Svatopluk I of Moravia
Svatopluk I or Svätopluk I, known as Svatopluk the Great was a ruler of Great Moravia, which attained its maximum territorial expansion during his reign. In 870 Svatopluk dethroned Rastislav, who was a vassal of Louis the German, within a year, the Franks imprisoned Svatopluk. After the Moravians rebelled against the Franks Svatopluk was released and led the rebels to victory over the invaders and his forces even invaded the March of Pannonia within East Francia in 882. Svatopluk established a relationship with the popes, and he. Pope Stephen V even addressed him as King in a written in 885. Svatopluks state was an assemblage of principalities and included conquered territories. Not long after his death Svatopluks realm of Great Moravia collapsed in the midst of a struggle between his sons and the intensifying Hungarian raids. The Annals of Fulda refer to Svatopluk as a nephew of Rastislav, Svatopluk was most probably born around 840. His fathers name was Svetimir, according to the late 12th-century Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, according to the unproven Moravian tradition of Tomáš Pešina z Čechorodu, who fulfilled the family tree of the House of Mojmír, Svatopluk was the son of a certain Bogislav.
Svatopluk seems to have risen to power in Great Moravia in the early 860s, the Life of Methodius relates that Svatopluk and his uncle jointly asked the Byzantine Emperor Michael III to send missionaries who were familiar with the Slavic tongue to Moravia. Michael III chose two brothers and Methodius, who were fluent in the dialect of Slavic spoken in the environs of Thessaloniki and they arrived in Moravia in 863, and immediately set to work teaching and preaching. Their translation of texts into Old Church Slavonic was approved by Pope Hadrian II in 867. But we Slavs are a people, and have no one to instruct us in the truth. Therefore, O kind lord, send the type of man who will direct us to the whole truth, by the time Svatopluk first appeared in a Frankish source, in 869, he was ruler of his own realm within Great Moravia. His court was at Rastislavs old city, which may have either at Staré Město whose name literally means old city in Czech, or at Nitra. Svatopluks realm was invaded and plundered in 869 by Bavarian troops led by Carloman, at the same time Franconian and Alamannian troops attacked Rastislavs territories under the leadership of the same Kings youngest son, Charles the Bald.
Although the two soon returned, Svatopluk entered into clandestine negotiations with Carloman, and agreed to commend himself. Having learned of this agreement, Rastislav is said to have become furious and set a trap for his nephew, however, was warned of his uncles plans, took Rastislav prisoner and handed him over to Carloman
From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Soviet bloc with a command economy and its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949, and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Form of state 1918–1938, A democratic republic, 1938–1939, After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, 1939–1945, The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic.
A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and its Allies, after the German invasion of Russia, Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946–1948, The country was governed by a government with communist ministers, including the prime minister. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union, 1948–1989, The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. It was a state of the Soviet Union. 1989–1990, The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic, 1990–1992, Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Neighbours Austria 1918–1938, 1945–1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918–1938 Soviet Union 1945–1991 Ukraine 1991–1992 Topography The country was of irregular terrain.
The western area was part of the north-central European uplands, the eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. Climate The weather is mild winters and mild summers, influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, and Mediterranean Sea from the south. The area was long a part of the Austro Hungarian Empire until the Empire collapsed at the end of World War I, the new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935. He was succeeded by his ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, nationalism became a mass movement in the last half of the 19th century
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 14th largest city in the European Union and it is the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history and it was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague is home to a number of cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence. Main attractions include the Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with theatres, cinemas. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.
Prague is classified as an Alpha- global city according to GaWC studies, Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Istanbul, the region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes, around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the following century, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in Levý Hradec, Butovice and in the Šárka valley. The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.
The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied, I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars. She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c.1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. The region became the seat of the dukes, and kings of Bohemia, under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. The first documented Polish monarch was Prince Mieszko I, the Piasts royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir III the Great. Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia, the Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire. However, the term Piast Dynasty was not applied until the 17th century, in a historical work the expression Piast dynasty was introduced by the Polish historian Adam Naruszewicz, it is not documented in contemporary sources. The first Piasts, probably of Polan descent, appeared around 940 in the territory of Greater Poland at the stronghold of Giecz, shortly afterwards they relocated their residence to Gniezno, where Prince Mieszko I ruled over the Civitas Schinesghe from about 960. The name Polani, from Slavic, did not appear until 1015, the Piasts temporarily ruled over Pomerania and the Lusatias, as well as Ruthenia, and the Hungarian Spiš region in present-day Slovakia.
The ruler bore the title of a duke or a king, depending on their position of power. The Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty, the Hungarian Arpads and their Anjou successors, the Kievan Rus, also the State of the Teutonic Order, the Piast position was decisively enfeebled by an era of fragmentation following the 1138 Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty. Numerous dukes like Mieszko III the Old, Władysław III Spindleshanks or Leszek I the White were crowned, only to be overthrown shortly afterwards. After the Polish royal line and Piast junior branch had died out in 1370, the Masovian branch of the Piasts became extinct with the death of Duke Janusz III in 1526. The last ruling duke of the Silesian Piasts was George William of Legnica who died in 1675 and his uncle Count August of Legnica, the last male Piast, died in 1679. The last legitimate heir, Duchess Karolina of Legnica-Brieg died in 1707 and is buried in Trzebnica Abbey, numerous families, like the illegitimate descendants of the Silesian duke Adam Wenceslaus of Cieszyn, link their genealogy to the dynasty.
About 1295, Przemysł II used a coat of arms with a white eagle – a symbol referred to as the Piast coat of arms or as the Piast Eagle, Piast kings and rulers of Poland appear in list form in the following table. For a list of all rulers, see List of Polish monarchs
Karl von Habsburg
Born in Starnberg, Germany in 1961, he is the son of Otto von Habsburg and Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen, and the grandson of the last Austrian emperor, Charles I. He served as a Member of the European Parliament for the Austrian Peoples Party 1996–1999, like his father, he is known as an advocate for the Pan-European movement. Since 1986, Karl von Habsburg has been president of the Austrian branch of the Paneuropean Union, after studying law for 12 years, in 1992/1993, he hosted a TV game show with Austrian public TV broadcaster ORF, called Who Is Who. In October 1996, he was elected to the European Parliament for the Austrian Peoples Party and his father exacerbated the controversy when he complained that his son was being attacked unfairly and drew a parallel between the name Habsburg and a yellow badge. ÖVP did not nominate Karl von Habsburg again for the 1999 elections, in 2004, Karl von Habsburg paid 37,000 euros to the new World Vision Austria branch. On 19 January 2002, he was appointed Director General of UNPO by the UNPO Steering Committee, since 7 December 2008, he is the President of the Association of National Committees of the Blue Shield.
In 1961, his father Otto von Habsburg renounced all claims to the Austrian throne, as a necessary legal condition to being allowed to return to Austria. On 30 November 2000, Karls father transferred over to him the position of head and sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece and in 2008 he became the Grand Master of the Order of St. George. In 2005, Karl von Habsburg filed a lawsuit before Austrias constitutional court after a failed attempt to have former properties of the Habsburg family returned. The familys estates had been expropriated by the First Republic, this had in part been reverted under Austrofascism, the family tried to get their former property returned under rules for victims of the Nazi regime. The attempt failed because the law of expropriation still has constitutional status, on 1 January 2007, his father relinquished his position as the head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, a status which devolved on Karl. Karl von Habsburg is one of the three co-founders of BG Privatinvest, a Vienna-based investment company, in December 2010 the company acquired the two most important Bulgarian daily newspapers, Dneven Trud and 24 Chasa.
After ongoing conflicts with Bulgarian partners, BG Privatinvest sold the newspapers in April 2011, since 2009, Karl von Habsburg is a shareholder in a media group in the Netherlands, consisting of radio stations, a magazine and a music television channel. Karl von Habsburg was born in Germany and he was baptised in Pöcking, Bavaria, as Archduke Karl of Austria, the name entered in the baptismal records. At the time of his birth, his father was de facto stateless and possessed a Spanish diplomatic passport, like his father and siblings, he was banished from Austria for the first years of his life. The Austrian Republic was forced to repeal the banishment of him and his family and he has lived in Salzburg, since 1981. He resides in Casa Austria, formerly called Villa Swoboda, in Anif and Francesca separated in 2003. The diadem belonged to his wife who intended to wear it at a wedding ceremony
Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Boleslaus I the Cruel, called Boleslav I, was the ruler of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death. He was the son of Vratislaus I and the brother of his predecessor. Boleslaus is notorious for the murder of his brother Wenceslaus, through which he became Duke of Bohemia, according to tradition, Wenceslaus was murdered during a feast at precisely the time when a son of Boleslaus was born. The child was given a name, which means a dreadful feast. Remorseful for what he had done, Boleslaus promised to have his son educated as a clergyman, despite his complicity in fratricide, Boleslaus is generally respected by Czech historians as an energetic ruler who significantly strengthened the Bohemian state and expanded its territory. His accomplishments include significant economic development due to an expansion in trade, the introduction of mining and the minting of the first local coinage. There is evidence that Boleslauss pagan mother influenced him against his brother and Christianity, though he repented.
In no way did he impede the growth of Christianity in Bohemia, and in fact, he sent his daughter Mlada. One of Boleslauss major concerns was the tribute paid yearly to the German kings as stipulated in the treaty that Henry the Fowler had established with Boleslauss brother Wenceslaus. He stopped the payment shortly after he ascended the throne, which led to a war with King Otto the Great. Boleslaus attacked an ally of the Saxons in northwest Bohemia in 936, the war deteriorated to border raids and reached its conclusion in 950, when Otto besieged a castle owned by Boleslauss son. This prompted Boleslaus to sign a treaty with Otto. Although he remained undefeated, he promised to resume the payment of tribute, five years later, the armies of Czechs and Germans allied against the Magyars in the victorious Battle of Lechfeld on 10 August 955. Boleslaus helped Otto to crush an uprising of Slavs on the Lower Elbe in Mecklenburg in 953, the defeat of invading Hungarians brought the same benefits to both Germans and Czechs.
Less obvious is what Boleslaus wanted to gain from his participation in the war against the Obotrite Slavic dukes in far north and he probably wanted to ensure that his powerful German neighbors did not interfere with him in expanding the Bohemian territories to the east. After the Battle of Lech, the remainder of the huge Magyar army turned to Bohemia, as a result of this victory, Boleslaus freed Moravia from Magyar raids and expanded his territory to Upper Silesia and Lesser Poland. To strengthen the Bohemian-Polish alliance, Boleslavs daughter Dobrawa married the pagan Piast prince Mieszko I in 965 and he was succeeded by his eldest son Boleslaus the Pious. Boleslavs wife may have been Biagota and it is unknown if she was the mother of all his four adult children, Doubravka of Bohemia, Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia, Strachkvas of Bohemia, Mlada of Bohemia
Prague Castle is a castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic, dating from the 9th century. It is the residence of the President of the Czech Republic. The castle was a seat of power for kings of Bohemia, Holy Roman emperors, the Bohemian Crown Jewels are kept within a hidden room inside it. The castle is among the most visited tourist attractions in Prague attracting over 1.8 million visitors annually, the history of the castle began in 870 when its first walled building, the Church of the Virgin Mary, was built. The Basilica of Saint George and the Basilica of St. Vitus were founded under the reign of Vratislaus I, Duke of Bohemia, the first convent in Bohemia was founded in the castle, next to the church of St. George. A Romanesque palace was erected here during the 12th century, King Ottokar II of Bohemia improved fortifications and rebuilt the royal palace for the purposes of representation and housing. In the 14th century, under the reign of Charles IV the royal palace was rebuilt in Gothic style, in place of rotunda and basilica of St.
Vitus began building of a vast Gothic church, that were completed almost six centuries later. During the Hussite Wars and the decades, the castle was not inhabited. In 1485, King Ladislaus II Jagello began to rebuild the castle, the massive Vladislav Hall was added to the Royal Palace. New defence towers were built on the north side of the castle. A large fire in 1541 destroyed large parts of the castle, under the Habsburgs, some new buildings in Renaissance style were added. Ferdinand I built the Belvedere as a palace for his wife Anne. Rudolph II used Prague Castle as his main residence and he founded the northern wing of the palace, with the Spanish Hall, where his precious art collections were exhibited. The Second Prague defenestration in 1618 began the Bohemian Revolt, during the subsequent wars, the Castle was damaged and dilapidated. Many works from the collection of Rudolph II were looted by Swedes in 1648, the last major rebuilding of the castle was carried out by Empress Maria Theresa in the second half of the 18th century.
Following his abdication in 1848, and the succession of his nephew, Franz Joseph, to the throne, in 1918, the castle became the seat of the president of the new Czechoslovak Republic, T. G. The New Royal Palace and the gardens were renovated by Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik, in this period the St Vitus Cathedral was finished. Renovations continued in 1936 under Plečniks successor Pavel Janák, during the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II, Prague Castle became the headquarters of Reinhard Heydrich, the Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia
Kingdom of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom, was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, the kings of Bohemia, besides Bohemia ruled the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia and parts of Saxony and Bavaria. Numerous kings of Bohemia were elected Holy Roman Emperors and the capital Prague was the seat in the late 14th century. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the became part of the Habsburg Austrian Empire. The Czech language was the language of the Diet and the nobility until 1627. German was formally made equal with Czech and eventually prevailed as the language of the Diet until the Czech national revival in the 19th century. German was used as the language of administration in many towns after Germans immigrated and populated some areas of the country in the 13th century. The royal court used the Czech and German languages, depending on the ruler, following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, both the Kingdom and Empire were dissolved.
Bohemia became the part of the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic. In 1204 Ottokars royal status was accepted by Otto IV as well as by Pope Innocent III and it was officially recognized in 1212 by the Golden Bull of Sicily issued by Emperor Frederick II, elevating the Duchy of Bohemia to Kingdom status. Under these terms, the Czech king was to be exempt from all obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils. The imperial prerogative to ratify each Bohemian ruler and to appoint the bishop of Prague was revoked, the kings successor was his son Wenceslaus I, from his second marriage. Corresponding with the Pope, she established the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star in 1233, four other military orders were present in Bohemia, the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from c. 1160, the Order of Saint Lazarus from the late 12th century, 1200–1421, and the Knights Templar from 1232–1312. The 13th century was the most dynamic period of the Přemyslid reign over Bohemia, at the same time, the Mongol invasions absorbed the attention of Bohemias eastern neighbors and Poland.
Přemysl Ottokar II married a German princess, Margaret of Babenberg and he thereby acquired Upper Austria, Lower Austria, and part of Styria. He conquered the rest of Styria, most of Carinthia, and he was called the king of iron and gold. He campaigned as far as Prussia, where he defeated the natives and in 1256, founded a city he named Královec in Czech
The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, from 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, the monarchy had no official name. The entity had no official name, Austrian Empire, This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i. e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, Austria-Hungary, This was the official name. An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler, Crownlands or crown lands, This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, and of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on.
The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen or Lands of Holy Stephens Crown, the Bohemian Lands were called Lands of the St. Wenceslaus Crown. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary, Salzburg finally became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars. Vienna, Austrias capital became a state January 1,1922, after being residence and Lower Austria, were split into Austria above the Enns and Austria below the Enns. Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen following the War of the Bavarian Succession by the so-called Innviertel, formerly part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands or German Hereditary Lands or Austrian Hereditary Lands, In a narrower sense these were the original Habsburg Austrian territories, i. e. basically the Austrian lands, in a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were included in the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term Crownlands in the 1849 March Constitution, within the Habsburg Monarchy, each province was governed according to its own particular customs.
Until the mid 17th century, not all of the provinces were even necessarily ruled by the same members of the family often ruled portions of the Hereditary Lands as private apanages. An even greater attempt at centralization began in 1849 following the suppression of the revolutions of 1848. For the first time, ministers tried to transform the monarchy into a bureaucratic state ruled from Vienna. The Kingdom of Hungary, in particular, ceased to exist as a separate entity, in this system, the Kingdom of Hungary was given sovereignty and a parliament, with only a personal union and a joint foreign and military policy connecting it to the other Habsburg lands. When Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed, it was not incorporated into either half of the monarchy, instead, it was governed by the joint Ministry of Finance. Austria-Hungary collapsed under the weight of the various unsolved ethnic problems that came to a head with its defeat in World War I, to these were added in 1779 the Inn Quarter of Bavaria, and in 1803 the Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen
Good King Wenceslas
Good King Wenceslas is a popular Christmas carol that tells a story of a Bohemian king going on a journey and braving harsh winter weather to give alms to a poor peasant on the Feast of Stephen. During the journey, his page is about to give up the struggle against the cold weather, the legend is based on the life of the historical Saint Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia or Svatý Václav in Czech. The name Wenceslas is a Latinised version of the modern Czech language “Václav”, in 1853, English hymnwriter John Mason Neale wrote the Wenceslas lyrics, in collaboration with his music editor Thomas Helmore, and the carol first appeared in Carols for Christmas-Tide,1853. Neales lyrics were set to the melody of a 13th-century spring carol Tempus adest floridum first published in the 1582 Finnish song collection Piae Cantiones. Wenceslas was considered a martyr and a saint immediately after his death in the 10th century, within a few decades of Wenceslas death, four biographies of him were in circulation.
Several centuries the legend was claimed as fact by Pope Pius II, the usual English spelling of Duke Wenceslass name, Wenceslaus, is occasionally encountered in textual variants of the carol, although it was not used by Neale in his version. Wenceslas is not to be confused with King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, the tune is that of Tempus adest floridum, a 13th-century spring carol in 7676 Doubled Trochaic metre first published in the Finnish song book Piae Cantiones in 1582. Piae Cantiones is a collection of songs compiled by Jaakko Suomalainen, the Protestant headmaster of Turku Cathedral School, and published by Theodoric Petri. The book is a document of European songs intended not only for use in church. The text of Neales carol bears no relationship to the words of Tempus Adest Floridum, in or around 1853, G. J. R. The book was unknown in England at that time. Neale translated some of the carols and hymns, and in 1853, he, in 1854, they published a dozen more in Carols for Easter-tide and it was in these collections that Neales original hymn was first published.
The tune has used for the Christmas hymn Mary Gently Laid Her Child, by Joseph S. Cook, GIAs hymnal. John Mason Neale published the carol Good King Wenceslas in 1853, although he may have written his carol some time earlier, Neale was known for his devotion to High Church traditions. According to older Czech sources, Neales lyrics are a translation of a poem by Czech poet Václav Alois Svoboda, written in Czech, the hymns lyrics take the form of five eight-line stanzas in four-stress lines. Each stanza has an ABABCDCD rhyme scheme, lines 1,3,5, and 7 end in single-syllable rhymes, and lines 2,4,6, and 8 with two-syllable rhymes. Thus, the musical line differs from all the others in having not two but three measures of 4/4 time. Neales words are now in the public domain, academics tend to be critical of Neales textual substitution