Georgina is a town in south-central Ontario, the northernmost municipality in the Regional Municipality of York. The town is bounded to the north by Lake Simcoe. Although incorporated as a town, it operates as a township, in which dispersed communities share a common administrative council; the largest communities are Keswick and Jackson's Point. The town was formed by the merger of the Village of Sutton, the Township of Georgina and the Township of North Gwillimbury in 1971, was incorporated in 1986. North Gwillimbury had been part of Georgina, but became its own township in 1826, it took its name from the family of née Gwillim. Georgina was the proposed name for Ontario by John Graves Simcoe; the main centres in Georgina are the communities of Keswick, Sutton West, Jackson's Point, Virginia, Port Bolster and Willow Beach. Other settlements include Jersey, Brown Hill, Island Grove, Elm Grove, Roche's Point, Sibbald Point, Virginia / Virginia Beach, McRae Beach, Duclos Point, Balfour Beach, Brighton Beach and a variety of other beach communities.
According to the Canada 2016 Census conducted by Statistics Canada: Population: 45,418 Population % Change: 4.4% Dwellings: 16,821 Dwellings % Change: 6.1% Area: 287.75 Density: 157.8 Racial profile As per the 2011 Canadian Census 96.1% White 1.6% Aboriginal 0.5% Black 0.3% ChineseReligions 45.7% Protestant 22.4% Roman Catholic 3.3% other Christian 0.3% Jewish 28.3% non-religiousMother Tongue 90.3% English 1.2% French 1.0% German 1.0% Italian The Town of Georgina operates under a ward system, its municipal council consists of the mayor, regional councillor and a councillor for each of the five wards. The current council consists of: Mayor: Margaret Quirk Deputy mayor/regional councillor: Rob Grossi Councillor Ward 1: Mike Waddington Councillor Ward 2: Dan Fellini Councillor Ward 3: Dave Neeson Councillor Ward 4: Frank Sebo Councillor Ward 5: Dave HardingThe mayor and deputy mayor represent Georgina at meetings of York Regional Council. Georgina is part of the Federal riding of York—Simcoe, represented by Scot Davidson of the Conservative Party of Canada, elected in a by-election on February 25, 2019.
Provincially, it was part of the riding of York North until 2007 and is now part of the provincial riding of York—Simcoe, represented by Julia Munro of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario, first elected in 1995. Canadian Wrestling Hall of Fame member Whipper Billy Watson was a lifelong resident, he spearheaded the campaign to build the Georgina Cultural Centre in the 1980s, which houses the Stephen Leacock Theatre. Keswick is the childhood home of former NHL goaltender Curtis Joseph. Captain William Johnson, former Royal Navy officer and founder of Pefferlaw, Ontario. Noted writer Stephen Leacock settled on a farm near a hamlet within Georgina. Jim Carrey, a Canadian actor, impressionist and producer, he was born in nearby Newmarket. His family settled in Sutton for his early life. Caroline Mulroney and her husband own land in Jacksons Point. Captain William Johnson's Old Mill St. George's Anglican Church, built in 1877 by the pioneering Sibbald family and burial place of Stephen Leacock and Mazo de la Roche Roche's Point Anglican Church, built in 1862 The ROC, including the Georgina Pioneer Village Museum and Archives The Red Barn Theatre, Canada's oldest summer stock theatre.
Stephen Leacock Theatre Duclos Point Nature Reserve Georgina Arts Centre and Gallery The Peter Gzowski Festival of Stories Georgina Public Libraries York Regional Forests Sibbald Point Provincial Park Sutton Fair and Horse Show Ramada Jacksons Point Resort and Spa Willow Beach Conservation Area Georgina Ice Junior C Hockey Georgina Girls Hockey Association Georgina Minor Baseball Association Georgina Minor Hockey Association Jericho Youth Services Lake Simcoe Minor Softball Association Lake Simcoe Soccer Club Georgina Skating Club Sail Georgina Sutton Agricultural Society Georgina-Brock Garden Club Lake Simcoe Gardeners Georgina Trail Riders Snowmobile Club Georgina Military Museum Sutton & District Lions Club Kinsmen Club of Keswick Kinsmen Club of Sutton South Lake Simcoe Naturalists Canadian Madeira Club - Madeira Park List of townships in Ontario Town of Georgina
Pilot Butte, Saskatchewan
Pilot Butte is the 31st largest community in Saskatchewan, located in the White Butte area between Highway 46 and the Trans-Canada Highway. The town is a neighbour to White Balgonie. Pilot Butte is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Edenwold No. 158. European settlement in the area can be traced back to the 1840s, the town was settled in 1882. Pilot Butte's early development was more substantial than neighbouring towns thanks to the town's brick plants, along with its sand and gravel deposits. In 1995, the Pilot Butte Storm destroyed much of the town. In recent years, the population and size of Pilot Butte has begun growing at a high rate; the population of Pilot Butte was 2,183 as of 2016, growing 18% since 2011 according to Statistics Canada. The town's name, meaning "Lookout Point", was chosen in 1883 as the name for the settlement; the origin of the community name is derived from the flat-topped hill located in the town that served as a lookout for hunting buffalo. The Cree call the hill and the town otasawâpiwin, meaning "his outlook" or "his lookout".
The Butte played a significant role in the lives of the Prairie Indians. Aboriginal people, who camped near Boggy Creek, used the Butte as a signal point; the Cree called the hill otasawâpiwin, meaning "his outlook" or "his lookout". European settlement in the area can be traced back to the 1840s. With the construction of the railway through the region in 1882, the area’s sand and gravel deposits were extensively utilized, in the following years, as settlers began farming in the district, Pilot Butte developed. For a long time of its history, Pilot Butte was known as the "Sand Capital of Canada"; because of its location on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, significant settlement took place between 1880 and 1900. Sand and gravel deposits nearby were used during the construction of the railway; the history of Pilot Butte is marked by dramatic growth now by growth. Except for one or two houses on Railway Avenue, the most notable ones being the "Martin House" and the "Arrat House", there are few physical reminders of Pilot Butte's early development.
Most of the original structures, one of the most prominent being the old Canadian Pacific Railway water tower, have either been dismantled or destroyed. By 1913 Pilot Butte was a village, it flourished as it offered the Canadian Pacific Railway a reliable year round water source and at one point, the CPR built a water conduit to Regina. Between 1913-23, with a population of about a 1,000, Pilot Butte thrived; the town boasted a railway station, 3 grain elevators, a stockyard, the Kitchener Hotel and boarding houses. It had a pool hall, bowling alley, general store and blacksmith shops, 2 churches, 2 schools and 2 section houses. Brickyards became major local employers. In 1923, the village was disbanded owing to the loss of residents. After the new Trans-Canada Highway was completed in the late 1950s, living in Pilot Butte began to become a popular option for those who wanted to commute to work in the city. Pilot Butte re-acquired village status in 1963, it achieved town status in 1979. By the early 2000s Pilot Butte became home to a post office.
It is home to a worldwide steel producing company Dutch Industries and Gang-nail Truss Manufacturers. The town is home to the Pilot Butte School; the Pre-K to Grade 8 school is part of the Prairie Valley School Division 208. The town includes four baseball diamonds, an outdoor hockey rink, a skate park. A violent storm hit the area on 26 August 1995. Pilot Butte has now recovered and replanted trees are once more providing shade to the residents. Many homes received major facelifts; the town has continued to grow since. Since 2011, the population and size of Pilot Butte has begun growing at a high rate of over 18%. From 2011 to 2016, the town experienced a growth rate of 27.6% in houses, as there have been lots of houses built. New neighbourhoods on the east and west sides of town have contributed to the towns growth in people and businesses. In recent years the town became home to many new businesses, including the Blue Rooster Café, a PharmaChoice pharmacy, doctor's office, hair salon and a Subway location.
Along with these new businesses, the town welcomed a new Way of Life Church, the Tempo gas station became a Domo gas station. The town is situated on a broad, flat and waterless plain; the Butte Hill is the highest point in the area. Pilot Butte experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone with warm summers and cold winters, prone to extremes at all times of the year. Average annual precipitation is 388 mm and is heaviest from June through August, with June being the wettest month with an average of 75 mm of precipitation; the average daily temperature for the year is 2.8 °C. The lowest temperature recorded was −50.0 °C on 1 January 1885, while the highest recorded temperature was 43.3 °C on 5 July 1937. According to the 2016 Canadian Census, the population of Pilot Butte is 2,137, a 16% increase from 2011; the population d
Bancroft is a town located on the York River in Hastings County in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was first settled in the 1850s by Irish immigrants. From the mid 1950s to about 1982 mining was the primary industry. A village until 1999, Bancroft merged with Dungannon Township to form the Town of Bancroft; the population at the time of the 2016 Census was 3,881. By 1823, the government had purchased nearly two million acres of land from the Chippewa and Mississaga First Nations including a tract on the York River in Hastings County, established in 1792; the area was mapped in 1835 by explorer David Thompson. The first family to build a cabin here, the Clarks in 1853, did so to take advantage of the fur trade. Early settlers included James Cleak and Alfred Barker from England who arrived in 1855, settling on Quarry Lake, they got jobs in administration. Over the years the settlement grew quickly. Lumber companies arrived to remove timber; some of the earliest settlers were United Empire Loyalists, but from 1856 to 1861, most were from Ireland, fleeing the problems caused by the Great Famine.
Most of the settlers were attracted to the area by the offer of free 100-acre parcels, advertised in Great Britain. Some of the residents sold furs, obtained through trapping; the settlement had various names over York Mills, York River and York Branch. A grist mill opened in 1865, gold was discovered in 1866 and other minerals would be discovered later; the first church and two schools were built in 1870 In 1879 the name of the settlement was changed to Bancroft by Senator Billa Flint, after the maiden name of his wife. Flint convinced tradesmen to move to the area and that helped to attract more settlers. A woolen mill began operating in 1884; the Central Ontario Railway arrived in 1900, in 1903 a second railway, the I. B. & O. built a line through here. They were beneficial in transporting goods. Bancroft was incorporated as a village in December 1904; the first telephone in the village was at the railway station. Electricity was not available until 1930. Uranium was discovered in 1949 and construction of the first mine started in 1952.
The large Madawaska Mine operated until 1982. Other minerals were mined over the years; the closing of the mine caused some economic hardship. In 1999, Bancroft merged with Dungannon Township to form the Town of Bancroft; as of the Oct 2018 Municipal election, the current Mayor is Paul Jenkins. Population trend: Population in 2016: 3881 Population in 2011: 3880 Population in 2006: 3838 Population in 2001: 4089 Population in 1996: Bancroft: 2554 Dungannon: 1526 Population in 1991: Bancroft: 2383 Dungannon: 1412Mother tongue: English as first language: 96.4% French as first language: 0.8% English and French as first language: 0.3% Other as first language: 2.5% Silent Lake Provincial Park nearby south on Highway 28 provides local camping opportunities. American sportsmen hunted on this private lake for 40 years before it became a park. Silent Lake has a rocky and undeveloped shoreline, a mixed forest and marshes full of birds and wildlife best seen by canoe. A rugged trail circles the lake, sections of groomed ski trails have been graded for mountain biking.
Algonquin Provincial Park about an hour away on Highway 62 N - Highway 127 N - Highway 60 W provides camping and hiking opportunities, beautiful forest and outdoor scenery. Portaging is quite common in this park. Algonquin offers many visitor attractions. Like Silent Lake, Algonquin has a rocky and extensive undeveloped shoreline, a mixed forest and marshes full of birds and wildlife best seen by canoe; the OFSC trails through the park provide easy winter access by snowmobile. One of the most common sights is the Canadian Moose. In 2004, Bancroft won TVOntario's "Most Talented Town in Ontario" contest. A large number of artists and artisans live in the surrounding area, exhibit together in events like the "Fall Studio Tour"; the Art Gallery of Bancroft is the area's only public not-for profit art gallery. Run by dedicated volunteers, the AGB mounts 11-12 exhibitions per year celebrating the work of local and regional artists and artisans; these exhibitions include the popular annual "Juried Show" and the annual student show displaying the work of four regional high schools.
The gallery gift shop displays the paintings and fine crafts of area artists and the AGB boasts a permanent collection including some of Ontario's finest artists. The town is home to the "Village Playhouse", a theatre, hosting sold out plays and concerts since the early 1990s; the Bancroft Community Hall, the historical building was once the local jail, court house and library. Bancroft lies at the intersection of two provincial highways, Highway 28 and Highway 62, with several other inroads allowing access to the city. Bancroft is served by the Jack Brown Airport, a Transport Canada Registered Aerodrome, with a 2,200 foot crushed gravel runway, located adjoining the town. A small airport, it was named after the man, reeve at the time and instrumental in its construction. Operated by the Bancroft Flying Club, the Jack Brown Airport is available to the general public and referred to as The Bancroft Airport. Due to high terrain near both ends of the runway, pilots use a non-standard ci
Pointe au Baril, Ontario
Pointe au Baril is a community in the Canadian province of Ontario, located on the east coast of Georgian Bay. The community is located in the township of The Archipelago in the Parry Sound District. Pointe au Baril was named after the barrel on the point that marked the treacherous entry to the main channel from the open water of Georgian Bay. Early fur traders from Penetanguishene lost a canoe near the point, their canoe included a barrel of whiskey, found by stranded traders the next spring. After a drinking spree the barrel was left on the point as a beacon. French mariners were soon calling it Pointe-au-Baril; this marker was improved to include a lantern in the barrel that would be lit by the first fisherman returning inland to light the way for the rest of the boats. Pointe au Baril may refer to the original Barrel on the Point reference or the actual village, built around a train station, about six nautical miles away. Highway 69 follows the same path as the railway and they both run past the east tip of what is known as the Main Channel.
This channel is a well marked route from the village to the lighthouse. The village has a North Shore and a South Shore road but islander travel is by boat; the village is referred to as The Station by most residents. Pointe au Baril Station is well suited for launching water craft and is supported by many marinas and a substantial public dock; the point is lit by the automated lighthouse. This historic lighthouse opens its doors for tours in the summer months; the lighthouse is a part of a light system which includes a range tower and a turn buoy which work together to allow safe passage through the many shoals that cover the eastern coast of Georgian Bay. The Pointe au Baril firetower lookout was erected in the 1920s to detect forest fires; this 80 foot light-steel tower was part of the Parry Sound Fire District tower system. It stood near the centre of the village, just west of the railway tracks and near the bay on a small hill; when aerial fire fighting techniques were employed by the province many of the towers like this one were disassembled in the early 1970s.
The footings, are still there to this day. Pointe au Baril became a community to support commercial fishing in the 1870s; the last fishing operation based in Pointe au Baril was shut down in the 1980s. A lumber industry existed in the area during these same years; the pine and yellow birch forestry ended in the 1940s, shortly after the end of World War II. The area is now a cottage community on Highway 69; the channels and islands of the region make it a boating and islander paradise. It has become a destination for snowmobiling in the winter months. Among the many islands there is the historic Ojibway Club resort; the population grows from a winter low of about 250 to 300 to a summer high of 8000 or more. Additional growth is expected in the future. With the demolition of Larry's Tavern for the expansion of the highway, there remains one restaurant, The Haven, open all year, The Harbour View, only open during the summer months and the Shell Station Deli. There are two chip wagons located in Pointe au Baril, one open only during the summer, while the other remains open all year.
Community events in Pointe au Baril include the Winter Whirl carnival, held the first weekend in February, Canada Day festivities, the Pickerel Dinner and Annual Lobster Fest held the third weekend in July. The ducky race is another local festival held in Pointe au Baril organized by the North Eastern Georgian Bay Snowmobile Club right in downtown Pointe au Baril. Summertime events include Arts on the Bay Dinner theatre in the Pointe au Baril Community Centre. Pointe au Baril has a community centre with a library in it; the town offers an ice rink and playground. Pointe au Baril has a Nursing Station and an Emergency response team. Pointe au Baril's cottage community is water access and is home to many marinas; the area was explored by Samuel de Champlain in 1615. A monument was erected in the 1940s to commemorate his travels through the area, it can be found near the newly renovated Ojibway Club, a favoured gathering place for many of the islanders. Pointe au Baril is a setting of John Irving's novel Last Night in Twisted River, where many of the places are described in the winter setting, including nearby islands.
Pointe au Baril Chamber of Commerce Pointe au Baril Islanders' Association
Simcoe is an unincorporated community and former town in Southwestern Ontario, Canada near Lake Erie. It is largest community of Norfolk County. Simcoe is at the junction of Highway 3, at Highway 24, due south of Brantford, accessible to Hamilton by nearby Highway 6; this largest of the Communities in Norfolk County, Ontario had a population of 13,922 at the time of the 2016 Census. Simcoe was founded in 1795 by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe; the settlement consisted of two distinct areas, named by William Bird who arrived in the early 1800s and the Queensway which grew up around Aron Culver's sawmill and grist mill in the 1820s. The post office was called Simcoe. In 1837, the village became the seat of government of the Talbot District. A historical plaque adds that Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe gave land to Aaron Culver in 1795 on the agreement that he would build mills. Between 1819 and 1823 Culver laid out a village. Records from 1846 indicate that the settlement was far from any major roads and had little communication with areas outside of Brantford, that a stone court house and jail had been built.
There were three churches, Methodist and Congregationalist A weekly newspaper is published here, the " Long Point Advocate." The population was about 1,400. The post office was receiving mail daily; this settlement contained the offices of the Judge of District Court, Clerk of Peace, Inspector of Licenses, Crown Lands Agent, District Clerk, Clerk of District Court, Deputy Clerk of Crown and the Superintendent of Schools. Operating were two grist-mills, two sawmills, a brewery, two distilleries, a foundry, a fulling mill, nine stores, six taverns, two druggists, a bank and many tradesmen; the population in 1850 was about 1600. It had increased to 2100 by 1869 and two banks had opened. Simcoe was incorporated as a town in 1878 and had its own town council and mayor until December 31, 2000. In 2001, the town and all other municipalities within the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk were dissolved and the region was divided into two single tier municipalities with city-status but called counties.
Simcoe now forms Ward 5 of Norfolk County. As a part of Haldimand-Norfolk County during the 20th century, passed their first tree conservation by-law in 1947; this law was revised in 2000 as a part of Norfolk County's Forestry Act. Around 350 applications for tree cutting permits are sent to Norfolk council per year. For every 100 acres of undeveloped land in Norfolk County, more than 25 of those acres are considered to be forested. Most of these forests can be found within 10 miles or 16 kilometres of downtown Simcoe and are open for exploration except during periods of heavy snow. One of the town's notable landmarks is the Norfolk County Memorial Tower, which commemorates the lives of Canadians who died for Canada in conflicts overseas; the Memorial Tower overlooks scenic Wellington Park, a public greenspace that includes walking paths and a waterway system with a small lake, close to the downtown core. Simcoe's main cemetery is Oakwood Cemetery. A cultural club for people of Croatian descent operates in this town.
First organized by Franjo Bertovic during the 1990s, he went on to found other Croatian Fraternal Unions throughout Canada and Croatia. Members of this fraternal benefit society refer to the club as the Simcoe Croatian Club when not in formal conversation. Expenses for sick workers in addition to their funeral expenses are partially covered through its members' benefits; the historic Molson Bank operated here from May 1898 until sometime in the 1920s. Alterations made to the building within those decades would allow twice as much banking to take place. Fifteen more people were hired during the expansion of the bank in the early 20th century. Many of Simcoe's buildings feature the International style of architecture; the tall buildings that came out of the "International" style were used to make Simcoe into a more international destination for people to live and admire. A couple of buildings in the downtown core blend "International" elements with the Art Deco style of architecture; the only operating alligator tugboat remaining in the world, the W.
D. Stalker, is in Simcoe. Simcoe has a radio station, 98.9 myFM, two newspapers: The Simcoe Reformer and the Norfolk News. CHCH-DT in Hamilton is the nearest broadcast television station along with CKCO-DT in Kitchener and CIII-DT. CHCH is a news channel while CKCO and CIII offer a variety of entertainment choices during prime time. Major local festivals include the Rotary-sponsored Friendship Festival, the Norfolk County Fair and Horse Show, the winter light show of Panorama. Simcoe was one of the communities in Canada through which the Olympic torch travelled while going from Athens, Greece to Vancouver for the 21st Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver, British Columbia; the Simcoe Santa C
Dunnville is an unincorporated community located near the mouth of the Grand River in Haldimand County, Canada near the historic Talbot Trail. It was an incorporated town encompassing the surrounding area with a total population of 12,000. Dunnville was the site of a Cayuga settlement called Detgahnegaha'gó:wah; the European settlement was built as the entrance to the Welland "feeder" canal and the town once boasted several water-powered mills and a once-bustling canal port. The feeder canal closed in the late 1880s and the last mill was destroyed and replaced with a condominium complex about ten years ago. There is an impassable dam at Dunnville which regulates the level of the Grand River at Port Maitland which, in the 19th century helped regulate the level of the Welland Canal. Dunnville was incorporated as a village in 1860 and as a town in 1900. In 1974, the town amalgamated with the townships of Dunn, Canborough and Sherbrooke when the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk was formed.
In 2001, Dunnville and all other municipalities within the region were dissolved and the region was divided into two single tier municipalities with city-status but called counties. What was the incorporated town of Dunnville now consists of Wards 5 and 6 in Haldimand County. Only a few kilometres from Lake Erie, Dunnville has many private vacation properties. There are natural attractions. In June, the annual Mudcat Festival is held to celebrate one of the Grand River's most well-known inhabitants; the festival includes a parade, strongman contests and fireworks. Another popular event is the Dunnville Agricultural Fair, held in late August which includes heavy and miniature horse shows and goat shows. Dunnville has tennis and swimming facilities and many Bed and Breakfasts and camp sites to stay in. Tuesday and Saturday are Farmers Market days since the relocation of the local arena Dunnville is constructing a new Farmers Market Pavilion providing more protection from the elements while helping to support what the local farming has to offer.
The former World War II RCAF Training Base, the Dunnville Airport, offers a unique window on history with its massive hangars and runways. Used for recreational flying and skydiving, the airport is now closed due to six large wind-turbine power generators on the airfield; the airport is home to Haldimand County's newest museum, the No. 6 RCAF Dunnville Museum. It has been the home of the Driver Rehabilitation Centre for the reality television program Canada's Worst Driver since 2010; the Grand River and nearby Lake Erie offers aquatic activities including swimming, windsurfing and features prime locations for fishing. Nearby are Byng Island Conservation Area, Rock Point Provincial Park and Port Maitland's new pier. In the fall, Rock Point hosts thousands of monarch butterflies heading south. Dunnville is the site of one of the largest expanses of provincially significant wetlands in Ontario. Smuckers Foods of Canada Co. which operates the Bick's Pickle Plant, provides employment for a small percentage of the town's population students.
In 2001, Bick's head office facility in Scarborough, Ontario was shut down and operations were transferred to the Dunnville location, where it remained until the end of November 2011, at which point it closed. This community is the easternmost city. On February 13, 2009, the Grand River flooded when the river ice thawed, damaging Cayuga and Dunnville; the next day, the CCGC Griffon proceeded up the river to help clear ice. James N. Allan, politician Ryan Barnes, hockey player John Bowen, Bishop of Sierra Leone Cory Conacher, Former NHL player for the Ottawa Senators Peter DeBoer, NHL Coach for the San Jose Sharks David Fenyves, retired NHL player Jim Gregory, Past General Manager for the Toronto Maple Leafs Nathan Horton, NHL player for the Toronto Maple Leafs Matt Roik, professional lacrosse goaltender for the Washington Stealthy Tyson Leies, professional lacrosse player, elected to Canadian Lacrosse Hall of Fame Dunnville Secondary School - Panthers St. Michael's Catholic School - Golden Hawks Dunnville Christian School Mapleview Elementary School - Mustangs Thompson Creek Elementary School - TimberwolvesAttercliffe Canadian Reformed Elementary School Lions Club Lioness Club Optimist Club Rotary International Club Dunnville Kinsmen Royal Canadian Legion Branch 142 Dunnville Community Theatre River Arts Festival Broad Street Tattoo No.6 RCAF Dunnville Museum
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h