Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the Midwestern states of Brazil. Its total area of 357,125 square kilometers, or 137,891 square miles, is the same size as Germany. Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná, it borders the countries of Paraguay, to the southwest, Bolivia, to the west. The economy of the state is based on agriculture and cattle-raising. Crossed in the south by the Tropic of Capricorn, Mato Grosso do Sul has a warm, sometimes hot, humid climate, is crossed by numerous tributaries of the Paraná River; the state is known for its natural environment, is a destination for domestic and international tourism. The Pantanal lowlands cover 12 municipalities and presents a variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, open pasture and bushes; the city Bonito, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caves, natural rivers, swimming pools and the Blue Lake cave. The name Mato Grosso do Sul is Portuguese for "Thick Bushes of the South".
It is not uncommon for people to mistakenly refer to Mato Grosso do Sul as "Mato Grosso". Other names that were proposed, at the time of the split and afterwards, include "Pantanal" and "Maracaju". Mato Grosso do Sul has humid tropical climates; the average annual rainfall is 1471.1 mm. January is the warmest month, with minimum of 24 °C and more rain; the "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found. Alpine pastures occur at mesophytic forests on more fertile soils; the "cerrado" trees have characteristic twisted trunks covered by a thick bark, leaves which are broad and rigid. Many herbaceous plants have extensive roots to store water and nutrients; the plant's thick bark and roots serve as adaptations for the periodic fires which sweep the cerrado landscape. The adaptations protect the plants from destruction and make them capable of sprouting again after the fire.
The state is located in western Brazil, in a region occupied by the inland marshes of the Pantanal. The highest elevation is the 1,065 m high Morro Grande; the first peoples or indigenous peoples of Mato Grosso do Sul occupying the Nhande Ru Marangatu tropical rainforested area, are the Guarani-Kaiowá, first contacted by non-indigenous peoples in the 1800s. In October 11, 1977, the state was created by dividing the state of Mato Grosso, its status as a state went into full effect two years on January 1, 1979. The new state incorporated the former territory of Ponta Porã and the northern part of the former territory of Iguaçu. According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 2,372,000 people residing in the state; the population density was 6.4 hab./km². Urbanization: 84.7%. In the Cerrado areas in the south and east, there is a predominance of Southern Brazilian farmers of Spanish, Portuguese and Slavic descent. According to an autosomal DNA study from 2008, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is 73,60% European, 13,90% African and 12,40% Native American.
According to a 2013 DNA study, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is: 58.8% European, 25.9% African and 15.3% Amerindian ancestries, respectively. The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 46.1%, followed by the industrial sector at 22.7%. Agriculture represents 31.2%, of GDP. Mato Grosso do Sul exports: soybean 34.9%, pork and chicken 20.9%, beef 13.7%, ores 8%, leather 7.4%, timber 5.1%. Share of the Brazilian economy: 1%. Vehicles: 835,259, but English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. Brazil a country of all, in the Center-West Region does not have structure to have large tourist port much less is well positioned. There are more than 44 universities in whole state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados Universidade Católica Dom Bosco Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal It's a film festival held annually in the months of January and February and has been arranged since 2004.
It focuses on the independent cinema presenting foreign films as well. It presents regional films and short films; as of 2011 the festival is suspended. "Festival de Inverno de Bonito" (Boni
Santa Catarina (state)
Santa Catarina is a state in the southern region of Brazil. According to the Index of Economic Well-Being calculated between 2002 and 2008, Santa Catarina was the Brazilian state that showed the highest economic well-being in relation to any other state in Brazil. Florianópolis, the state capital lies on Santa Catarina Island, while Joinville is Santa Catarina's largest city and a major industrial and business center in Brazil. Neighboring states are Rio Grande do Sul to Paraná to the north, it is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west it borders the province of Misiones, Argentina. The beaches along the coast of Santa Catarina are a great summer attraction. Florianópolis, the capital, has one of the highest HDI among Brazilian cities. Florianopolis beaches attract a large flow of foreign tourists during the summer month. There are several daily direct flights between Florianopolis, Buenos Aires and Santiago throughout the summer months. Tourists from Northern Argentina and Paraguay drive into the state - about a 10-hour drive.
The mountain ridge region of the state, centered around São Joaquim and Urupema, becomes an attraction during winter due to its low temperatures and snow over its green canyons. Blumenau, in the Itajai Valley in Northeast Santa Catarina, is the stage to the largest beer festival in Brazil Southern Region, which possess a strong direct influence from Bavarian culture: the Oktoberfest of Blumenau, a traditional beer party/festival that originated in the 19th century, is the second largest such festival in the world, behind only the one held in Munich. Joinville is a major industrial and tech industry center in Brazil. Joinville's metro area is one of the fastest growing regions in Brazil. Joinville is home to the Joinville Dance Festival, the largest dance event in Brazil, held in the month of July Joinville is home to the only branch of the worldly famous Bolshoi Dance Company With a strong reputation for the strength of its industrial output, Joinville has been changing its focus to the service and educational services - Joinville has become a major college center in the past decade.
Balneario Camboriu is a major beach resort city between Joinville. It has been nicknamed the Brazilian Dubai, as it keeps on building the tallest residential buildings in Brazil; some of the most expensive apartment buildings in Brazil are becoming the norm in this popular summer beach resort. Santa Catarina was one of the few states in Brazil, populated by a settlement program of immigrants coming from every European nation in the 1800s when Brazil had a strong policy of allowing immigrants from Northern Europe to settle in areas of the country that the government at the time deemed in need of settlers. People of German and Austrian descent make up the largest ethnic group among the population of Santa Catarina, at around 50% - with a considerable portion still speaking the German language. Speakers of Venetian Italian make up the third most spoken mother tongue, after Portuguese and assorted German dialects; the state's social indicators are among the best in Latin America, being the Brazilian state with the third highest level of median income, besides exhibiting high levels of education and public health, one of the lowest rates of illiteracy.
Santa Catarina boasts Brazil's highest average life expectancy and lowest homicide rate in addition to lower levels of corruption. The cities of the state are considered some of the most livable in the country, enjoying a reputation of being "clean and organized". Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high and according to data census it's one of the most difficult states in Brazil for foreigners finding jobs. Santa Catarina is in a strategic position in Mercosul, the South American Common Market, its position in the map is situated between the parallel 25º57'41" and 29º23'55" of the Southern latitude and between the meridians 48º19'37" and 53º50'00" of Western longitude. Florianópolis, its capital, is 1,673 km from Brasilia, 705 km from São Paulo, 1,144 km from Rio de Janeiro and 1,850 km from Buenos Aires; the Serra Geral, a southern extension of the Serra do Mar, runs north and south through the state parallel to the Atlantic coast, dividing the state between a narrow coastal plain and a larger plateau region to the west.
The Atlantic coast of Santa Catarina has many beaches, bays and lagoons. The humid tropical Serra do Mar coastal forests cover the narrow coastal zone, crossed by numerous short streams from the wooded slopes of the serras; the central part of the state is home to the Araucaria moist forests, dominated by emergent Brazilian pines. The drainage of the plateau is westward to the Paraná River, the rivers being tributaries of the Iguaçu, which forms its northern boundary, of the Uruguay River, which forms its southern boundary; the semi-deciduous Paraná-Paraíba interior forests occupy the westernmost valleys of the Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers. The highest point of the state is the Morro da Boa Vista, with an altitude of 1,827 m, the second highest point is the Morro da Igreja, in the town of Urubici, with an altitude of 1,822 m. See also: History of Santa Catarina European settlement began with the Spanish settlement of Santa Catarina island in 1542; the Portuguese took control in 1675 and established the captaincy of Santa Catarina in 1738, bringing families from the Azores to populate the shore.
Pará is a state in northern Brazil traversed by the lower Amazon River. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Mato Grosso and Roraima. To the northwest it borders Suriname; the capital and largest city is Belém, at the mouth of the Amazon at the Atlantic Ocean and the 11th most populous city in the country. Pará is the most populous state of the northern region, with a population of over 7.5 million, being the ninth-most populous state in Brazil. It is the second-largest state of Brazil in area, with 1.2 million km², second only to Amazonas upriver. Its most famous icons are the Amazon Rainforest. Pará produces rubber, tropical hardwoods such as mahogany, minerals such as iron ore and bauxite. A new commodity crop is cultivated in the region of Santarém; every October, Belém receives tens of thousands of tourists for the year's most important religious celebration: the procession of the Círio de Nazaré. Another important attraction of the capital is the Marajó-style ceramics, based on pottery from the extinct Marajó indigenous culture, on an island in the Amazon River.
These designs have gained increased international awareness. Toponym of the word pará has its origin in the Tupi language and means "river-sea"; the state's name comes from the river of the same name. In 1500, the Spanish navigator Vicente Yañez Pinzón was the first European to navigate the mouth of the Amazon River. On 26 August 1542, the Spaniard Francisco de Orellana reached the mouth of the Amazon River, waterway by river from Quito, Ecuador. On 28 October 1637, the Portuguese Pedro Teixeira left Belem and went to Quito: during the expedition, he placed a landmark in the confluence of the Napo and Aguarico, in the current border between Ecuador and Peru, to Portugal, to Brazil, getting the possession of most of the Amazon, including all of the current territory of Pará. Archaeologists divide the ancient inhabitants of prehistory Brazil into groups according to their way of life and tools: hunter-gatherers of the coast and farmers; these groups were subsequently named by European settlers as "Indians".
There are archaeological records proving the human presence in Brazil and the region of Santarém since 3000 BC. Marajó people lived in farmer's houses 3,500 years ago; these people knew ceramics, natural medicinal compounds. Their culture remains in Marajoara pottery, which has peculiar decoration; the period from 500 to 1300 was the height of the Marajoara culture. The region of the Amazon valley, by the Treaty of Tordesillas, was in possession of the Spanish Crown, the Portuguese expeditionaries, with the purpose of consolidating the region as Portuguese territory, founded the Fort of the Nativity in 1616, in what was called Santa Maria de Belém do Grão-Pará; the building was the first of the model on Amazon and the most significant in the Amazon territory until 1660. Despite the construction of fort, the occupation of territory was marked by early Dutch and English incursions in search of spices, hence the need of the Portuguese to fortify the area. In the 17th century, the region, integrated into the captaincy of Maranhão, was prosperous with crops and livestock.
In 1616 the captaincy of Grão-Pará was created, belonging to the Portuguese colonial state of Maranhão. In the same year the state of Grão-Pará and Maranhão transferred capital to Belem and attaching the captaincy of Rio Negro in 1755 by creating the State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro. In 1751, with the expansion to the west, the colonial state of Grão-Pará, which besides the captaincy of Grão Pará would host the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro. In 1823, the Pará decided to join the independent Brazil, separated during the colonial period, reporting directly to Lisbon. However, political infighting continued; the most important of them, the Cabanagem, decreed the independence of the province of Pará. This was, along with the revolution Farroupilha, Rio Grande do Sul, the only to lift the regency period when the power was taken. Cabanagem was the only revolt led by the popular strata. Cabanagem, a popular and social revolt during the Empire of Brazil, in the Amazon region, was influenced by the French Revolution.
It was due to extreme poverty and disease that devastated the Amazon at the beginning of the period, in the former province of Grão-Pará, which included the current Amazonian states of Pará, Amapá, Roraima and Rondônia. The revolt spread from 1835 until January 1840, due to the process of independence of Brazil, which did not occur in the province due to political irrelevance to which the region was relegated by Prince Regent Pedro I. After independence, the strong Portuguese influence remained stable, giving political irrelevance in this province to the Brazilian central government. Indians and mestizos, all named cabanos, teamed against the Regent Government and rebelled, to increase the importance of the region in Brazil's central government addressing the issue of poverty as one of the reasons. All lived in mud huts. At the bottom of the rebellion, there was a mobilization of the Brazilian Empire against the reactionary forces of the province of Grão-Pará in expelling the insurgents who wanted to keep the region as a Portuguese colo
Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the Center-West region of the country. The name Goiás comes from the name of an indigenous community; the original word seems to have been guaiá, a compound of gua e iá, meaning "the same person" or "people of the same origin." It borders the Federal District and the states of Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The most populous state of its region, Goiás is characterized by a landscape of chapadões. In the height of the drought season, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the Araguaia River go down and exposes 2 kilometres of beaches, making it the main attraction of the State. At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Mineiros, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and flora from the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás, 132 km from Goiânia, established in the beginning of 18th Century, Caldas Novas, with its hot water wells attracting more than one million tourists per year.
In Brazil's geoeconomic division, Goiás belongs to the Centro-Sul, being the northernmost state of the southern portion of Brazil. Located in the east of the Center-West region, adjacent to Brazil's Southeastern region, Goiás lies on the southern portion of the Brazilian Highlands, which are located in the center of the country, it occupies a large plateau, the vast level surface of which stands between 750 and 900 m above sea level and forms the divide between three of Brazil's largest river systems: to the south. Goiás is drained by a tributary of the Paraná River. Other major rivers in the state are the Meia Ponte, Aporé, São Marcos, Corumbá River, Maranhão, Paranã and Preto. None of these rivers is navigable except for short distances by small craft; the state's highest point is Pouso Alto, at 1,676 metres above sea level, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros. Goiás is covered with a woodland savanna known in Brazil as campo cerrado, although there are still tropical forests along the rivers; this cerrado has been diminished in recent years due to cattle raising and soybean farming with great loss of animal life and forest cover.
The climate of the plateau is tropical. Average monthly temperatures vary from 26 °C in the warmest month to 22 °C in the coldest; the year is divided into a dry season. Average annual rainfall is about 1,700 millimetres, but this varies due to elevation and microclimate; some parts of the state, have small remnants of tropical Atlantic forest, that appears around rivers and valleys. The Great Central West Region, consisting of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, the Federal District, is among the fastest-growing regions of Brazil; the population of Goiás state tripled in size in the period from 1950 to 1980 and is still growing quickly. However, outside the Federal District and the Goiânia metropolitan region most of Goiás is thinly populated; the chief concentration of settlement is in the southeast, in the area of Goiânia, across the border from Minas Gerais, around the Federal District. See also: History of Goiás The first European exploration of this interior part of Brazil was carried out by expeditions from São Paulo in the 17th century.
Gold was discovered in the gravel of a tributary of the Araguaia River by the bandeirante Bartolomeu Bueno da Silva in 1682. The settlement he founded there, called Santa Anna, became the colonial town of Goiás Velho, the former state capital. In 1744 the large inland area, much of it still unexplored by Europeans, was made a Captaincy General, in 1822 it became a province of the empire of Brazil, it became a state in 1889. The Brazilian constitution of 1891 specified that the nation's capital should be moved to the Brazilian Highlands, in 1956 Goiás was selected as the site for the federal district and capital national, Brasília; the seat of the federal government was moved to Brasília in 1960. Goiânia, the largest city and capital was planned in 1933 to replace the old, inaccessible former state capital of Goiás, 110 kilometres northwest. In 1937 the state government moved there, in 1942 the official inauguration was held. Goiânia is now one of the fastest growing cities in Brazil and one of the most livable cities in the country..
It stands out as both an industrial center and as a cultural center for country culture and music, known as Sertanejo. Due to the large territory of the state, over 600,000 square kilometres, communications were very difficult; the northern part of the state began to feel abandoned by the southern government and began a movement for separation. Local political leaders, many of whom were large landowners and were eager to gain important positions such as governor or senator and financial gain with the construction of a new capital encouraged the movement. In 1989 the northern half of Goiás became. According to the IBGE of 2010, there were 6,004,045 people residing in the state; the population density was 16.9 inh./km2. Ur
Federal District (Brazil)
The Federal District is one of 27 federative units of Brazil. Located in the Center-West Region, it is the smallest Brazilian federal unit and the only one that has no municipalities, being divided into 31 administrative regions, totaling an area of 5,779,999 km². In its territory, is located the federal capital of Brazil, Brasília, the seat of government of the Federal District; the capital of Brazil was transferred from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília on 21 April 1960 and its new territory, split off from Goiás state in border with the Minas Gerais state, became the current Federal District. After the transfer the old Federal District, containing the city of Rio de Janeiro, became the state of Guanabara; this state existed from 1960 until 1975. With the merge the capital of Rio de Janeiro state was transferred back from Niterói to Rio de Janeiro itself; the region has a tropical savanna climate, with a rainy season from October to April, a dry season from May to September. During the dry season, the humidity can reach critical levels in the peak hours of the hottest days.
The artificial Paranoá Lake, with 40 km2 and 500 million cubic metres of water, was built to minimize the severe dry climatic conditions of winter in the Cerrado vegetation. According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 2,393,000 people residing in the Federal District; the population density was 410.9 inhabitants per square kilometre. Urbanization: 94%. Population growth: 2.8%. Houses: 697,000. In area, the Federal District is the island of Maui, it is larger than French Polynesia, the US State of Rhode Island, or Cape Verde. It is smaller than Bali or Trinidad and Tobago; the politics and administration of the Federal District are distinguished from the other units of the federation in some particular points, as defined in the Brazilian Constitution of 1988: The Federal District is governed by an organic law, typical of municipalities, not by a state constitution. It builds up the legislative powers reserved to states and municipalities, which are not forbidden by the Constitution; the hybrid character of the Federal District is observable by its Legislative Chamber, a mixture of Municipal Chamber and Legislative Assembly.
The Legislative Power of the Federal District is exercised by the of the Legislative Chamber, with 24 elected district deputies. The Federal District is a legal entity of internal public law, part of the political-administrative structure of Brazil, of a nature sui generis, because it is neither a state nor a municipality, but a special entity that accumulates the legislative powers reserved to the states and the municipalities, as provided in art. 32, § 1º of the CF, which gives it a hybrid nature of state and municipality. Article 32 of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution expressly prohibits the Federal District from being divided into municipalities, being considered one; the executive power of the Federal District was represented by the mayor of the Federal District until 1969, when the position was transformed into governor of the Federal District. The legislative power of the Federal District is represented by the Legislative Chamber of the Federal District, whose nomenclature represents a mixture of legislative assembly and municipal chamber.
The Legislative Chamber is made up of 24 district deputies. The judicial power which serves the Federal District serves federal territories. Brazil does not have territories therefore, the Court of Justice of the Federal District and of the Territories only serves the Federal District. Part of the budget of the Federal District Government comes from the Constitutional Fund of the Federal District. In 2012, the fund totaled 9.6 billion reais. By 2015, the forecast was of 12.4 billion Reais, with more than half billion) for public security expenditures. The Parque da CidadeLocated in Brasília, the "Parque da Cidade", named after the wife of Brazilian president Juscelino Kubitschek, extends over four million square meters, it includes landscape works of Burle Marx, wall tiles that decorate restrooms in the park designed by Athos Bulcão. Equipped with sports courts, a horse track, a racing kart track, skate tracks, playgrounds for children, bicycle tracks and trails for walks and jogging, the City Park attracts hundreds of people everyday, specially on weekends.
The park's main entrance is located in the Monumental Axis South, but there are secondary exits that lead to other areas in the city's south wing. The Metropolitan Cathedral of BrasiliaDesigned by Oscar Niemeyer, it was inaugurated in 1970, its shape is circular horizontally and structured around 16 curved pillars, forming a crown filled with futuristic and/or spatial stained-glass works in a triangular shape. The pillars evoke reversed praying hands that deconstruct the gothic traditional church window pattern, but conserves the triangular vaginal shape of the stained-glasses; the curves present in many of Niemeyer's works pay homage to the beautifully built bodies of Brazilian women. The stained-glasses were designed by Marianne Peretti, their disposition ensures natural lighting into the aisle, built below street level. Around the church, in the outside area, visitors can see Alfredo Ceschiatti's sculptures — the four evangelists — and inside, suspended angels. There
Sergipe State of Sergipe, is a state of Brazil. Located in the Northeast Region along the Atlantic coast of the country, Sergipe is the smallest state in Brazil by geographical area at 21,910 km², larger only than the Federal District. Sergipe borders on Bahia to Alagoas to the north. Aracaju is the largest city in the state; as with most of the states in northeastern Brazil, inland Sergipe is entirely savanna, its coastline is characterized by mangroves and sandy beaches. A small strip of tropical rainforest runs down the coast; the São Francisco River forms its northern boundary, the drainage of the northern part of the state is northward and eastward to that river. The southern half of the state slopes eastward and is drained directly into the Atlantic through a number of small rivers, the largest of which are the Irapiranga, the Real and the Cotinguiba; these streams are obstructed by sandbars at their mouths. The surface of the state resembles, in part, that of Bahia, with a zone of forested lands near the coast and beyond this forested zone lies a higher zone of rough open country, called agreste.
There is a sandy belt along the coast, the western frontier is mountainous. The land in between is fertile in the forested region where the rainfall is abundant. Further inland, the year is divided into dry seasons with occasional prolonged droughts; these are pastoral areas, the lower fertile lands are cultivated. The capital of the state is Aracaju, on the lower course or estuary of the Cotinguiba River, near the coast; the sandbar at the entrance to this river is exceptionally dangerous, the port is frequented only by coasting vessels of light draught. The city is found on a sandy plain, there are sand dunes within the city limits; the main public buildings include a large plain church with unfinished twin towers, the government palace, the legislative halls, a public school and public hospital. The other principal towns are Estância - pop. 62,218 on the Rio Real river in the southern part of the state and a center for the manufacturing of cotton-based textiles, cigars and soap as well as an active trade center.
26,452, located in a productive sugar-growing district north of the capital. 27,403. 39,706. 90,345. 75,353, the old colonial capital near the mouth of the Irapiranga. 15,937. See List of municipalities in Sergipe, Brazil. São Cristóvão was the site of the first Portuguese settlement, in 1591, at Sergipe D'El-Rey, today Sergipe, became the state's capital for a while; as with other states in the northeast, Sergipe was invaded numerous times by the Dutch, raided by French buccaneers. During the 17th century, the state was known throughout the Americas for its king-wood, a prized commodity, the primary attraction during the buccaneer raids, a factor in Dutch military expeditions. From 1641 to 1645, the territory belonged to Dutch-controlled Brazil; the Dutch built a fort between the rivers São Sergipe. In 1645, the Portuguese regained control. By the 18th century, the Portuguese military had driven off the pirates permanently. In 1855, under the administration of provincial president Inácio Joaquim Barbosa, the capital was moved to Aracaju.
In the 1930s, Sergipe became notorious for its outlaws, including Virgolino Ferreira da Silva, better known as Lampião, the "King of Bandits", who terrorized the state for a decade until his beheading by the Brazilian police in 1938. His head was displayed on a pole in a village square. According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 2,030,000 people residing in the state; the population density was 91.3 inh./km². Urbanization: 82.2%. The last PNAD census revealed the following numbers: 1,240,000 Brown people, 634,000 White people, 146,000 Black people, 6,000 Amerindian people, 4,000 Asian people; the industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 53.9%, followed by the service sector at 39.1%. Agriculture represents 7% of GDP. Sergipe exports include: orange juice 66.1%, urea 20.8%, leather and footwear 4.6%, woven goods 2.3%, other types of juices 2%. Sergipe's share of the Brazilian economy: 0.7%. Sergipe's economy is focused around the production of sugarcane, the enormous sugarcane fields, which draw upon the wet and fertile soil, produce over 1.4 million tons of sugar annually.
Unlike the situation in many other Brazilian states, cattle is not a major industry, as the land area of the state prevents large-scale grazing. Along with sugarcane and oranges are grown. A small-scale leather and textile industry exists; the Brazilian federal government is encouraging the development of a fledgling petroleum and natural gas industry. Cleovansóstenes de Aguiar: doctor, Mayor of Aracaju and founder of Sergipe Academy of Medicine.