Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Sophia Dorothea of Celle was the repudiated wife of George I of Great Britain and mother of George II. The union with her first cousin was a marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of his mother. She is best remembered for her affair with Philip Christoph von Königsmarck that led to her being imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden for the last thirty years of her life. George William eventually married his daughters mother officially in 1676, there was some talk of marriage between Sophia Dorothea and the future king of Denmark, but the reigning queen was talked out of it by Sophia of Hanover. Another engagement, to the duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was broken off after Duchess Sophia convinced her brother-in-law of the advantage of having Sophia Dorothea marry her cousin and this occurred on the day the engagement between Sophia Dorothea and the duke was to be announced. Forced by her father, she fainted into her mothers arms on her first meeting with her future mother-in-law and she fainted again when presented to George Louis.
On 22 November 1682, in Celle, Sophia Dorothea married her cousin, the marriage of George Louis and Sophia Dorothea was an unhappy one. His immediate family, especially his mother Duchess Sophia and despised Sophia Dorothea and he does not care much for the match itself, but one hundred thousand thalers a year have tempted him as they would have tempted anybody else. These feelings of contempt were shared by George Louis himself, who was oddly formal to his wife, Sophia Dorothea was frequently scolded for her lack of etiquette, and the two had loud and bitter arguments. It was in circumstances that Sophia Dorothea renewed her acquaintance with Swedish count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck. The two had first met in Celle when he was sixteen and they flirted innocently, and traced their names on the palace windows with the words Forget me not. On 1 March 1688 he reminded her of their previous acquaintance, George Louis younger brothers loved the count and brought him to Sophia Dorotheas salon in the evening to cheer her up.
For the two years he stayed in Hanover, there was no reason to believe their relationship was anything, in 1690, he left to join the German mercenaries serving in the Morean War. On his return, the relationship between him and Sophia Dorothea intensified and they began sending each other love letters which suggest that their relationship was consummated. In 1692, the letters were shown to the newly-appointed Elector Ernest Augustus. Since a scandal might have threatened his new status, the elector sent Königsmarck to fight with the Hanoverian army against France, other soldiers were given leave to visit Hanover, but he was not. Königsmarck deserted his post one night, and rode for six days to Hanover, the day after arriving, he called on Field Marshal Heinrich, confessed his breach of duty, and begged for leave to stay in Hanover. This was granted, though Heinrich suggested that the affair be ended or that Königsmarck leave the country, George Louis criticised his wife over her affair, and she criticised him for his
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Anne became Queen of England and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death, Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, who had no legitimate children. Her father, was first in line to the throne and his suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, and on Charless instructions Anne was raised as an Anglican. Three years after he succeeded Charles, James was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Annes Dutch Protestant brother-in-law and cousin William III became joint monarch with his wife, Annes elder sister Mary II. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Annes finances and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Marys accession and Mary had no children. After Marys death in 1694, William continued as sole monarch until he was succeeded by Anne upon his death in 1702, as queen, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs.
The Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession and her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life, from her thirties onwards, she grew increasingly lame and obese. Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without any surviving children and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Anne was born at 11,39 p. m. on 6 February 1665 at St Jamess Palace, the child and second daughter of James, Duke of York. At her Anglican baptism in the Chapel Royal at St Jamess, her sister, was one of her godparents, along with the Duchess of Monmouth. The Duke and Duchess of York had eight children, but Anne, as a child, Anne suffered from an eye condition, which manifested as excessive watering known as defluxion. For medical treatment, she was sent to France, where she lived with her grandmother, Queen Henrietta Maria.
Following her grandmothers death in 1669, Anne lived with an aunt, Henrietta Anne, on the sudden death of her aunt in 1670, Anne returned to England. Her mother died the following year, as was traditional in the royal family and her sister were brought up separated from their father in their own establishment at Richmond, London. On the instructions of Charles II, they were raised as Protestants, placed in the care of Colonel Edward and Lady Frances Villiers, their education was focused on the teachings of the Anglican church. Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was appointed as Annes preceptor, around 1671, Anne first made the acquaintance of Sarah Jennings, who became her close friend and one of her most influential advisors
Irish Free State
The Irish Free State was an independent state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army, and British Crown forces, the Free State was established as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It comprised 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, Northern Ireland, which comprised the remaining six counties, exercised its right under the Treaty to opt out of the new state. W. T. Cosgrave, who had led both of these governments since August 1922, became the first President of the Executive Council, the legislature consisted of Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann, known as the Senate. Members of the Dáil were required to take an Oath of Allegiance, the oath was a key issue for opponents of the Treaty, who refused to take the oath and therefore did not take their seats. Pro-Treaty members, who formed Cumann na nGaedheal in 1923, held a majority in the Dáil from 1922 to 1927.
In the first months of the Free State, the Irish Civil War was waged between the newly established National Army and the anti-Treaty IRA, who refused to recognise the state. The Civil War ended in victory for the government forces, with the anti-Treaty forces dumping its arms in May 1923, the anti-Treaty political party, Sinn Féin, refused to take its seats in the Dáil, leaving the relatively small Labour Party as the only opposition party. In 1926, when Sinn Féin president Éamon de Valera failed to have this policy reversed, he resigned from Sinn Féin, Fianna Fáil entered the Dáil following the 1927 general election, and entered government after the Irish general election,1932, when it became the largest party. De Valera abolished the Oath of Allegiance and embarked on a war with Britain. In 1937 he drafted a new constitution, which was passed by a referendum in July of that year, the Free State came to an end with the coming into force of the new constitution on 29 December 1937. Under the new constitution the Irish state was named Ireland, opposition increased to Irelands participation in World War I in Europe and the Middle East.
This came about when the Irish Parliamentary Party supported the Allied cause in World War I in response to the passing of the Third Home Rule Bill in 1914. Many people had begun to doubt whether the Bill, passed by Westminster in September 1914 but suspended for the duration of the war, Sinn Féin, the Irish Party and all other Nationalist elements joined forces in opposition to the idea during the Conscription Crisis of 1918. At the same time the Irish Parliamentary lost in support on account of the crisis, Irish republicans felt further emboldened by successful anti-monarchical revolutions in the Russian Empire, the German Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Sinn Féin party, founded by Arthur Griffith in 1905, had espoused non-violent separatism, under Éamon de Valeras leadership from 1917, it campaigned aggressively and militantly for an Irish republic. On 21 January 1919, Sinn Féin MPs, refusing to sit at Westminster, assembled in Dublin and it affirmed the formation of an Irish Republic and passed a Declaration of Independence, the irish people is resolved.
To promote the common weal, to re-establish justice, with equal rights and equal opportunity for every citizen
Herrenhausen is an area of the German city Hanover which is most notable for the baroque Herrenhausen Gardens. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg died in Herrenhausen Palace, during the Second World War the palace was completely destroyed in a British bombing on October 18,1943. The decision to rebuild the palace was not made until 2007, and reconstruction was completed in 2013
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her capacity as monarch of the United Kingdom. Variants of the Royal Arms are used by members of the British royal family. In Scotland, there exists a version of the Royal Arms. The crest is a statant guardant lion wearing the St Edwards Crown, the dexter supporter is a likewise crowned English lion, the sinister, a Scottish unicorn. According to legend a free unicorn was considered a dangerous beast, therefore the heraldic unicorn is chained. In the greenery below, a thistle, Tudor rose and shamrock are depicted, motto Dieu et mon Droit in the compartment below the shield, with the Union Rose and Thistle engrafted on the same stem. The Royal Arms as shown above may only be used by the Queen herself and they appear in courtrooms, since the monarch is deemed to be the fount of judicial authority in the United Kingdom and law courts comprise part of the ancient royal court.
Judges are officially Crown representatives, demonstrated by the display of the Royal Arms behind the bench in all UK courts. In Northern Ireland, the Royal Arms cannot be displayed in courtrooms or on court-house exteriors and they may be shown on the exterior of court buildings that had them in place prior to the 2002 law. However, when used by the government and not by the monarch personally and this is the case with the sovereigns Scottish arms, a version of which is used by the Scotland Office. The Royal Arms have regularly appeared on the produced by the Royal Mint including, for example, from 1663, the Guinea and, from 1983. In 2008, a new series of designs for all seven coins of £1 and below was unveiled by the Royal Mint, the monarch grant Royal Warrants to select businesses and tradespeople which supply the Royal Household with goods or services. This entitles those business to display the Royal Arms on their packaging and it is customary for churches throughout the United Kingdom whether in the Church of England or the Church of Scotland to display the Royal Arms to show loyalty to the Crown.
This protocol equally applies to the principal residences in Scotland. When the monarch is not in residence the Union Flag, or in Scotland the ancient Royal Standard of Scotland, is flown. The widely sold British newspaper The Times uses the Hanoverian Royal Arms as a logo, whereas its sister publication, The Sunday Times, displays the current Royal Arms. The Royal Arms are displayed in all courts in British Columbia, as well as in other Canadian provinces such as Ontario, the Royal Arms were displayed by all Viceroys of Australia as representation of their Crown authority
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne.
In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services.
Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition.
Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War II
Prince George of Denmark
Prince George of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Cumberland, was the husband of Queen Anne, who reigned over Great Britain from 1702. His marriage to Anne was arranged in the early 1680s with a view to developing an Anglo-Danish alliance to contain Dutch maritime power, as a result, George was unpopular with his Dutch brother-in-law William of Orange, who was married to Annes elder sister, Mary. William and Mary became joint monarchs of Britain, with Anne as their heir presumptive, in 1689 after the Glorious Revolution deposed James II and VII, the father of both Anne and Mary. William excluded George from active service, and neither George nor Anne wielded any great influence until after the deaths of William and Mary. During his wifes reign, George occasionally used his influence in support of his wife and he had an easy-going manner and little interest in politics, his appointment as Lord High Admiral in 1702 was largely honorary. Annes seventeen pregnancies by George resulted in twelve miscarriages or stillbirths, four infant deaths, and a sick son, William.
Despite the history of their children and Annes marriage was a strong one, George died aged 55 from a recurring and chronic lung disease, much to the devastation of his wife, and he was buried in Westminster Abbey. George was born in Copenhagen Castle, and was the son of King Frederick III of Denmark and Norway. His mother was the sister of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, from 1661, his governor was Otto Grote, Hanoverian minister to Denmark. Grote was more courtier and statesman than educator and when he left for the Hanoverian court in 1665, George received military training, and undertook a Grand Tour of Europe, spending eight months in 1668–69 in France and mid-1669 in England. His father died in 1670, while George was in Italy and he travelled through Germany again in 1672–73, to visit two of his sisters, Anna Sophia and Wilhelmine Ernestine, who were married to the electoral princes of Saxony and the Palatinate. In 1674, George was a candidate for the Polish elective throne, Georges staunch Lutheranism was a barrier to election in Roman Catholic Poland, and John Sobieski was chosen instead.
In 1677, George served with distinction with his elder brother Christian in the Scanian War against Sweden. His brother was captured by the Swedes at the Battle of Landskrona, and George cut his way through the enemies numbers, as a Protestant, George was considered a suitable partner for the niece of King Charles II of England, Lady Anne. Although they were related, they had never met. George was hosted by Charles II in London in 1669, both Denmark and Britain were Protestant countries, and Louis XIV was keen on an Anglo-Danish alliance to contain the power of the Dutch Republic. George and Anne were married on 28 July 1683 in the Chapel Royal at St Jamess Palace, London, by Henry Compton, the guests included King Charles II, Queen Catherine, and the Duke and Duchess of York. Anne was voted a parliamentary allowance of £20,000 a year, while George received £10,000 a year from his Danish estates, King Charles gave them a set of buildings in the Palace of Whitehall known as the Cockpit as their London residence
English overseas possessions
In 1639, a series of English fortresses on the Indian coast was initiated with Fort St George. In North America and Virginia were the first centres of English colonization, as the 17th century wore on, Plymouth, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, New Scotland, New Haven and Rhode Island and Providence were settled. In 1664, New Netherland and New Sweden were taken from the Dutch, becoming New York, New Jersey, the Kingdom of England is generally dated from the rule of Æthelstan from 927. During the rule of the House of Knýtlinga, from 1013 to 1014 and 1016 to 1042, in 1066, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, conquered England, making the Duchy a Crown land of the English throne. Through the remainder of the Middle Ages the kings of England held extensive territories in France, under the Angevin Empire, England formed part of a collection of lands in the British Isles and France held by the Plantagenet dynasty. The collapse of this dynasty led to the Hundred Years War between England and France, at the outset of the war the Kings of England ruled almost all of France, but by the end of it in 1453 only the Pale of Calais remained to them.
Calais was eventually lost to the French in 1558, the Channel Islands, as the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy, retain their link to the Crown to the present day, Other early English expansion occurred within the British Isles. As early as 1169, the Norman invasion of Ireland began to establish English possessions in Ireland, as a result of this the Lordship of Ireland was held for centuries by the English monarch, although it was not until the early 17th century that the Plantation of Ulster began. English control of Ireland fluctuated for centuries until Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the voyages of Christopher Columbus began in 1492, and he sighted land in the West Indies on 12 October that year. Cabot sailed in 1497, successfully making landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, there, he believed he had reached Asia and made no attempt to found a permanent colony. He led another voyage to the Americas the following year, the Reformation had made enemies of England and Spain, and in 1562 Elizabeth sanctioned the privateers Hawkins and Drake to attack Spanish ships off the coast of West Africa.
Later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth approved further raids against Spanish ports in the Americas, the influential writers Richard Hakluyt and John Dee were beginning to press for the establishment of Englands own overseas empire. The first serious attempts to establish English colonies overseas were made in the last quarter of the 16th century, the 1580s saw the first attempt at permanent English settlements in North America, a generation before the Plantation of Ulster. Soon there was an explosion of English colonial activity, driven by men seeking new land, by the pursuit of trade, in the 17th century, the destination of most English people making a new life overseas was in the West Indies rather than in North America. Financed by the Muscovy Company, Martin Frobisher set sail on 7 June 1576, from Blackwall, London, in August 1576 he landed at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island and this was marked by the first Church of England service recorded on North American soil. Frobisher returned to Frobisher Bay in 1577, solemnly taking possession of the side of it in Queen Elizabeths name.
In a third voyage, in 1578, he reached the shores of Greenland, while on the coast of Greenland, he claimed that for England. At the same time, between 1577 and 1580, Sir Francis Drake was circumnavigating the globe and he claimed Elizabeth Island off Cape Horn for his queen, and on 24 August 1578 claimed another Elizabeth Island, in the Straits of Magellan
Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia
Elizabeth Stuart was, as the wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, Electress Palatine, and briefly, Queen of Bohemia. Due to her husband’s reign in Bohemia lasting for just one winter and she was the second child and eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scots and Ireland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark. She was the granddaughter of Mary, Queen of Scots and she was four years older than her brother Charles, who became Charles I of England and Ireland. With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her grandson succeeded to the British throne as George I of Great Britain, the reigning British monarch, Elizabeth II, is Elizabeth Stuarts direct descendant of the 10th and 11th generation through different paths. Elizabeth was born at Falkland Palace, Fife, on 19 August 1596 at 2 oclock in the morning, at the time of her birth, her father was King of Scots only. Named in honour of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the young Elizabeth was christened on 28 November 1596 in the Chapel Royal at Holyroodhouse, a couple of years the kings second daughter, was placed in their care as well.
Elizabeth did not pay attention to this younger sister, as even at this young age her affections were with her brother. When Elizabeth I, the Queen of England, died in 1603, Elizabeth Stuarts father, along with her elder brother, Elizabeth made the journey south toward England with her mother in a triumphal progress of perpetual entertainment. Elizabeth remained at court for a few weeks, but there is no evidence that she was present at her parents coronation on 25 July 1603 and it seems likely that by this time the royal children already had been removed to Oatlands, an old Tudor hunting lodge near Weybridge. On 19 October 1603 an order was issued under the privy seal announcing that the King had thought fit to commit the keeping and education of the Lady Elizabeth to the Lord Harrington and his wife. Under the care of Lord Harington at Coombe Abbey, Elizabeth met Anne Dudley, the conspirators chose Elizabeth after considering the other available options. Prince Henry, it was believed, would perish alongside his father, Charles was seen as too feeble and Mary too young.
Elizabeth, on the hand, had already attended formal functions. The conspirators aimed to cause an uprising in the Midlands to coincide with the explosion in London and she would be brought up as a Catholic and married to a Catholic bridegroom. The plot failed when the conspirators were betrayed and Guy Fawkes was caught by the Kings soldiers before he was able to ignite the powder, Elizabeth was given a comprehensive education for a princess at that time. This education included instruction in history, theology, writing, music. She was denied instruction in the classics as her father believed that Latin had the effect of making women more cunning. By the age of 12, Elizabeth was fluent in languages, including French