Black Panther (comics)
Black Panther is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Jack Kirby, first appearing in Fantastic Four #52 in the Silver Age of Comic Books. Black Panther's real name is T'Challa and protector of the fictional African nation of Wakanda. Along with possessing enhanced abilities achieved through ancient Wakandan rituals of drinking the essence of the heart-shaped herb, T'Challa relies on his proficiency in science, rigorous physical training, hand-to-hand combat skills, access to wealth and advanced Wakandan technology to combat his enemies. Black Panther is the first superhero of African descent in mainstream American comics, having debuted years before early African American superheroes such as Marvel Comics' the Falcon, Luke Cage and Blade or DC Comics' John Stewart in the role of Green Lantern. In one comic book storyline, the Black Panther mantle is handled by Kasper Cole, a multiracial New York City police officer.
Beginning as an impersonator, Cole would take on the moniker of White Tiger and become an ally to T'Challa. The role of Black Panther and leadership of Wakanda is given to T'Challa's sister Shuri for a short time. Black Panther has made numerous appearances in various television shows, animated films and video games; the character is portrayed in live action by Chadwick Boseman in the 2016 film Captain America: Civil War and the 2018 films Black Panther and Avengers: Infinity War, set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. In 2011, Black Panther was ranked 51st overall on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Books Heroes" list; the Black Panther's name predates the October 1966 founding of the Black Panther Party, though not the black panther logo of the party's predecessor, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, nor the segregated World War II Black Panthers Tank Battalion. Stan Lee, co-creator of the comic, denied that the comic, which pre-dates the political usage of the term, was, or could have been, named after any of the political uses of the term "black panther", including the LCFO, citing "a strange coincidence".
He is the first black superhero in American mainstream comic books. These included the characters in the single-issue, low-distribution All-Negro Comics #1. Previous non-caricatured black supporting characters in comics include U. S. Army infantry private Gabriel Jones of Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos. In a guest appearance in Fantastic Four #119, the Black Panther tried using the name Black Leopard to avoid connotations with the Party, but the new name did not last; the character's name was changed back to Black Panther in Avengers #105, with T'Challa explaining that renaming himself made as much sense as altering the Scarlet Witch's name, he is not a stereotype. Co-creator Stan Lee recounted that the name was inspired by a pulp adventure hero who has a black panther as a helper. Jack Kirby's original concept art for Black Panther used the concept name Coal Tiger. Influences on the character included historical figures such as 14th-century Mali Empire sultan Mansa Musa and 20th-century Jamaican activist Marcus Garvey, as well as Biblical figures such as Ham and Canaan.
Following his debut in Fantastic Four #52–53 and subsequent guest appearance in Fantastic Four Annual #5 and with Captain America in Tales of Suspense #97–100, the Black Panther journeyed from the fictional African nation of Wakanda to New York City to join the titular American superhero team in The Avengers #52, appearing in that comic for the next few years. During his time with the Avengers, he made solo guest-appearances in three issues of Daredevil, fought Doctor Doom in Astonishing Tales #6–7, in that supervillain's short-lived starring feature, he received his first starring feature with Jungle Action #5, a reprint of the Panther-centric story in The Avengers #62. A new series began running the following issue, written by Don McGregor, with art by pencilers Rich Buckler, Gil Kane, Billy Graham, which gave inkers Klaus Janson and Bob McLeod some of their first professional exposure; the critically acclaimed series ran in Jungle Action #6–24. One now-common format McGregor pioneered was that of the multi-issue story arc.
The first, "Panther's Rage", ran through the first 13 issues. Critic Jason Sacks has called the arc "Marvel's first graphic novel": here were real character arcs in Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four over time. But... "Panther's Rage" is the first comic, created from start to finish as a complete novel. Running in two years' issues of Jungle Action, "Panther's Rage" is a 200-page novel that journeys to the heart of the African nation of Wakanda, a nation ravaged by a revolution against its king, T'Challa, the Black Panther; the second and final arc, "Panther vs. the Klan", ran as 17-page stories in Jungle Action #19–24, except for issue #23, a reprint of Daredevil #69, in which the Black Panther guest-starred. The subject matter of the Ku Klux Klan was considered controversial in the Marvel offices at the time, creating difficulties for the creative team. African-American writer-editor Dwayne McDuffie said of the Jungle Action "Black Panther" feature: This overlooked and underrated classic is arguably the most written
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Ryan Kyle Coogler is an American film director and screenwriter. His first feature film, Fruitvale Station, won the top audience and grand jury awards in the U. S. dramatic competition at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival. He has since co-written and directed the seventh film in the Rocky series and the Marvel film Black Panther, the latter of which broke numerous box office records and became the highest-grossing film of all time by a black director. Coogler's films have received commercial success. In 2013, he was included on Time's list of the 30 people under 30, his work has been hailed by critics for centering on overlooked cultures and characters—most notably black people. He collaborates with actor Michael B. Jordan, who has appeared in all of his feature films, as well as composer Ludwig Göransson, who has scored all of his films. In 2018, he was named the runner-up of Time's Person of the Year. Coogler was born on May 1986 in Oakland, California, his mother, Joselyn, is a community organizer, his father, Ira Coogler, is a juvenile hall probation counselor.
Both parents graduated from Hayward. He has two brothers and Keenan, his uncle, Clarence Thomas, is a third-generation Oakland longshoreman, the former secretary treasurer of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union. Coogler lived until age eight, when he moved to Richmond, California. During his youth, he played football, he went to a private Catholic high school, Saint Mary's College High School in Albany and was good at math and science. He began his college at Saint Mary's College of California in Moraga, California, on a football scholarship as a redshirt wide receiver his freshman semester intending to study chemistry; the football players were encouraged to take a creative writing course. Coogler's teacher on this course praised his work and said it was visual, encouraged him to pursue screenwriting. After Saint Mary's canceled its football program in March 2004, he transferred and earned a scholarship to play at and attend Sacramento State, where in his four years he grabbed 112 receptions for 1,213 yards and 6 touchdowns.
At Sacramento, he majored in finance and took as many film classes as he could fit in with the rigors of college football. Following graduation he attended USC School of Cinematic Arts, where he made a series of short films. While at USC Film School, Coogler directed four short films, three of which won or were nominated for various awards: Locks, which screened at the Tribeca Film Festival and won the Dana and Albert Broccoli Award for Filmmaking Excellence. Coogler's first feature-length film, Fruitvale Station, tells the story of the last 24 hours of the life of Oscar Grant, shot to death by a police officer at Oakland's Fruitvale BART station on January 1, 2009; the film was produced by Oscar-winning actor Forest Whitaker. "I've worked with a number of unique voices, true auteurs," Whitaker said of Coogler, "and I can tell when I'm talking to one."After the film premiered at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival, where it won the top audience and grand jury awards in the U. S. dramatic competition, The Weinstein Company acquired the distribution rights for US$2 million.
The film was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival, where it won the award for Best First Film. Following its release, the film won numerous awards and critical acclaim, including Best First Feature from the Independent Spirit Awards, Breakthrough Director at the Gotham Awards, Best Directorial Debut from the National Board of Review, Best First Film at the New York Film Critics Circle Awards, among others. Peter Travers of Rolling Stone called the film "a gut punch of a movie" and "an unstoppable cinematic force". A. O. Scott of The New York Times wrote that Coogler's "hand-held shooting style evokes the spiritually alert naturalism of Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne". Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter called it "a compelling debut" and "a powerful dramatic feature film". Fruitvale Station grossed over $17 million worldwide after its theatrical run. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film received a score of 94% based on 195 reviews, with a critical consensus that reads, "Passionate and powerfully acted, Fruitvale Station serves as a celebration of life, a condemnation of death, a triumph for star Michael B.
Jordan." The film appeared on several critics' top ten lists of the best films of 2013. In July 2013, it was reported that MGM had offered Coogler to direct Creed, which he had written with Aaron Covington and is a spin-off-sequel of the Rocky films. Coogler arrived at the idea after witnessing his father suffer from a neuromuscular disorder. Creed, released on November 25, 2015 in the United States, reunited Coogler with Michael B. Jordan, who played Apollo Creed's son Adonis; the film was praised across the board by critics. For the film, Coogler won the New Generation Award from the Los Angeles Film Critics Association and a Best Director award from the African-American Film Critics Association; the film's star Michael B. Jordan
Chadwick Aaron Boseman is an American actor known for his portrayals of real-life historical figures such as Jackie Robinson in 42, James Brown in Get on Up and Thurgood Marshall in Marshall and for his portrayal of the superhero Black Panther in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Captain America: Civil War, Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War and the upcoming Avengers: Endgame. Boseman has had roles in the television series Lincoln Heights and Persons Unknown and the films The Express, Draft Day and Message from the King. Boseman was born and raised in Anderson, South Carolina, to Carolyn and Leroy Boseman, both African American. According to Boseman, DNA testing has indicated that his ancestors were Krio people from Sierra Leone, Yoruba people from Nigeria and Limba people from Sierra Leone, his mother was a nurse and his father worked at a textile factory, keeping an upholstery business as well. Boseman graduated from T. L. Hanna High School in 1995. In his junior year, he wrote his first play and staged it at the school after a classmate was shot and killed.
He attended college at Howard University in Washington, D. C. graduating in 2000 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in directing. One of his teachers was Phylicia Rashad, she helped raise funds so that Boseman and some classmates could attend the Oxford Mid-Summer Program of the British American Drama Academy in London, to which they had been accepted. Boseman wanted to write and direct, began studying acting to learn how to relate to actors. After he returned to the U. S. he graduated from New York City's Digital Film Academy. He lived in Brooklyn at the start of his career. Boseman worked as the drama instructor in the Schomburg Junior Scholars Program, housed at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem, New York. In 2008, he moved to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career. Boseman got his first television role in an episode of Third Watch, his early work included episodes of the series Law & Order, CSI:NY, ER. He continued to write plays, with his script for Deep Azure performed at the Congo Square Theatre Company in Chicago.
In 2008, he played a recurring role on the television series Lincoln Heights and appeared in his first feature film, The Express. He landed a regular role in 2010 in Persons Unknown. Boseman had his first starring role in the 2013 film 42, in which he portrayed baseball pioneer and star Jackie Robinson, he had been directing an off-Broadway play in East Village when he auditioned for the role, was considering giving up acting and pursuing directing full-time at the time. About 25 other actors had been considered for the role, but director Brian Helgeland liked Boseman's bravery and cast him after he had auditioned twice. In 2013, Boseman starred in the indie film The Kill Hole, released in theaters a few weeks before 42. In 2014, Boseman appeared opposite Kevin Costner in Draft Day, in which he played an NFL draft prospect; that year, he starred as James Brown in Get on Up. In 2016, he starred as a deity from Egyptian mythology, in Gods of Egypt, he started portraying the Marvel Comics character T'Challa / Black Panther in 2016, with Captain America: Civil War being his first film in a five-picture deal with Marvel.
He headlined Black Panther in 2018, which focused on his character and his home country of Wakanda in Africa. The film opened to great anticipation, becoming one of the highest-grossing films of the year in the United States, he reprised the role in Avengers: Infinity War, released in April 2018, will return in Avengers: Endgame, scheduled to be released in April 2019. Boseman was raised a Christian, he was baptized, was part of a church choir and youth group. His former pastor said. Boseman has stated that he prayed to be the Black Panther before he was cast as the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Chadwick Boseman on Facebook Chadwick Boseman on IMDb Borrelli, Christopher. "Robinson actor swings for the fences". Chicago Tribune
Michael B. Jordan
Michael Bakari Jordan is an American actor. He is known for his film roles as shooting victim Oscar Grant in the drama Fruitvale Station, boxer Adonis Creed in the Rocky sequel film Creed and main antagonist Erik Killmonger in Black Panther, all three of which were directed by Ryan Coogler. Jordan's television roles include Wallace in the HBO series The Wire, Reggie Montgomery in the ABC series All My Children and Vince Howard in the NBC drama series Friday Night Lights, his other film performances include Maurice "Bumps" Wilson in Red Tails, Steve Montgomery in Chronicle, Mikey in That Awkward Moment and the Human Torch in Fantastic Four. Jordan was born in Santa Ana, the son of Donna, an artist and high school guidance counselor, Michael A. Jordan, he has an older sister, who works in production, a younger brother, a football player at Howard University. Jordan's family spent two years in California before moving to New Jersey, he attended Newark Arts High School, where his mother works, where he played basketball.
Jordan worked as a child model for several companies and brands, including Modell's sporting goods and Toys "R" Us, before deciding to embark on a career as an actor. He launched his career as a professional actor in 1999, when he appeared in single episodes of the television series Cosby and The Sopranos, his first principal film role followed in 2001 when he was featured in Hardball, which starred Keanu Reeves. In 2002, he gained more attention by playing the small but pivotal role of Wallace in the first season of HBO's The Wire. In March 2003, he joined the cast of All My Children playing Reggie Montgomery replacing Chadwick Boseman, a troubled teenager, until June 2006 when Jordan was released from his contract. Jordan's other credits include guest starring appearances on CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Without a Trace and Cold Case. Thereafter, he had a lead role in the independent film Blackout and starred in The Assistants on The-N. In 2008, Jordan appeared in the music video "Did You Wrong" by R&B artist Pleasure P.
In 2009, he guest-starred on Burn Notice in the episode "Hot Spot", playing a high school football player who got into a fight and is being hunted by a local gangster. In 2010, he guest-starred in the Law & Order: Criminal Intent episode "Inhumane Society" as a boxer involved in a Michael Vick-inspired dog fighting scandal. In 2009, Jordan began starring in the NBC drama Friday Night Lights as quarterback Vince Howard, lived in an apartment in Austin where the show was filmed, he played the character for two seasons until the show ended in 2011. In 2010, he was considered one of the 55 faces of the future by Nylon Magazine's Young Hollywood Issue; that year, he landed a recurring role on the NBC show Parenthood playing Alex. This marked his second collaboration with showrunner Jason Katims, in charge of Friday Night Lights. BuddyTV ranked him #80 on its list of "TV's Sexiest Men of 2011". Jordan voiced Jace in the Xbox 360 game Gears of War 3. In 2012, Jordan appeared in the George Lucas-produced movie Red Tails and played lead character Steve Montgomery in Chronicle, a film about three teenaged boys who develop superhuman abilities.
He guest-starred in an episode of House's final season, playing a blind patient. In 2013, Jordan starred as shooting victim Oscar Grant in Fruitvale Station, directed by Ryan Coogler, his performance earned him critical acclaim. Following his role in Fruitvale Station, Jordan was named an "actor to watch" by Variety. Time named him with Coogler one of 30 people under 30 who are changing the world and he was named one of 2013's breakout stars by Entertainment Weekly and GQ. In 2015, he starred as the Human Torch, in Fantastic Four; the film was universally panned by critics, holding a 9% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, was a bust at the box office. However in 2015, Jordan rebounded with critical acclaim and positive reviews when he starred as Adonis Creed, the son of boxer Apollo Creed in the Rocky sequel Creed, his second collaboration with Coogler, which co-starred Sylvester Stallone. Jordan prepared for his role as a boxer in Creed by undertaking one year of rigorous physical training and a stringent low-fat diet.
He did not have a body double during filming and was "routinely bloodied and dizzy" when fighting scenes were being filmed. In October 2017, it was announced that Jordan was cast in a supporting role as Mark Reese in the upcoming Netflix superhero series, Raising Dion. In February 2018, Jordan starred as the villain Erik Killmonger in Marvel's Black Panther. Jordan received critical acclaim for his performance in Black Panther. Dani Di Placido of Forbes Magazine claimed that Jordan "steals the show" and Jason Guerrasio of Business Insider wrote that "Jordan plays a Killmonger fueled with hate and emptiness—we won't give away why—but he delivers it with a swagger that's just a joy to watch... the movie takes off more in story and viewing enjoyment whenever Jordan is on screen."Later in 2018, Jordan starred in Fahrenheit 451 with Michael Shannon and Sofia Boutella. The television film was distributed on HBO by HBO Films; that same year, Jordan reprised his role as boxer Adonis Creed in Creed II, a sequel to Creed and the eighth installment in the Rocky film series.
Creed II was released in the United States by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer on November 21, 2018. The film received positive reviews from critics and it went on to debut to $35.3 million in its openi
White Tiger (Kasper Cole)
Kevin "Kasper" Cole is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is the third to use the name White Tiger, he has adopted the moniker of the Black Panther. The character was created by Christopher Priest and Dan Fraga and introduced in Black Panther #50. With sales numbers declining on the third volume of Black Panther, the decision was made to retool the series; the original character - T'Challa T'Chaka, the king of Wakanda - would be replaced with a new character impersonating the Black Panther, starting with issue #50. According to writer Christopher Priest, this would be'some guy who starts this gig as a scam, but who evolves over the course of time to embrace and appreciate the rich heritage and culture of the Lord of the Wakandas'. In issue #50 of the Black Panther, Kevin "Kasper" Cole makes his first appearance, he is an officer in the narcotics division of the New York Police Department's Organized Crime Control Bureau, looking to be promoted to homicide detective.
He lives with his pregnant girlfriend Gwen in a squalid apartment in Harlem. His father "Black" Jack is a former cop, imprisoned on the charge of corruption; the character was pitched by Priest as a'dark satire of Spider-Man', in line with work he had done on DC Comics' Steel, who functioned as a'dysfunctional Superman'. The character of Kasper Cole and his friends and family therefore take many cues from Peter Parker and his supporting cast, with Kasper's mother Ruth correlating with Aunt May, his father Jack with Uncle Ben and his girlfriend Gwen with Gwen Stacy. Priest drew inspiration from the film Training Day, as well as sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond; the first storyline, "Black and White", running in issues #50 to #56, focuses on Kasper's investigation into the ties between his boss Sal Anthony and the criminal 66 Bridges gang. Suspended from the police force, he adopts the mantle of the Black Panther - stealing the costume from his Sergeant Tork, an ally of the Panther - so that he can gather evidence.
This brings him into conflict with Nigel "Triage" Blacque and the police department's Internal Affairs. During the course of the investigation, Kasper comes into contact with the original Black Panther, as well as the Panther's antagonist and half-brother the White Wolf, they both attempt to manipulate him to their needs. Christopher Priest has described "Black and White" as being'about a war between The Black Panther and the "white panther" over the soul of this young kid'. Before the story arc concludes, it is revealed to the reader that 66 Bridges is in fact led by Kasper's father as Kibuka and that Triage is his half-brother. Kasper does not succeed in taking down the gang, although he manages to expose a number of crooked cops, he has struck a deal with his corrupt boss, who will help him take down 66 Bridges if Kasper locates his kidnapped son. This search is key to the final Black Panther story arc, "Ascension". In order to find the child, Kasper makes a deal with T'Challa's nemesis Erik Killmonger, the rightful holder of the Black Panther mantle.
Given a synthetic version of the herbs that grant the Black Panther his powers, Kasper gains the enhanced skills necessary to locate the child. The arc and the series concludes with Kasper becoming a White Tiger, a sort of acolyte to the Black Panther cult, although he remains in Harlem. Before the final Black Panther arc was finished, Kasper Cole was designated as one of the feature characters in the short-lived The Crew, he makes his first regular appearance in issue #1 and as the new White Tiger in issue #2. His character provides narration for the second, fourth and seventh issue. In the series, Kasper teams with James Rhodes, Danny Vincente and Josiah X in taking on Triage and the 66 Bridges Gang. While Kasper's relationship with the other characters is fraught with conflict, they nonetheless manage to defeat Triage. After the conclusion of The Crew, he is referenced in the Civil War: Battle Damage Report one-shot. During Civil War II, Kasper is shown in attendance at James Rhodes' funeral after he is killed by Thanos.
Kasper is shown retired from the world of superheroics, now focusing on his police career after having been kicked out of his apartment by Gwen. T'Challa convinces him to don the White Tiger suit one last time in order to stop Cardiac and Vanisher, the latter of whom has been smuggling stolen vibranium out of Wakanda. T'Challa unveils a new costume for Kasper and says that he wants to train him properly to become a hero again, not as White Tiger or Black Panther, but in a new identity altogether. Kevin "Kasper" Cole is depicted as the child of an African man and a Jewish woman; as a result of the sharp contrast between his light skin and the dark skin of his father, he has been nicknamed Kasper, after Casper the Friendly Ghost. Aspects of his heritage and the colour of his skin are referenced in Black Panther and The Crew. Kasper Cole was to be modelled after actor Vin Diesel, an idea suggested by artist Oscar Jimenez. Language and culture barriers, as Priest describes it, precluded this suggestion from being properly translated to Jorge Lucas, who ended up as the penciller of the Black Panther title.
Kasper Cole was non-powered, wearing only the Black Panther's outfit for protection and carrying a pair of 9×19mm pistols. On, after ingesting a synthetic version of the herbs that give the original Black Panther his powers, he possesses peak human physical strength, reflexes
The Avengers are a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team made its debut in The Avengers #1, created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby; the Avengers is Lee and Kirby's renovation of a previous superhero team, All-Winners Squad, who appeared in comic books series published by Marvel Comics' predecessor Timely Comics. Labeled "Earth's Mightiest Heroes", the Avengers consisted of Ant-Man, the Hulk, Iron Man and the Wasp. Ant-Man had become Giant-Man by issue #2; the original Captain America was discovered trapped in ice in issue #4, joined the group after they revived him. A rotating roster became a hallmark of the series, although one theme remained consistent: the Avengers fight "the foes no single superhero can withstand." The team, famous for its battle cry of "Avengers Assemble!", has featured humans, Inhumans, aliens, supernatural beings, former villains. The team has appeared in a wide variety of media outside of comic books, including a number of different animated television series and direct-to-video films.
The 2012 live-action feature film The Avengers, directed by Joss Whedon, set numerous records during its box office run, including one of the biggest opening debuts in North America, with a weekend gross of $207.4 million. A second Avengers film titled Avengers: Age of Ultron was released on May 1, 2015, followed by Avengers: Infinity War, which became the first superhero film to gross over $2 billion and was released on April 27, 2018. A fourth film, Avengers: Endgame, is scheduled for release on April 26, 2019; the team debuted in The Avengers #1. Much like the Justice League, the Avengers were an assemblage of pre-existing superhero characters created by Lee and Jack Kirby; this initial series, published bi-monthly through issue #6 and monthly thereafter ran through issue #402, with spinoffs including several annuals, miniseries and a giant-size quarterly sister series that ran in the mid-1970s. Other spinoff series include West Coast Avengers published as a four-issue miniseries in 1984, followed by a 102-issue series, retitled Avengers West Coast with #47.
Between 1996 and 2004, Marvel relaunched the primary Avengers title three times. In 1996, the "Heroes Reborn" line took place in an alternate universe, with a revamped history unrelated to mainstream Marvel continuity; the Avengers vol. 3 relaunched and ran for 84 issues from February 1998 to August 2004. To coincide with what would have been the 500th issue of the original series, Marvel changed the numbering, The Avengers #500–503, the one-shot Avengers Finale became the "Avengers Disassembled" storyline and final issues. In January 2005, a new version of the team appeared in the ongoing title The New Avengers, followed by The Mighty Avengers, Avengers: The Initiative, Dark Avengers. Avengers vol. 4 debuted in July 2010 and ran until January 2013. Vol. 5 was launched in February 2013. After Secret Wars, a new Avengers team debuted, dubbed the All-New, All-Different Avengers, starting with a Free Comic Book Day preview. Following Civil War II, the book was relaunched in 2016 as Avengers, while retaining the same writer and much of the cast from the All-New, All-Different run.
The series ran for 11 issues before reverting to the numbering of the original Avengers series with issue #672. Starting with issue #675, all four Avengers titles being published at the time were merged into a single weekly series dubbed Avengers: No Surrender, designed to close out this era of the team's history. Following the conclusion of No Surrender in 2018, the series will be relaunched again as Avengers; when the Asgardian god Loki seeks revenge against his brother Thor, his machinations unwittingly lead teenager Rick Jones to collect Ant-Man, the Wasp, Iron Man to help Thor and the Hulk, whom Loki used as a pawn. After the group vanquished Loki, Ant-Man stated that the five worked well together and suggested they form a team; the roster changed immediately. Captain America soon joined the team in issue #4, he was given "founding member" status in the Hulk's place; the Avengers went on to fight foes such as Baron Zemo, who formed the Masters of Evil, Kang the Conqueror, Wonder Man, Count Nefaria.
The next milestone came. Giant-Man, now calling himself Goliath, the Wasp rejoined. Hercules became part of the team, while the Black Knight, the Black Widow, abetted the Avengers but did not become members until years later. Spider-Man did not join the group; the Black Panther joined after rescuing the team from Klaw. The X-Men #45 featured a crossover with The Avengers #53; this was followed by the introduction of the android the Vision. Pym assumed the new identity of Yellowjacket in issue #59, married the Wasp the following month; the Avengers headquarters was in a New York City building called Avengers Mansion, courtesy of Tony Stark. The mansion was serviced by Edwin Jarvis, the Avengers' faithful butler, furnished with state of the art technology and defense systems, included the Avengers' primary mode of transport: the five-engine Quinjet. The