimes took place in Every Street, close to the boundary of Andersons Bay and Shiel Hill; the case, in which five of the six members of the Bain family were slain, led to one of New Zealand's most prominent causes célèbres after the arrest of the remaining member of the family, David Bain, for the murders.
David Bain, found guilty, served 13 years of a life sentence before succeeding in having the case reopened. His retrial, in 2009, resulted in a verdict of "not guilty". On 15 March 2019 part of Somerville Street in Andersons Bay was cordoned off while police, including Armed Offenders Squad officers, searched a house occupied by a suspect in the Christchurch mosque shootings. Tahuna and Tainui are two small, somewhat vaguely defined suburbs which lie to the south of Andersons Bay and Musselburgh, close to Dunedin's southern coastline. Both are considered parts of either Musselburgh or Andersons Bay. Tainui lies to the north, in the area of residential housing which lies in the southeastern corner of "The Flat" between Victoria and Tahuna Roads in the south and Musselburgh Rise in the north, its eastern boundary is the start of a section of the Musselburgh Rise skirted by Tainui Road. Notable features of Tainui include Culling Park, a sports ground, the home of Dunedin Technical football club.
To the south of Tainui is Tahuna. This suburb stretches along Victoria and Tahuna Roads, is dominated by several areas of open space which lie to the south between these roads and the ocean; these open spaces include two notable sports venue
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
1899 British Lions tour to Australia
The 1899 British Isles tour to Australia was the fourth rugby union tour by a British Isles team and the second to Australia. It is retrospectively classed as one of the British Lions tours, as the Lions naming convention was not adopted until 1950. Negotiations had taken place for the tour to incorporate matches against New Zealand, either through a visit to New Zealand, or a New Zealand team to play in Australia. No agreeable terms could be found; this tour was the first to represent the British Isles, with players from all four Home Nations. Despite this fact, many Australian newspapers, some British dailies, referred to the tourists as "the English football team". After the tour of South Africa in 1896, players in Britain expressed wishes to make a similar tour to Australia. In August 1897, the New South Wales Rugby Football Union, received a letter from Reverend Matthew Mullineux asking whether a tour beginning in June 1898 would be possible and welcomed by the Union; this request was discussed in depth by the NSWRFU at their 30 September meeting, it was decided to extend an invitation with the following stipulations.
The tour was to be under the auspices of the Rugby Football Union, with the touring team paying for passage to and from Sydney. The NSWRFU would pay for their internal expenses once in Australia; the British team was to receive a percentage of the profits earned by the attendance at each match, but only up to the cost of their travel. Some debate centred about what level of reimbursement would be allowed, they settled on fifty percent after the initial proposal of twenty percent was deemed too low, they specified. They would play two games a week while on tour, in New South Wales and New Zealand. There was the possibility that the tour would take in Victoria; the proposal was sanctioned by the RFU, with the strict stipulation that the tour would take place on a purely amateur basis. It was the plan of Mullineux to fill the team with players from the Universities, but the timing of the tour meant that players would need to leave Britain in early May, when vacation had not yet begun. Due to a lack of time to make the necessary arrangements, the tour for 1898 was subsequently cancelled.
A new invitation was sent from the NSWRFU, for a tour to take place in 1899. The RFU at about the same time, received an invitation from the South African Rugby Football Union, to send a team to tour South Africa in 1899; the RFU wanted confirmation from Mullineux, that a team to tour Australia was for certain able to be formed if the invitation from South Africa was to be turned down. After numerous meetings between the RFU and Mullineux a decision was made in February 1899, to turn down the tour to South Africa. A cable message was received in February 1899 by the NSWRFU, erroneously construed to mean that the Australian tour had been the tour abandoned, with players preferring to make the tour of South Africa; the NSWRFU having completed all the arrangements for the tour to take place and having rearranged club schedules to accommodate the tour, made enquiries as no official confirmation of the cancellation was received. The misunderstanding was cleared up on 22 February by a message that indicated the tour to Australia was going to proceed.
Mullineux stated, there was never any suggestion of abandoning the Australian tour. The makeup of the touring squad was described in the earliest communication of 1897 from Mullineux, as a team made of University students from his school Cambridge, as well as Oxford University, of international representatives. Two problems faced Mullineux, the first was that the timing of the tour meant that players would need to leave Britain in early May, when the university vacations had not yet begun; the second was that a long tour would preclude many of the best players from participating due to other commitments. Early lists of probable touring players had few players listed that made the tour. In the pool of potential players the following were noted: James Byrne, Cecil Boyd, Viv Huzzey, Ernest Fookes, Lindsay Watson, M Elliott, Herbert Dudgeon, James Gowans, James Franks, J H Kipling, R Forest, Lawrence Bulger, Timoins, R O Swartz, C B Marston, W Neeks, Dr Rowland, J W Gorman, James Couper. Among these names were several high-profile players.
Byrne declined due to pressure of business, while Ernest Fookes was awaiting a serious medical operation. The final member to join the team was Scottish international Alf Bucher, after failed approaches were made to recruit fellow Scot James Couper and Welsh wing Viv Huzzey; the team consisted of 21 players, nine had international experience, five had played for England, three for Ireland, one for Scotland and Wales. Commentators thought that the selected team did not represent the strength of British rugby with the absence of James Byrne; the team played in a kit consisting of a jersey with thick blue bands and thinner red and white bands, representing the colours of the Union Jack. The team caps bore the motif of a kangaroo. Formal dress comprised a navy blazer, with a breast badge that read "The Anglo-Australian Rugby Football Team". Esmond Martelli, was 20 years of age, he played for Dublin Wanderers. On tour he was able to play at three-quarters also, he was a skilled place and punt kicker.
Charles Thompson, was 25 years old, played for Lancashire. A versatil
Sydney Cricket Ground
The Sydney Cricket Ground is a sports stadium in Sydney, Australia. It is used for Test, One Day International and Twenty20 cricket, as well as Australian rules football, rugby league football, rugby union, association football, it is the home ground for the New South Wales Blues cricket team, the Sydney Sixers of the Big Bash League, the Sydney Roosters of the National Rugby League, the NSW Waratahs of Super Rugby and the Sydney Swans Australian Football League club. It is owned and operated by the Sydney Cricket Ground Trust that manages the Sydney Football Stadium located next door; until the 44,000 seat Football Stadium opened in 1988, the Sydney Cricket Ground was the major rugby league venue in Sydney. In 1811, the Governor of New South Wales, Lachlan Macquarie, established the second Sydney Common, about one-and-a-half miles wide and extending south from South Head Road to where Randwick Racecourse is today. Part sandhills, part swamp and situated on the south-eastern fringe of the city, it was used as a rubbish dump in the 1850s, not regarded as an ideal place for sport.
In 1851, part of the Sydney Common south of Victoria Barracks was granted to the British Army for use as a garden and cricket ground for the soldiers. Its first user was the 11th North Devonshire Regiment which flattened and graded the southern part of the rifle range adjacent to the Barracks. In the next couple of years, the teams from Victoria Barracks combined themselves into a more permanent organisation and called themselves the Garrison Club; the ground therefore became known as the Garrison Ground when it was first opened in February 1854. Up until that time Hyde Park had been the main sporting and racing ground in the colony but when it was dedicated as public gardens in 1856 city cricketers and footballers had to find somewhere else to play. In the late 1860s another part of the Sydney Common, the area west of the Garrison Ground to the Dowling Street, was opened for public recreation, it was named Moore Park after the Mayor of Sydney, Charles Moore, who planted a number of Moreton Bay Fig trees which exist to this day.
As well as the location of Sydney's first zoo, Moore Park was a regular venue for games between Sydney rugby clubs Sydney University and the Wallaroos. Sydney at the time was a small, dense city and best navigated on foot and Moore Park was on the outskirts, it was not liked so much by cricketers. When the commander of the Sydney garrison, Lieutenant-Colonel John Richardson, aligned his soldiers to the East Sydney Cricket Club, the Garrison Ground became known as the Civil and Military Ground. In 1870 British troops left Victoria barracks and the future of the Civil and Military Ground became uncertain. However, with the closure of the Albert Ground in the 1870s, the NSW Cricket Association began regular use of the Civil and Military Ground. In 1875, the NSW Government began to upgrade the ground. Despite efforts by Victoria Barracks and the Carlingford, Redfern and Albert cricket clubs to take control, the president of the NSWCA, Richard Driver, persuaded the government to let the NSWCA look after the ground's administration.
In 1876, the ground was dedicated by Governor Sir Hercules Robinson. The NSWCA had influential supporters. Driver himself was a prominent solicitor for the City of Sydney Council; the Minister for Lands, Thomas Garrett, was supportive. It is hardly surprising therefore that within a couple of years of the NSWCA taking control of the ground, the governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, appointed Driver himself, William W. Stephen and Phillip Sheridan, the first trustees. Two trustees were appointed by the government and one by the NSWCA; the close relationship between the Trust and the NSWCA is evidenced by the fact that they pooled funds for the next six years. The military's link with the ground was severed when John Richardson and the Sydney garrison went to fight in the Sudan; the trustees took the opportunity to rename the ground the Association Ground In 1883 the most prominent trustee, regarding the ground as the responsibility of the trustees, began to act independently of the NSWCA, resulting in the NSWCA losing control of the ground.
Over the next century there was constant conflict between the Trust and the NSWCA over whether other sports such as rugby and cycling, the organisers of which were all keen to use the venue, had access to it. One conflict in 1904, over the Trust's plan to hold a cycling event which clashed with a cricket match, ended up in court; the NSWCA's influence was reduced further over the years due to changes in the way the State Government appointed trustees. By the time of the first Sydney cricket test in February 1882, the ground could boast two grandstands. On opposite sides of the ground to the stands two spectator mounds were built, they became known as the Paddington Hill. In 1886, the Members' Pavilion was rebuilt at a cost of £6,625. Membership was levied at two guineas. In 1881 a loop in the tram line, which ran down Randwick Road, was built to service the Ground and the Pastoral and Agricultural Society Ground next door. In 1894 the ground received its modern name, the Sydney Cricket Ground, followed by the opening of the Hill Stand, situated between The Hill and the Paddington Hill.
It became known as the Bob Stand during the Depression years because it co
England national rugby union team
The England national rugby union team competes in the annual Six Nations Championship with France, Scotland and Wales. They have won this championship on a total of 28 occasions, 13 times winning the Grand Slam and 25 times winning the Triple Crown, making them the most successful outright winners in the tournament's history, they are ranked fourth in the world by the International Rugby Board as of 18 March 2019. England are to date the only team from the northern hemisphere to win the Rugby World Cup, when they won the tournament back in 2003, they were runners-up in 1991 and 2007. The history of the team extends back to 1871 when the English rugby team played their first official Test match, losing to Scotland by one try. England dominated the early Home Nations Championship which started in 1883. Following the schism of rugby football in 1895 into union and league, England did not win the Championship again until 1910. England first played against New Zealand in 1905, South Africa in 1906, Australia in 1909.
England was one of the teams invited to take part in the inaugural Rugby World Cup in 1987 and went on to appear in the final in the second tournament in 1991, losing 12–6 to Australia. Following their 2003 Six Nations Championship Grand Slam, they went on to win the 2003 Rugby World Cup – defeating Australia 20–17 in extra time, they again contested the final in 2007. England players traditionally wear a white shirt with a rose embroidered on the chest, white shorts, navy blue socks with a white trim, their home ground is Twickenham Stadium where they first played in 1910. The team is administered by the Rugby Football Union. Four former players have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame. Seven other former players are members of the IRB Hall—four for their accomplishments as players, two for their achievements in other roles in the sport, one for achievements both as a player and administrator; the expansion of rugby in the first half of the 19th century was driven by ex-pupils from many of England's Public Schools Rugby, upon finishing school, took the game with them to universities, to London, to the counties.
England's first international match was against Scotland on Monday 27 March 1871. Not only was this match England's first, but it proved to be the first rugby union international. Scotland won the match by a goal and a try to a try, in front of a crowd of 4,000 people at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh. A subsequent international took place at the Oval in London on 5 February 1872 which saw England defeat Scotland by a goal, a drop goal and two tries to one drop goal. In those early days there was no points system, it was only after 1890 that a format allowing the introduction of a points system was provided. Up until 1875 international rugby matches were decided by the number of goals scored, but from 1876 the number of tries scored could be used to decide a match if teams were level on goals. In 1875, England played their first game against the Irish at the Oval, winning by one goal, one drop goal and one try to nil. England defeated Scotland in 1880 to become the first winners of the Calcutta Cup.
Their first match against Wales was played on 19 February 1881 at Richardson's Field in Blackheath. England recorded their largest victory, defeating the Welsh by seven goals, six tries, one drop goal to nil and scoring 13 tries in the process; the subsequent meeting the following year at St Helens in Swansea was a closer contest. In 1889, England played their first match against a non-home nations team when they defeated the New Zealand Natives by one goal and four tries to nil at Rectory Field in Blackheath. In 1890 England shared the Home Nations trophy with Scotland. England first played New Zealand in 1905; the All Blacks scored five tries, worth three points at this time, to win 15–0. The following year, they played France for the first time, that year they first faced South Africa; the match was drawn 3–3. England first played France in 1905, Australia in 1909 when they were defeated 9–3; the year 1909 saw the opening of Twickenham as the RFU's new home, which heralded a golden era for English rugby union.
England's first international at Twickenham was in 1910 and brought them victory over Wales, England went on to win the International Championship for the first time since the great schism of 1895. Although England did not retain the title in 1911, they did share it in 1912. A Five Nations Grand Slam was achieved in 1913 and 1914 as well as in 1921 following the First World War. England subsequently won the Grand Slam in 1924 and as well as in 1925; this was despite having started 1925 with a loss to the All Black Invincibles in front of 60,000 fans at Twickenham. After winning another Grand Slam in 1928, England played the Springboks in front of 70,000 spectators at Twickenham in 1931. Following the ejection of France due to professionalism in 1930, which thus reverted The Five Nations back to the Home Nations tournament, England went on to win the 1934 and 1937 Home Nations with a Triple Crown, in 1935 achieved their first victory over the All Blacks; when the Five Nations resumed with the re-admission of France in 1947 after the Second World War