Kelowna is a city on Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. It serves as the head office of the Regional District of the Central Okanagan; the name Kelowna derives from an Okanagan language term for "grizzly bear". The Kelowna metropolitan area has a population of 194,882. Additionally, the City of Kelowna is the seventh-largest city in the province, it ranks as the 22nd-largest in Canada and is the largest city in British Columbia, located inland. Kelowna's city proper contains 211.82 square kilometres, the census metropolitan area contains 2,904.86 square kilometres. In 2016, the population of Kelowna consisted of 127,380 individuals occupying 53,903 private dwellings. Nearby communities include the City of West Kelowna to the west across Okanagan Lake, Lake Country and Vernon to the north, Peachland to the southwest, further to the south and Penticton. Exact dates of first settlement are unknown, but a northern migration led to the peopling of this area some 9,000 years ago.
The Indigenous Syilx people were the first inhabitants of the region, they continue to live in the region. Father Pandosy, a French Roman Catholic Oblate missionary, became the first European to settle in Kelowna in 1859 at a place named "L'anse au sable" in reference to the sandy shoreline. Kelowna was incorporated on May 4, 1905. In May 2005, Kelowna celebrated its centennial. In the same year, construction began on a new five-lane William R. Bennett Bridge to replace the three-lane Okanagan Lake Bridge, it was part of a plan to alleviate traffic problems experienced during the summer tourist season. The new bridge was completed in 2008. Stubbs House is a historic house in Kelowna. On 3 July 1877, George Mercer Dawson was the first geologist to visit Kelowna. On 6 August 1969, a sonic boom from a nearby air show produced an expensive broken glass bill of a quarter million dollars while at least six people were injured; the incident was caused by a member of America's Blue Angels during a practice routine for the Kelowna Regatta festival: he accidentally went through the sound barrier while flying too low.
The last time the lake froze over was in the winter of 1969 and it may have frozen over in the winter of 1986. On 25 November 2005, the First National Aboriginal Leaders signed the Kelowna Accord. 2009, Kelowna built the tallest building between Vancouver and Calgary: Skye at Waterscapes, a 27-story residential tower. On 7 May 1992, a forest fire consumed 60 hectares of forest on Mount Boucherie in West Kelowna across Okanagan Lake from Kelowna proper. In August 2003, a nearby wildfire destroyed 239 homes and forced the temporary evacuation of about 30,000 residents. During the 2003 fire, many trestles of the historic Kettle Valley Railway were destroyed. All the trestles have been rebuilt to look like the originals. In late August 2005, a 30-ha fire caused multiple evacuations in the Rose Valley subdivision across the lake in West Kelowna. In July 2009, wildfires destroyed hundreds of hectares of forest and a number of buildings in West Kelowna. In July 2009, a 100-ha fire near Rose Valley resulted in the evacuation of 7,000 people.
No structures were lost. In July 2009, a 9,200-ha fire behind Fintry resulted in the evacuation of 2,500 people. No structures were lost. On 12 July 2010, a 30-ha fire in West Kelowna caused multiple evacuations. September 2011, a 40-ha fire in West Kelowna's Bear Creek Park caused the evacuation of over 500 people. In July 2012, a 30-ha fire caused the evacuation of the small community of Wilson's Landing just north of West Kelowna. In September 2012, a late-season, 200-ha fire destroyed seven buildings and resulted in the evacuation of 1,500 people in the community of Peachland. In July 2014, a 340-ha fire behind the West Kelowna subdivision of Smith Creek caused the evacuation of 3,000 people. In August 2014, a 40-ha fire above Peachland resulted in the evacuation of one home. In July 2015, a 55-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 100 properties. In July 2015, a 560-ha fire near Shelter Cove caused the evacuation of 70 properties. In August 2015, a 130-ha fire burned near Little White Mountain just south of Kelowna.
In August 2017, a 400-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 474 properties. Kelowna's official flower is Balsamorhiza sagittata known as arrowleaf balsamroot. Kelowna is classified as a humid continental climate per the Köppen climate classification system due to its coldest month having an average temperature above −3.0 °C, with dry and sunny summers, cloudy winters, four seasons. The official climate station for Kelowna is at the Kelowna International Airport, at a higher altitude than the city core, with higher precipitation and cooler nighttime temperatures; the moderating effects of Okanagan Lake combined with mountains separating most of BC from the prairies moderates the winter climate, but Arctic air masses do penetrate the valley during winter for short periods. The coldest recorded temperature in the city was −36.1 °C recorded on 30 December 1968. Weather conditions during December and January are the cloudiest in Canada outside of Newfoundland due to persistent valley cloud.
As Okanagan Lake hardly freezes, warmer air rising from the lake climbs above colder atmospheric air, creating a temperature inversion which can cause the valley to be socked in by cloud. This valley cloud has a low ceil
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
Woodstock is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The city has a population of 40,902 according to the 2016 Canadian census. Woodstock is the seat of Oxford County, at the head of the non-navigable Thames River 128 km from Toronto, 43 km from London, Ontario; the city is known as the Dairy Capital of Canada and promotes itself as "The Friendly City". Woodstock was first settled by European-colonists and United Empire Loyalists in 1000, starting with Zacharias Burtch and Levi Luddington, was incorporated as a town in 1851. Since Woodstock has maintained steady growth, is now a small city in Southwestern Ontario; as a small historic city, Woodstock is one of the few cities in Ontario to still have all of its original administration buildings. The city has developed a strong economic focus towards tourism, it is a market city for the surrounding agricultural industry. Woodstock is home to a campus of Fanshawe College; the city plays host to a number of cultural and artistic exhibits, including the Woodstock Museum, a national historic site.
Woodstock's summer festivals contribute to its tourism industry. The city's west end has exceptionally well-preserved Victorian streetscapes. Woodstock has a large community centre with a rink capable of accommodating 2,500 spectators for hockey games; the centre has a large banquet hall and atrium which play host to a large number of social gatherings for the community. The community was first settled in 1800 after it was determined by Sir John Graves Simcoe, governor of what was known as Upper Canada, that the area would make a good townsite; the early settlers were American immigrants from New York state, such as Levi Burtch and Dr. Levi Hoyt Perry. Increased immigration from Great Britain followed in the 1820s and 1830s, including the half pay officers Henry Vansittart and Andrew Drew. Admiral Vansittart commissioned Col. Andrew Drew to build a church in a new area of Oxford, known as the "Town Plot"; the men would quarrel, which would lead to the construction of a second church known as "New St. Paul's".
In 1836 there were 200 people living in Woodstock, by 1846 the population had grown to 1100 inhabitants. There were six churches or chapels, a jail, a court house, one bank agency, a school and two weekly newspapers. Several court and government offices were located here. Industry included two grist mills, a saw mill, a fulling mill, a brewery and a distillery and four wagon makers. Woodstock was incorporated as a town in 1851 and had its first town meeting in the Royal Pavilion Hotel; this year saw the start of the Town Hall and local government. In 1901, with a population of nearly 9,000, petitioned the provincial legislature for city status and the "Town of Woodstock" was incorporated into the "City of Woodstock". From 1900 to 1920, an electric train ran down the streets of Woodstock; the bricks were removed in the 1940s. Sir Oliver Mowat, a native of Kingston, served as member of the provincial parliament for the region from 1872 to 1896, during which time he was premier of the province of Ontario.
The 1890 Trial began with the arrest of Reginald Birchall in Ontario. Birchall was held at the Woodstock jail for seven months until his murder trial began in September of that year; the trial took place at the Woodstock Town Hall as the Court House was under construction at the time. The trial received worldwide media coverage, with reporters camped out across from the Town Hall in the Oxford Hotel. On August 7, 1979, the Woodstock area was hit by three tornadoes, two of which registered at least F4 on the Fujita scale. On the west side of town along Ingersoll Road, a Dominion Food Store was damaged while the tornadoes skipped over every other home and business. Dickson's Florist was wiped out and the Fry home was moved on its foundation. Father Grondziel of the new Polish Roman Catholic Church, next to the Dominion Food Store, had just stepped into the washroom when one of the tornadoes passed by and took off the roof of the church and everything in the room he had just been in. No one on the street was injured but the cleanup took many weeks.
On the south side, the buildings of the Maranatha Christian Reformed Church and the John Knox Christian School were destroyed. The city government, Woodstock City Council, consists of four city councilors, two city and county councilors, the mayor who serves as the Head of Council. Trevor Birtch defeated one term incumbent Pat Sobeski in the municipal election of 2014. Woodstock is the seat of Oxford County, with the constructed County Administration Building located across from City Hall in the area of Dundas and Reeve Streets; the city is governed by both the city and Oxford county councils, each with specific "spheres of jurisdiction". During 2005 economic development services exclusive to the county, was negotiated away from them by former mayor Michael Harding. For provincial and federal elections, Woodstock is included in the riding of Oxford; the MP of Oxford is Dave MacKenzie, the MPP is Ernie Hardeman. Woodstock General Hospital was located on Riddell Street in central Woodstock for over a century.
In the fall of 2011, the WGH moved to a new location in a newly developing area in the southern end of Woodstock. Through millions of dollars in local private donations, backed by government grants, the city now has a new
Wingham is a community located in the municipality of North Huron, Canada, located in Huron County. Wingham became part of North Huron in 2001 when the Ontario government imposed amalgamation on the former township of East Wawanosh, the village of Blyth, the town of Wingham. Wingham is located at the intersection of County Roads 4 and 86. Most of Wingham is located between County Road 86 to the Maitland River to the north. In 1854, the original survey for Wingham was conducted, with 1,000 acres dedicated to the community north of what is now Highway 86 and Highway 4; the town was incorporated in 1879. Wingham's town hall was constructed and opened in 1890; the community's post office was built across the street and opened in 1907. Multiple-unit business buildings were constructed from 1878 to 1892, lining the town's main street. Well-known products created from Wingham businesses included: Hardwood chairs manufactured by Conestoga Chair Company, which opened in 1898 Wooden doors, constructed by Lloyd-Truax.
Doormaking began in Wingham in 1888 by Charles Lloyd Milk, processed by Sunrise Dairy, which opened in 1928The community's hospital, serving Wingham and surrounding areas, dates back to 1906. Wingham has a number of manufacturing businesses, a variety of retail and service businesses. Wingham supports two grocery stores, a main street with retail stores and restaurants; the town has branches of the Bank of Montreal, CIBC, TD Canada Trust banks, a branch of Libro Financial Group credit union. The industries with a presence in the town include: Wescast Industries, three manufacturing facilities for this auto-part producer. BI-AX International produces plastic film for use in food industry. Royal Homes is a manufacturer of pre-fabricated homes. Britespan Building Systems Inc. is a manufacturer of fabric covered steel structure buildings. Wingham was one of the first towns in Ontario to have a community radio station, with W. T. Cruickshank founding CKNX Broadcasting Ltd in 1926. Wingham has three radio stations: CKNX 920, CKNX-FM 101.7, Classic Rock 94.5, all owned by Blackburn Radio.
There is a television station CKNX channel 8, owned by CTVglobemedia. It rebroadcasts the master signal of CFPL-TV from London, with the exception of local advertising. CKNX became a rebroadcaster of CFPL London on August 31, 2009. On April 9, 2007, it was announced that Rogers Communications has filed with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to purchase all of the A-Channel stations, including CFPL, CKNX, CKX-TV, Access Alberta and several cable channels being put up for sale by CHUM Limited in the wake of CTVglobemedia's pending acquisition of the CHUM group. CTV said it would not renew the licence for CKNX-TV in Wingham upon expiration at the end of August 2009. On May 1, 2009, Shaw Communications offered to buy the station for $1 from CTV, but scuttled the deal two months later; as of July 2011, the station remains on the air. However, the station's future remains in doubt, as in 2016, owner Bell Media filed a proposal with the CRTC to shut down 40 of its television transmitters nationwide - including CKNX-TV - due to failure to generate revenue.
Wingham was served by a CBC English TV station, which retransmitted CBLT-TV Toronto via CBLN-TV London. This transmitter, along with CBC/Radio-Canada's other remaining analog transmitters, was shut down permanently on July 31, 2012, leaving over-the-air viewers in the area with no free CBC television service. F. E. Madill Secondary School is located in Wingham. 800 students from grades 7-12 attend. Madill is known for its Track and Field team. Maitland River Elementary School is located in Wingham beside F. E. Madill Secondary School. 400-500 students attend from Junior Kindergarten to Grade 6. Sacred Heart School is a Catholic elementary school located in the town's east end; the former Wingham Public School educated thousands of children on John Street but was closed in 2013. Wingham is located to the north of County Road 86; the main thoroughfare is County Road 4, called Josephine Street within Wingham, which connects to London, Ontario to the south. Wingham/Richard W. LeVan Aerodrome is a general aviation airport to the southeast of Wingham with fuel services and private hangars.
Wingham was served by scheduled bus service to London, Owen Sound, Stratford with 2013, when provider Aboutown entered receivership. The North Huron Museum provides an overview of the history of the Township of North Huron beginning in the Paleolithic era and continuing into modern times. Dave Farrish - NHL hockey player and current assistant coach of the Colorado Avalanche Honoré Jackson - A leader of the North-West Rebellion Andrew Kaufman - Writer/film director, raised in Wingham Bob McDonald - Science journalist. Doug Wood - Canadian record holder in pole vault, raised in Wingham William Aberhart - Premier of Alberta, 1935-1943. Taught public school in Wingham. Murray Elston - Ontario MPP, 1981-1994. Born in Wingham. George Johnston - Alberta MLA and Speaker, 1921-1936. Born in Wingham. Robert Mooney - Manitoba MLA, 1922-1953. Born in Wingham. George Spotton - MP, 1927-1935. Wingham businessman. Robert Weir - MP, Minister of Agriculture, 1930-. Born in Wingham. North Huron Museum Wingham Advance-Times
Strathroy-Caradoc is a municipality located in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. It is 35 kilometres west of London. Strathroy-Caradoc is a rural municipality. Industries include turkey and chicken hatching and processing, tobacco and pharmaceutical; some industrial products are manufactured in Strathroy, the township's largest locality and its commercial and industrial centre. Strathroy's hatcheries have seen it referred to as the turkey capital of Canada and the world. Settlements within Strathroy-Caradoc grew up around the Sydenham River and the southwestern Ontario railways. Three major railway lines pass through the municipality: the CN Chatham Subdivision, the CP Windsor Subdivision, the CN Strathroy Subdivision. Municipally, Strathroy-Caradoc is within Middlesex County. At the federal and provincial levels of government it is represented by the riding of Lambton—Kent—Middlesex, it is part of the London census metropolitan area. Strathroy-Caradoc's two largest communities are Mount Brydges; the township contains the smaller communities of Cairngorm, Caradoc, Falconbridge, Glen Oak, Longwood and Muncey.
Strathroy is 35 kilometres west of the City of London, is the largest community in Middlesex County outside London. The community is situated next to Highway 402 between London and the border to Port Huron, Michigan, U. S. at Sarnia, Ontario. Strathroy's economy is diverse, major industries include automotive manufacturing and food processing; the township's administrative offices are located in Strathroy. Mount Brydges has a small commercial "downtown" featuring local businesses and shops. Local agriculture includes maize and wheat; the soil composition of the region is sandy as a result of deposits created on the bottom of the glacial Lake Whittlesey which covered the area 13,000 years ago. The village came into existence as a result of the construction of the western division of the Great Western Railroad from City of London, Ontario to Windsor, Ontario, at the point where it crossed the existing road from Delaware, Ontario to Strathroy; this crossing happened to be at the point of greatest elevation on this division, the railroad having just climbed out of the valley of the Thames River from London.
The station was named for Charles John Brydges the Managing Director of the Railroad. Contrary to a previous suggestion, the name had nothing to do with an early settler named Mount who left the area more than two decades earlier. Strathroy was first settled in 1832 by John Stewart Buchanan, accompanied by the explorer Sir Michael Jacques, at a location on the Sydenham River with flow and fall sufficient to power a grist mill. A general store opened in the settlement in 1840. Strathroy was incorporated as a village in 1860 and became a town in 1872 under the motto "We Advance". Buchanan named the settlement after his hometown of Strathroy in Ireland, now a suburb of Omagh in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. In 1866, The Age newspaper was established to compete with the already-established Western Dispatch newspaper; the Western Dispatch was purchased by The Age in 1923, which became The Age Dispatch. The newspaper is still published weekly. Sir Arthur Currie, who would become the commander of Canadian forces in Europe during World War I, was born here on December 5, 1875.
In the fall of 1876, Bixel Brewery opened in Strathroy, producing lager beer for a century before its closing. Other breweries in the town have included the "Western Steam Brewery", "Strathroy Brewing and Malting" and "West End Brewery". In 1896, the Strathroy Furniture Company opened its doors, was renowned for nearly a century for making residential furniture. On July 15, 1992, the company declared bankruptcy and a liquidation sale was held in October 1992. On February 14, 1914, the first patients were admitted to what would become Strathroy Middlesex General Hospital. At the time, the hospital was municipally-owned; the current building opened on June 1962 as a two-story structure with 82 beds. The hospital was the location at which Native Canadian Dudley George succumbed to the gunshot wound he suffered at the Ipperwash Standoff at nearby Ipperwash Provincial Park on September 7, 1995. On January 13, 1954, West Middlesex Memorial Arena opened in Strathroy. To commemorate the occasion, the NHL's Montreal Canadiens played an exhibition game at the arena, defeating the local Junior'B' team the Strathroy Rockets 14-3 in front of 3,100 spectators.
In 2001, Strathroy merged with the former township of Caradoc to created the town of Strathroy-Caradoc. On March 22, 2004, the town's 117-year-old train station was destroyed by a fire that took more than 35 firefighters to get under control. Adolescent boys were charged with starting the fire. In 2005, Strathroy was connected to the Lake Huron Water Pipeline; this ended the town's existing reliance on groundwater and wells. On August 10, 2016 an Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant supporter from Strathroy, Aaron Driver, was killed in a taxi outside his home, after being shot by Royal Canadian Mounted Police and detonating one of two homemade bombs; the taxi driver was injured. Police suspected. Population trend: Population in 2006: 19,977 Population in 2001: 19,114 Population total in 1996: 17,930 Caradoc: 6,248 Strathroy: 11,852 Population in 1991: Caradoc: 6
McNab/Braeside is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada, on the south shore of Chats Lake, straddling the lower Madawaska River in Renfrew County. The township was created on January 1, 1998, when the Village of Braeside amalgamated with McNab Township. Mayor Tom Peckett was elected in October 2014. McNab township was created in 1825, comprising 80,000 acres of unsettled land, covering the current Town of Arnprior and Township of McNab/Braeside, it was granted by the government to Archibald 13th Laird of McNab, who had fled from his debts in Scotland. He promised to settle it with Highland clansmen, the first group of eighty-four settlers arrived the same year, 1825. McNab ruled with an iron fist over the Scottish settlers. Only after eighteen years of petitions, court battles, appeals was his grip loosened when the government began issuing Crown grants to the settlers, his feudal powers removed, the Laird sold his lands to the government and returned to Europe in 1852, never to return. Braeside was named in 1872 by W.
J. McDonald for Braeside, Greenock in Inverclyde, Scotland. In addition to the main town of Braeside, the township comprises the communities of Burnstown, Clay Bank, Clay Valley, Glasgow Station, Lochwinnoch, Lundys Corners, Pine Grove, Sand Point, Stewartville and White Lake. Tom Peckett Mary M. Campbell Population trend: Population in 2011: 7371 Population in 2006: 7222 Population in 2001: 6843 Population in 1996: McNab: 5765 Braeside: 715 Population in 1991: McNab: 5464 Braeside: 562 List of townships in Ontario Official website Burnstown Website
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h