The monarchs of Bulgaria ruled the country during three periods of its history as an independent country: from the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 to the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria in 1018. Early Bulgarian rulers used the title Kanasubigi knyaz for a brief period, subsequently tsar; the title tsar, the Bulgarian form of the Latin Caesar, was first adopted and used in Bulgaria by Simeon I, following a decisive victory over the Byzantine Empire in 913. It was used by all of Simeon I's successors until the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule in 1396. After Bulgaria's liberation from the Ottomans in 1878, its first monarch Alexander I adopted the title knyaz, or prince. However, when de jure independence was proclaimed under his successor Ferdinand in 1908, the title was elevated to the customary tsar once more; the use of tsar continued under Ferdinand and under his heirs Boris III and Simeon II until the abolition of monarchy in 1946. While the title tsar was translated as "emperor" in the First and Second Bulgarian Empires, it was translated as "king" in modern Bulgaria.
In the few surviving medieval Bulgarian royal charters, the monarchs of Bulgaria styled themselves as "In Christ the Lord Faithful Emperor and Autocrat of all Bulgarians" or similar variations, sometimes including “... and Romans, Greeks, or Vlachs". This list does not include the mythical Bulgar rulers and the rulers of Old Great Bulgaria listed in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans as well as unsuccessful claimants to the throne who are not listed among the Bulgarian monarchs. There is one living former Bulgarian Tsar: Simeon Sakskoburggotski. A documentary named "The Boy Who Was a King", about his remarkable life, was displayed at the 2011 edition of the IDFA. Coronation of the Bulgarian monarch List of Bulgarian consorts List of Prime Ministers of Bulgaria List of presidents of Bulgaria Cuman people Cumania Andreev, Jordan; the Bulgarian Tsars. Veliko Tarnovo: Abagar. ISBN 954-427-216-X. Bakalov, Georgi; the Medieval Bulgarian Ruler. Sofia. Ivanov, Yordan. Bulgarian Antiquities from Macednia.
Sofia: BAN. Laskaris, M.. Bulgarian Antiquities; the Vatopedi Charter of Emperor Ivan Asen II. Sofia: BAN, Darzhavna Pechatnitsa. Runciman, Steven. A History of the First Bulgarian Empire. London: George Bell & Sons. OCLC 832687. Stephenson, Paul. Byzantium's Balkan Frontier. A Political Study of the Northern Balkans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-511-03402-4. Whittow, Mark; the Making of Byzantium. Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20497-2. Zlatarski, Vasil. History of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages. Volume I. History of the First Bulgarian Empire. Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo. OCLC 67080314. Detailed list of Bulgarian rulers
Gadget Geeks is a British television series that aired on Sky1, focused on technology and gadgets. The series differed to the Channel 5 series The Gadget Show, in that it did not just feature commercially available technology, but specially-built items designed by the in-house "geeks"; the show was commissioned by Sky in 2011. After the show was aired, it was not commissioned for another series; the show is divided into two sections. One features gadgets and technology; these segments are presented by Ian Morris and Emma Barnett. The other is "builds" where a problem is solved by the three experts creating their own gadgets to help a member of the public with a specific challenge; the builds are presented by Tom Scott and Charles Yarnold. Official website
Indian Wars is the name used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial or federal government and the native people of North America. The wars, which ranged from the 17th-century to the Leech Lake uprising in 1898 resulted in the opening of Native American lands to further colonization, the conquest of American Indians and their assimilation, or forced relocation to Indian reservations; the Indian Wars comprised a series of smaller wars. American Indians, diverse peoples with their own distinct tribal histories, were no more a single people than the Europeans. Living in societies organized in a variety of ways, American Indians made decisions about war and peace at the local level, though they sometimes fought as part of formal alliances, such as the Iroquois Confederation, or in temporary confederacies inspired by leaders such as Tecumseh; the Medal of Honor was created during the American Civil War and is the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces.
The recipient must have distinguished themselves at the risk of their own life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an enemy of the United States. Due to the nature of this medal, it is presented posthumously; this along with the †, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously This along with the †, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously This along with the †, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously This along with the †, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously This along with the †, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously This along with the †, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously This along with the †, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously "Medal of Honor recipients". Medal of Honor statistics. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009."Medal of Honor recipients". Indian War Campaigns. United States Army Center of Military History.
June 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009