Sicamous is a district municipality in British Columbia located adjacent to the Trans-Canada Highway at the Highway 97A junction, where Mara Lake empties into Shuswap Lake via a short narrows. Sicamous is a resort town about halfway between Calgary and Vancouver and is the eastern gateway to the Apple Country. With 341 km of shoreline, it styles itself as the houseboat capital of Canada, it has a population of 3,166. Sicamous is an adaptation of a Shuswap language word meaning "river circling mountains". In the 1800s, Sicamous and area was inhabited by a semi-nomadic Indigenous nation called the Secwepemc or Shuswap, they crossed the Rocky Mountains to hunt buffalo on the plains. In this area they were called the "Schickamoos". In 1871, a Provincial Map shows Schickamoos Narrows, which in early history was known as a "meeting place of Indians". In 1864, gold was discovered on the Columbia River. Seymour Arm became a supply centre in the Big Bend Gold Rush. In 1885, permanent settlers arrived after the driving of the Last Spike at Craigellachie, which linked Canada sea to sea.
Among the first settlers in Sicamous were the families from Finland. Old Town, or Eagle Pass Landing as it now known, became an instant town in 1871, it was the central supply centre for railway construction. Today it is used for recreational purposes such as sledding, hiking and biking. In the early 1900s, CPR hill became a residential development. Finlayson's store and a jail were built in 1892, adding a post office in 1904; the first school opened around 1908. In 1949 the bridge was built across the channel having been just a ferry crossing. Several hotels opened. In the early 1900s the Sicamous Hotel was built; the hotel was Tudor style with a large elegant dining room. The dances were locally popular and well attended; the hotel was burnt down in 1964. Eagle Valley, in Sicamous, became the home of many settlers, they came and farmed the land, putting up with forests, deep snow, hordes of mosquitoes. The first newspaper in Sicamous was the Eagle Valley News, it was printed for the first time on 22 October 1958.
Sicamous was incorporated in 1989. In June 2012, the community experienced major flooding due to heavy rains and an abnormally high amount of snow melt from higher elevations nearby. Over 350 residents were evacuated, many homes were damaged. Kristopher "Kris" Beech, professional ice hockey player Colin Fraser, professional ice hockey player Andrew Kozek, professional ice hockey player Carolyn Mark, singer-songwriter Shea Weber, professional ice hockey player Cody Franson, professional ice hockey player Official website Sicamous & District Chamber of Commerce
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Val-d'Or is a city in Quebec, Canada with a population of 32,491 inhabitants according to the Canada 2016 Census. The city is located in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region near La Vérendrye Wildlife Reserve. Gold was discovered in the area in 1923; the name of the town is French for "Valley of Gold." While gold is still mined in the area today, base metals, such as copper and lead have become important resources. The ore is found in volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor over 2.7 billion years ago. They are referred to as volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits; the city is known for its vast parks, cycle tracks, forests. Some other attractions include the City of Gold and the mining village of Bourlamaque, which were proclaimed historic sites in 1979; the city hosted the Quebec Games in 1987. The local hockey team, the Val-d'Or Foreurs, have played in the QMJHL since 1993, winning the league championship in 1998, 2001 and 2014 to claim a spot in the Memorial Cup, they play at Centre Air Creebec.
The Foreurs' mascot is called Dynamit, named after dynamite, extensively used by the mining industry of Val-d'Or. Val-d'Or was once home to a Canadian Forces Station. In the municipal reorganizations of January 1, 2002, Val-d'Or was merged with the neighbouring municipalities of Dubuisson, Val-Senneville and Vassan; the Radio-Canada investigative television program, Enquête, revealed in October 2015 numerous allegations of assault and sexual abuse of local aboriginal women by members of the provincial police, the Sûreté du Québec. The news propelled the town into the national spotlight, causing Québec's Public Safety Minister, Lise Thériault, to suspend the officers and launch an independent investigation led by the Montréal police force. Population: Population in 2016: 32,491 2011 to 2016 population change: +1.97% Population in 2011: 31,862 Population total in 2001: 31,430 Dubuisson: 1,686 Sullivan: 3,529 Val-d'Or: 22,748 Val-Senneville: 2,479 Vassan: 988 Population in 1996: Dubuisson: 1,655 Sullivan: 3,312 Val-d'Or: 24,479 Val-Senneville: 2,408 Vassan: 988Private dwellings: 13,960 Mother Tongue: English: 2.74% French: 94.16% English and French: 0.59% Other only: 2.22% City council is: Mayor: Pierre Corbeil Councillors: Gilles Bérubé, Céline Brindamour, Bernard Gauthier, Lorraine Morissette, Francis Murphy, Pierre Potvin, Michael Prince, Robert Quesnel Almost all media in Val-d'Or and the nearby city of Rouyn-Noranda serves both cities.
Although the cities are far enough apart that radio and television stations in the area serve the cities from separate transmitters every broadcast station in either city has a rebroadcaster in the other city. The only nominal exceptions are the cities' separate NRJ stations, although at present these stations share the majority of their broadcast schedule. Val-d'Or Airport is served by several airlines. Air Creebec, a regional airline, has its headquarters in Val-d'Or. Val-d'Or's proximity to the Abitibi gold belt has made it a large gold producer, being part of a region that produced 45 million ounces of gold since the 1930s. In 2012, Quebec Lithium Corp. Re-opened a lithium mine which had operated as an underground mine from 1955–65, planning to carve an open pit mine over pegmatite dikes; the mine is about 60 kilometres north of Val d'Or, 38 kilometres southeast of Amos, 15 kilometres km west of Barraute. Access to the mine is via paved road from Val d'Or. Val-d’Or is situated on the Canadian Shield at an elevation of 1100 feet above sea level.
Although its name refers to a valley, the city is situated on a vast undulating plain. Val-d’Or is at the heart of a vast hydrographic network which includes to the north Lake Blouin, the head water of the Harricana River and to the south Baie Carrière, a reservoir which feeds the Ottawa River. Val-d'Or has a humid continental climate that borders on a subarctic climate. Winters are cold and snowy with a January mean of −17.4 °C. There are 18.4 days where the temperature will fall below −30 °C although with the wind chill factored in, it can drop below −40 °C. Snowfall totals are heavy, averaging 288 centimetres with reliable snow cover from November to April. Summers are warm with a July high of 23.7 °C. Val-d'Or receives 905 millimetres of precipitation per year, evenly distributed throughout the year, though precipitation is heaviest during the warmest months. Val-d'Or receives 1853 hours of sunshine per or about 39.5 of possible daylight hours, ranging from a low of 19.2% in November to a high of 52.9% in July.
Commission scolaire de l'Or-et-des-Bois operates French-language public schools. Western Quebec School Board operates English-language public schools. Golden Valley School Municipal website Cité de l'Or website Attractions of the Abitibi-Temiscamingue Le Tour de l'Abitibi website
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
Orangeville is a town in south-central Ontario and the seat of Dufferin County. The archeological record in Dufferin County dates indigenous occupation of the area to the "early Paleo-Indian" time period from 9000 to 8400 BCE. What became Orangeville and Dufferin County, was the traditional territory of the Tionontati or Petún People. "The Petun occupied from eight to ten villages located below the Niagara Escarpment along the southwest margin of Georgian Bay". Although described in the Encyclopædia Britannica as "living in the mountains south of Nottawasaga Bay, in what are now Grey and Simcoe counties", according to Sawden's "A History of Dufferin County" the Petún lived farther south at the source of the Grand River in Dufferin County; the Petún were decimated by European diseases in the 1630s, going from a population of 8000 to 3000, were subsequently attacked by the Iroquois in December 1649 further reducing their numbers to fewer than 1000. They fled along with other Huron peoples into the United States, while other Petún sought refuge with their French allies and settled in Quebec.
This Iroqouis attack was not exclusive to the Petún, but was a part of the Beaver Wars, in which the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade, the trade between European markets, the trade between tribes of the Great Lakes region. After the decimation and dispersal of the Huron, Petún, Neutral people of southern Ontario, Algonkian peoples from northern Ontario moved into the area at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century, while members of the Three Fires Confederacy moved into southern Ontario from Ohio and Michigan in the late 1700s. During the pre-confederation Treaty era, Anishinaabe or Chippewa First Nations signed Treaty #18 on Oct 17th, 1818, which included the Dufferin County area. Today, the descendants of Petún call themselves Wyandotte, despite the 350 years since their displacement from southern Ontario, despite the heteroglot and diasporic nature of their contemporary communities, they continue to recognize their shared history and are united through a modern-day Wyandotte Confederacy.
The first patent of land was issued to Ezekiel Robinson, a land surveyor, on August 7, 1820. That was followed by land issued to Alan Robinet in 1822. In 1863, Orangeville was named after Orange Lawrence, a businessman born in Connecticut in 1796 who owned several mills in the village; as a young man, he settled in Halton County. During Mackenzie's rebellion in 1837, he was a captain in the militia. Lawrence purchased the land. Orange Lawrence committed suicide December 15, 1861. In 1873, the Act of Incorporation was passed and Orangeville was given town status on January 1, 1874; the public library, located at Broadway and Mill Street, was completed in 1908. Andrew Carnegie, well-known businessman and philanthropist, provided financial assistance for its construction. Orangeville serves as an administrative and commercial hub for Dufferin County, the northern portion of Peel Region and the surrounding area. Orangeville's downtown core is home to several retail stores, there is a cluster of big-box stores in the Fairgrounds Shopping Centre.
Many residents in and around Orangeville commute to other areas of the Greater Toronto Area for work. There are a number of manufacturing plants located in the town. Major industrial employers include Greening Donald, Resolve Corporation, Clorox Company of Canada, Relizon Canada, Rochling Engineering Plastics and Sanoh Canada. Orangeville is the main banking center for residents in the area; the main intersection in the heart of the town is First Street. Highway 10 runs through Orangeville on its east side. Beginning in 2005, a major roadwork project was initiated to resurface Broadway through Orangeville; the downtown section was completed in early 2006, with extensive work still to be done on the west end in late 2006. In conjunction with this project, there was another one completed in late 2006 that involved building large planters in the middle of Broadway through the downtown section between First and Third Streets; the project was controversial, as safety concerns had been raised by the Fire Department because the new concrete planters in the middle of the road have made the rights of way too narrow for fire trucks to properly set up in case of a fire in a downtown building.
Construction of the South Arterial Road referred to as the'Orangeville by-pass', was completed on August 3, 2005. The road runs from east to west, connecting Highway 10 and County Road 109. Much of the eastern stretch runs through the Town of Caledon, but enters into Orangeville at the Townline Road controlled intersection. Aecon Construction and Materials Limited was the successful bidder for the Design Build project with a price of $9.8 million. The project was completed in conjunction with Brampton-based Armbro Construction, TSH Engineers Architects Planners, Peto MacCallum Ltd. and Gartner Lee Ltd. Orangeville Transit is the town's own public transit system, there is a commuter GO Transit bus service to Brampton. In the early 1990s, preliminary plans were drawn up for GO Transit rail service to Orangeville. However, it never got past the drawing board. Industries in Orangeville are served by the Orangeville Brampton Railway, which purchased 55 kilometres of surplus track from the Canadian Pacific
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h