List of Canadian airports by location indicator: CF
Format of entries is:
- Location indicator – IATA – Airport Name (alternate name) – Airport Location
Airports that are part of the National Airports System are emphasised.
Format of entries is:
Airports that are part of the National Airports System are emphasised.
|TC LID||IATA||Airport name||Community||Province/|
|CFA2||Port Carling/Fig Air Heliport||Port Carling||ON|
|CFA7||Taltheilei Narrows Airport||Great Slave Lake||NT|
|CFA8||Three Hills (Hospital) Heliport||Three Hills||AB|
|CFB2||Frank Channel (Forestry) Heliport||Frank Channel||NT|
|CFB4||Trout Lake Aerodrome||Trout Lake||AB|
|CFB5||Namur Lake Airport||Namur Lake||AB|
|CFB7||Steen River Airport||Steen River||AB|
|CFB8||Foot's Bay Water Aerodrome||Foot's Bay||ON|
|CFC4||Macmillan Pass Airport||Macmillan Pass||YT|
|CFC8||Flamboro Centre Aerodrome||Flamborough||ON|
|CFD8||Fort Simpson (Great Slave No. 2) Heliport||Fort Simpson||NT|
|CFE7||Kananaskis Village Helistop Heliport||Kananaskis Village||AB|
|CFF2||Christina Basin Airport||Christina Basin||AB|
|CFF3||Jean Lake Airport||Jean Lake||AB|
|CFF4||DAS||Great Bear Lake Airport||Great Bear Lake||NT|
|CFF7||CFB Wainwright (Wainwright/Camp Wainwright Field Airport)||Wainwright||AB|
|CFF8||Flin Flon/Bakers Narrows Water Aerodrome||Bakers Narrows||MB|
|CFF9||Camrose/Marek Farms Aerodrome||Camrose||AB|
|CFG5||John D'Or Prairie Aerodrome||John D'Or Prairie||AB|
|CFG8||Fenelon Falls/Sturgeon Lake Water Aerodrome||Sturgeon Lake||ON|
|CFH2||Williams Lake (Frontline Helicopters) Heliport||Williams Lake||BC|
|CFH4||YFX||Fox Harbour Airport||Fox Harbour||NS|
|CFH7||Edmonton (Royal Alexandra Hospital) Heliport||Edmonton||AB|
|CFJ2||Fort St. James (Stuart Lake Hospital) Heliport||Fort St. James||BC|
|CFK4||Calling Lake Airport||Calling Lake||AB|
|CFK6||Olds (Netook) Airport||Olds||AB|
|CFK8||Cookstown/Kirby Field Aerodrome||Cookstown||ON|
|CFL2||Empress/McNeill Spectra Energy Aerodrome||Empress||AB|
|CFL3||Black Diamond (Oilfields General Hospital) Heliport||Black Diamond||AB|
|CFL4||Flesherton (Smithorrs Field) Aerodrome||Flesherton||ON|
|CFL9||Johnson Lake Airport||Johnson Lake||AB|
|CFM2||Birch Mountain Airport||Birch Mountain||AB|
|CFM8||Fort Macleod (Alcock Farm) Airport||Fort Macleod||AB|
|CFM9||Fort Macleod (Hospital) Heliport||Fort Macleod||AB|
|CFN5||La Crete Airport||La Crete||AB|
|CFP2||Dwight (Fox Point) Water Aerodrome||Dwight||ON|
|CFP6||La Biche River Airport||La Biche River||YT|
|CFQ5||Silver City Airport||Silver City||YT|
|CFQ6||Pelly Crossing Airport||Pelly Crossing||YT|
|CFQ7||Edmonton/Gartner Airport||Edmonton Capital Region||AB|
|CFR2||Bawlf (Blackwells) Airport||Bawlf||AB|
|CFR3||Fall River Water Aerodrome||Fall River||NS|
|CFR5||French River/Alban Aerodrome||Alban||ON|
|CFR6||Vancouver/Coquitlam Fire and Rescue Heliport||Vancouver||BC|
|CFR7||Red Deer Forestry Airport||Sundre||AB|
|CFS2||Fort Simpson/(Great Slave No. 1) Heliport||Fort Simpson||NT|
|CFS3||Fort Selkirk Aerodrome||Fort Selkirk||YT|
|CFS4||Ogilvie Aerodrome||Ogilvie River||YT|
|CFS5||Spirit River Airport||Spirit River||AB|
|CFS6||Loon River Airport||Loon River||AB|
|CFS7||Twin Creeks Airport||Twin Creeks||YT|
|CFS8||Clearwater River Airport||Clearwater River||AB|
|CFT2||Blackie/Wilderman Farm Airport||Blackie||AB|
|CFT3||Finlayson Lake Airport||Eagle Plains||YT|
|CFT8||Pelican Airport||Wabasca oil field||AB|
|CFT9||Zama Lake Airport||Zama Lake||AB|
|CFU4||Garden River Airport||Garden River||AB|
|CFU9||Olds (Hospital) Heliport||Olds||AB|
|CFV3||Mobil Bistcho Airport||Mobil Bistcho||AB|
|CFV5||Virginia Falls Water Aerodrome||Nahanni National Park Reserve||NT|
|CFV6||Margaret Lake Airport||Margaret Lake||AB|
|CFV7||Claresholm (General Hospital) Heliport||Claresholm||AB|
|CFV8||Brooks (Community Health Centre) Heliport||Brooks||AB|
|CFV9||Drayton Valley (Health Centre) Heliport||Drayton Valley||AB|
|CFW2||Gordon Lake Airport||Gordon Lake||AB|
|CFW4||Muskeg Tower Airport||Muskeg Tower||AB|
|CFW5||Taltson River Airport||Taltson River||NT|
|CFW8||Grand Falls-Windsor Heliport||Grand Falls-Windsor||NL|
|CFX2||Calgary/Okotoks Air Park||Okotoks||AB|
|CFX5||Renard Aerodrome||Renard diamond mine||QC|
|CFX8||Chestermere (Kirkby Field) Airport||Chestermere||AB|
|CFY4||Indus/Winters Aire Park Airport||Indus||AB|
|CFY5||Pine Lake Aerodrome||Pine Lake||YT|
|CFZ3||Medicine Hat/Schlenker Airport||Medicine Hat||AB|
|CFZ5||Sundre/Goodwins Farm Airport||Sundre||AB|
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Port Carling is an unincorporated community in the Township of Muskoka Lakes in the Canadian province of Ontario. It has been the municipal seat of the township since 1971, it has several hundred year-round residents and is a service centre for thousands of other seasonal residents in the area. Besides the town, which maintains much of its older architecture, there are several tourist and cultural sites: Muskoka Lakes Museum Muskoka Lakes Association Antique Boat Show Muskoka Lakes Library Port Carling Memorial Community Hall Port Carling is located on the Indian River and owes its importance to its key position on the water routes of the area. A set of locks joins Lake Muskoka and Lake Rosseau, so much boat and ship traffic in the township passes through, hence its nickname Hub of the Lakes; the community is directly located on the two-lane Muskoka Road 118, improvements to Highway 69 now link it to the controlled-access freeway Highway 400 and the sometimes divided Highway 11. This has facilitated its increasing role as a tourist destination from the Toronto area.
The Ojibway Indians settled in the area in the 1850s. They called their settlement Obogawanung, while Europeans called it Indian Gardens. Before white settlers moved into the newly surveyed Medora Township starting in the 1860s, the Ojibway moved to Parry Sound but continued to summer in Port Carling. In 1869, Benjamin Hardcastle Johnston called it Port Carling. John Carling, the Ontario Minister of Public Works, was a booster of the locks between the lakes which were completed in 1871; this led to an economic boom fuelled by tourism and logging, resulting in the building of four resorts, two sawmills and three Protestant churches of the 1870s. The Orange Order was active in the area, few Catholics settled here; the Port Carling Boat Works Ltd. traces its origins to an enterprise started in 1868 by William J. Johnston, it captured a niche market after his relatives developed the disappearing propeller boat and operated the company under that name for a while. Port Carling became independent of Medora Township and was incorporated as a village in 1896.
As it grew, the locks were widened in 1903 to permit steamship traffic and in 1922 smaller pleasure boat locks were installed. The Port Carling Volunteer Fire Department began in 1912 and got its biggest workout in 1931 when a series of fires ravaged the boat works and much of the downtown. James Bartleman has been Port Carling's most prominent government official outside the community; the part-Ojibway man was a lieutenant governor of Ontario. He wrote Out of Muskoka, a personal reminiscence of his upbringing and some of the less savoury aspects of local history. Muskoka Lakes Township municipal government site Port Carling semi-official community site Muskoka Lakes Museum article
The Great Bear Lake is the largest lake in Canada, the fourth-largest in North America, the eighth-largest in the world. The lake is in the Northwest Territories, on the Arctic Circle between 65 and 67 degrees of northern latitude and between 118 and 123 degrees western longitude, 156 m above sea level; the name originated from the Chipewyan language word satudene, meaning "grizzly bear water people." The Sahtu Dene people are named after the lake. Grizzly Bear Mountain on the shore of the lake comes from Chipewyan, meaning, "bear large hill."The Sahoyue peninsula on the south side of the lake and the Edacho peninsula on the west side form the Saoyú-ʔehdacho National Historic Site of Canada. The lake has a surface area of 31,153 km2 and a volume of 2,236 km3, its maximum depth is 446 m and average depth 71.7 m. The shoreline is 2,719 km and the catchment area of the lake is 114,717 km2. Great Bear Lake is covered with ice from late November to July; the lake is known for its considerable clearness.
Explorer John Franklin wrote in 1828 that a white rag placed in the water did not disappear until it exceeded a depth of 15 fathoms. Arms of Great Bear Lake include the Smith Arm, the Dease Arm, the McTavish Arm, the McVicar Arm and the Keith Arm; the community of Deline is located on the Keith Arm near the outflow of the Great Bear River that flows west into the Mackenzie River at Tulita. Rivers flowing into Great Bear Lake include the Whitefish River, Big Spruce River, Haldane River, Bloody River, Sloan River, Dease River and the Johnny Hoe River. Great Bear Lake lies between two major physiographic regions: the Kazan Uplands portion of the Canadian Shield and the Interior Plains, it was part of Glacial Lake McConnell in the pre-glacial valleys reshaped by erosional ice during the Pleistocene. Since, the lake has changed from post-glacial rebound following the ice melting. Precambrian rocks of the Canadian Shield form the eastern margin of the McTavish Arm; these rocks of the Precambrian are sedimentary and metamorphic deposits supplemented by igneous intrusions forming dikes and sills.
The Deline settlement is near the headwaters of the Bear River. There is an ice crossing from Deline to the winter road on the far side of the Great Bear River. On 5 March 2016, a tank truck fell partway through the ice road just a few days after the government had increased the allowed maximum weight limit to 40,000 kg on the road; the truck, 3 km outside of Deline and close to the community's fresh water intake, as well as a major fishing area, contained 30,000 l of heating fuel and was one of 70 truck loads intended to resupply the community. The fuel was removed from the truck by 8 March. Three lodges around the lake are destinations for hunting. In 1995, a 32.8 kg lake trout was caught, the largest caught anywhere by angling. In 1930, Gilbert LaBine discovered uranium deposits in the Great Bear Lake region; the former mining area Port Radium, site of the Eldorado Mine, where pitchblende was discovered, was located on the eastern shore. Echo Bay Mines Limited leased the old camp and mill at Port Radium to recover silver and copper values from 1965 to 1981.
The Great Bear Lake is paramount in the Délı̨nę people’s identity and culture. Hence, conserving it is critical for the Délı̨nę people. Ɂehtsǝ́o Erǝ́ya, a former member of the Dene peoples, is regarded as a prophet, making over 30 prophecies which have come true. His prediction for the end of times claims that as the world dries up, the little remaining life will flock to and end on the banks of the Great Bear Lake, a lake seen as a physical beating heart to humanity; the Délı̨nę people have followed these prophecies closely. List of lakes of Canada 1867 account of the lake by William Carpenter Bompas
Foremost is a village in southern Alberta, Canada. It is located 106 km south-west of Medicine Hat, along the Red Coat Trail, in the County of Forty Mile No. 8. Foremost has a strong agriculture industry. Recreation facilities include an ice arena, swimming pool, curling rink, ice fishing, ball diamonds; every June the residents hold a parade and tough truck competition. Hockey is a big sport in Foremost; the local team is called the Foremost Flyers. They have multiple regional titles; the school has a long history of winning sports teams. The Foremost Falcons and Forettes have won many provincial titles in basketball, volleyball and field and cross country running; the village has a strong arts community presenting community theatre as well as a school dramatic department. Foremost hosts the Foremost Centre for Unmanned Systems at the Foremost Aerodrome. Established by the Canadian Centre for Unmanned Vehicle Systems in 2008, the Foremost Centre supports training for pilots in Beyond Visual Line of Sight flights - the only one in Canada.
The location was selected for reasons including number of sunny days, low population density, flat prairie terrain, low number of dwellings and minimal man-made obstructions. The site's range stretches across the County of 40 Mile, encompassing 700 square nautical miles and reaches up to 18,000 feet above sea level; the site received Transport Canada's approval as Canada’s "first permanent restricted airspace for Unmanned Air Systems" in November, 2016. Drone Delivery Canada began testing at the site in 2017 with the goal of commercially rolling out drone delivery in 2018; the community, notes mayor Ken Kultgen, expects the Centre "will be used by national and international businesses and manufacturing companies." In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Village of Foremost recorded a population of 541 living in 229 of its 257 total private dwellings, a 2.9% change from its 2011 population of 526. With a land area of 2.16 km2, it had a population density of 250.5/km2 in 2016.
In the 2011 Census, the Village of Foremost had a population of 526 living in 218 of its 246 total dwellings, a 0.4% change from its 2006 population of 524. With a land area of 1.89 km2, it had a population density of 278.3/km2 in 2011. Foremost experiences a semi-arid climate. List of communities in Alberta List of villages in Alberta Foremost Formation Foremost Airport Official website
Rimbey is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located at the junction of Highways 20 and 53 in the Blindman River valley area 62 kilometres northwest of Red Deer and 145 kilometres southwest of Edmonton. Provincially, Rimbey is part of the Rimbey-Rocky Mountain House-Sundre electoral district and federally in the Wetaskiwin riding. Made a community in 1902, the first name given to the settlement at the turn of the century was Kansas Ridge as many of the settlers originated from the American state of Kansas. Among them were the three Rimbey brothers for whom the town was named after in 1904; the Rimbeys moved to Canada from Scott County, Illinois having moved to Illinois in the 1830s from Maryland. They were born in Pennsylvania. In 1919 the Lacombe and Blindman Valley Electric Railway reached Rimbey, there was much enthusiasm for the "new town" by the tracks. Two grain companies built elevators the following year and Rimbey's population swelled to 319 by 1921; the Second World War brought abrupt changes to Rimbey, as young men and sometimes their families left the village.
When war was over some returned and others did not. Many new faces came to Rimbey and the population surged to 634 by 1946. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Rimbey recorded a population of 2,567 living in 1,077 of its 1,160 total private dwellings, a 7.9% change from its 2011 population of 2,378. With a land area of 11.4 km2, it had a population density of 225.2/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Rimbey had a population of 2,378 living in 983 of its 1,081 total dwellings, a 5.6% increase from its 2006 population of 2,252. With a land area of 11.34 km2, it had a population density of 209.7/km2 in 2011. The population of the Town of Rimbey according to its 2008 municipal census was 2,496. Rimbey is a farming community, with the oil and gas sector increasing in importance; the town has full amenities including hotels, several grocery and liquor stores and a campground. Rimbey has its own hospital and ambulance and its own detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Pas-Ka-Poo Park includes large open lawns, a historical village site, museums and a wide array of interesting displays, including the World's Largest Collection of International Trucks in the Smithson International Truck Museum. The Rimbey Golf & Trailer Park was located 1.5 kilometres south. The golf course has since been closed due to flooding; the town had an outdoor swimming pool open from May to September every year, rebuilt as a 3,900 ft ² junior olympic pool with a beach entrance, two hot tubs, a double loop waterslide and a 2,100 ft ² splash pad for toddlers up to 15 years of age. The Beatty House is a historical house in the centre of town and can be booked for tours or to house social events. There are a couple of smaller public parks around town. Operated by the Wolf Creek School Division No. 72, the Rimbey Elementary School, the Rimbey Junior-Senior High School, the West Country Outreach School provide education within Rimbey. The town is home to the Rimbey Christian School, a private school that offers learning for students in K-9.
The Rimbey Nursery School offers play-based programs for children 3 to 5 years old. The town newspaper is the Rimbey Review; the Review was owned by Sylvan Lake News. The paper was sold to Black Press in 2005; the Rimbey Review succeeded the Rimbey Record, publishing since the early 1930s. The Record was cited, in 1937, for its assistance in a series for the Edmonton Journal, which won that paper a Pulitzer prize; the Rimbey Record was, at its demise, part of a chain of newspapers, under the banner Record Publishing that failed financially after an unsuccessful attempt to go public. The town had one radio station VF8020, owned by The Church of Nazarene of Rimbey. Harry Lang, professional wrestler best known as Cowboy Lang List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of 1,144,000 km2 and a 2016 census population of 41,786, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada, its estimated population as of 2018 is 44,445. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission; the Northwest Territories, a portion of the old North-Western Territory, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 15, 1870, but the current borders were formed on April 1, 1999, when the territory was subdivided to create Nunavut to the east, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. While Nunavut is Arctic tundra, the Northwest Territories has a warmer climate and is both boreal forest, tundra, its most northern regions form part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south.
The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory. In Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, "beautiful land."There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut to a term from an Aboriginal language. One proposal was "Denendeh", among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory "Bob" – began as a prank, but for a while it was at or near the top in the public-opinion polls. In the end, a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name "Northwest Territories"; this name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canada's north-central and northeastern areas. Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south.
It meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has a land area of 1,183,085 km2. Geographical features include Great Bear Lake, the largest lake within Canada, Great Slave Lake, the deepest body of water in North America at 614 m, as well as the Mackenzie River and the canyons of the Nahanni National Park Reserve, a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island, parts of Victoria Island and Melville Island, its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north; the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with daytime highs of 14-17 Celsius, lows of 1-5 Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C and lows around −40 °C.
Extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, but they can reach the low teens during the day. In the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C but they can reach the single digits during the day. Thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower; the Territory has a dry climate due to the mountains in the west. About half of the territory is above the tree line. There are not many trees in the north islands; the present-day territory came under government authority in July 1870, after the Hudson's Bay Company transferred Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the British Crown, which subsequently transferred them to Canada, giving it the name the North-west Territories.
This immense region comprised all of today's Canada except that, encompassed within the early signers of Canadian Confederation, that is, British Columbia, early forms of present-day Ontario and Quebec, the Maritimes, the Labrador coast, the Arctic Islands, except the southern half of Baffin Island. The first residential school opened in 1867 in Fort Resolution, followed by several others in regions across the territory, thus contributing to the Northwest Territories reaching the highest percentage of students in residential schools of any area in Canada. After the 1870 transfer, some of the North-west Territories was whittled away; the province of Manitoba was created on July 15, 1870, at first a small square area around Winnipeg