Quita Sueño Bank
Quita Sueño Bank is a reef formation of Colombia, once claimed by the United States, located 110 km North-northeast of Providencia Island. In 1869, James Jennett claimed the bank for the United States under the Guano Islands Act of 1856. In 1972 the United States and Colombia signed a treaty that abandoned the U. S. claim to the reef. Unlike some islands included in the treaty that were ceded to Colombia, Quita Sueño Bank was regarded by the United States as having no emergent land and thus ineligible for the basis of a sovereignty claim. Rather than being ceded to any particular nation, the claim was abandoned with American fishing rights retained. Colombia, which had made previous claims on the reef, considers the bank to be a part of its San Andres and Providencia Department. In the northern part of the eastern reef is Quita Sueño Light; the location is named Cayo Quitasueño on the official nautical chart at 14°28′57.2298″N 81°7′39.7632″W, but no emergent land is indicated around the lighthouse.
The light is erected on top of a square platform. This lighthouse had been established by the United States in 1919; the current structure is from 1977. It is now called Faro Quitasueño Norte since in 2008, a second lighthouse Faro Quitasueño Sur was established in the southern part of the reef at 14°09′17″N 81°9′40″W. Nicaragua had a claim to the bank. On November 19, 2012 the International Court of Justice in The Hague ruled the bank is a part of Colombia; the ICJ found that only one of the 54 features identified by Nicaragua in Quitasueño is an island at high tide and thus eligible for a sovereignty claim. List of Guano Island claims
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres in length and up to 23 km in width, covering an area of 432 km2, it is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea. It is about 168 km east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt, its capital and largest city is Bridgetown. Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown, it first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese claimed the island in 1536, but abandoned it, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625.
In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, it became an English and British colony. As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833. On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as its queen, it has a population of 287,010 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island; the name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese term Os Barbados or the Spanish equivalent, Los Barbados, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree, indigenous to the island, or to the bearded Caribs who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs.
In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish, it is uncertain. One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish. Many if not most believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil, were the first Europeans to come upon the island; the original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was Ichirouganaim, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth" or "Redstone island with teeth outside" or "Teeth". Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire"; the origin is uncertain. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word used by slaves, that it derives from the Igbo term bém from bé mụ́ meaning'my home, kind', the Igbo phoneme in the Igbo orthography is close to.
The name could have arisen due to the large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century. The words'Bim' and'Bimshire' are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire and Bimshire". Lastly, in the Daily Argosy of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians; that source suggested the followers of Byam became known as'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians. Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid; the Arawaks from South America became dominant around 800 AD, maintained that status until around 1200.
In the 13th century, the Kalinago arrived from South America. The Spanish and Portuguese claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries; the Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese made little impact and left the island uninhabited; some Arawaks continue to live in Barbados. In the early years the majority of the labour was provided by European indentured servants English and Scottish, with enslaved Africans and enslaved Amerindian providing little of the workforce. During the Cromwellian era this included a large number of prisoners-of-war and people who were illicitly kidnapped, who were forcibly transported to the island and sold as servants; these last two groups were predominately Irish, as several thousand were infamously rounded up by Engli
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
Cayo Saetía is a 42 km2 cay in Holguín Province, Cuba. It belongs to the municipality of Mayarí, it is located 120 km southeast of Holguín between the Bay of the Atlantic Ocean. The landmass is connected to the mainland by an animal control bridge. Once a private government game reserve, it now houses a resort managed by the Grupo de Turismo Gaviota, S. A. and a Cuban Youth camp. The closest major town is located 20 km south-east; the environment is forest with swamp in the northwest sector. It has been stocked with zebra, water buffalo and various antelope and deer species which roam on the cay. Horses and cattle share some of the grazing area. A camel, several ostriches and parrots live near the resort compound; the resort is a Three Star rated premises with a restaurant. Self-exploration is prohibited but Jeep tours of the reserve are available. Resorts in the Guardalavaca tourist area offer helicopter and boat tours to the cayo for safaris and its white sand beaches; the island used to be the private holiday home of Fidel Castro and family, until 1994 when they stopped coming.
The grass plain is still visible on the island from where the family would arrive and depart by helicopter. Nicaro-Levisa Parque Cayo Saetía
Santa Cruz del Islote
Santa Cruz del Islote is an artificial island located off the coast of Bolívar Department in Colombia. It is a part of the Archipelago of San Bernardo, its significant population compared with its small size results in its being one of the most densely populated islands on Earth. The island has a total area of just under one hectare, it can be accessed by ferry from the port of Tolu. The inhabitants have to use neighboring islands as cemetery and recreation grounds, they work on the mainland rather than on the island. There is one school, with one teacher; the Mucura Island Hotels are a prime source of work for the residents. Caribbean region of Colombia Insular region of Colombia List of islands of South America Santa Cruz del Islote Santa Cruz del Islote on IMDb The magical realism of Santa Cruz del Islote - photo essay
Cayo Guillermo is a kay of the Jardines del Rey archipelago. It is located on the northern coast between the Bay of Dogs and the Atlantic Ocean, it is part of the Ciego de Ávila Province, lies in the Morón municipality. Sparsely inhabited in early years by fishermen and charcoal producers, the island gained fame in the 1960s with deep sea fishermen; the first resort was built in 1993 in an era described by critics as "tourist apartheid", as Cuban citizens were not allowed on the island unless they worked at the resorts serving tourists or had other specific permission. However this restriction was lifted after 2000 and Cubans who can afford motor transport visit Playa Pilar on the island. Many staff who work in the hotels commute from the mainland towns of Ciego de Avila; the island is a popular tourist destination. One of the country's best beaches, the Playa Pilar is located at the western end of Cayo Guillermo; this beach is named after the cabin cruiser Pilar. The island provides the setting for the climax of Hemingway's last novel Islands in the Stream Access to the island is possible through the Jardines del Rey Airport as well as by means of a long causeway from mainland Cuba to Cayo Coco leading to a second shorter causeway to Cayo Guillermo, connecting the two kays.
3. Soosar, Beach Body, 2018. Kindle Direct Publishing. / www.cayoguillermocuba.net
Córdoba Department is a Department of the Republic of Colombia located to the north of this country in the Colombian Caribbean Region. Córdoba faces to the north with the Caribbean Sea, to the northeast with the Sucre Department, east with the Bolívar Department and south with the Antioquia Department, its capital is the city of Montería. Córdoba is made up of 30 municipalities and main towns: The Congress of Colombia approved by Law 9 December 17, 1951 which created the Department of Córdoba and sanctioned by the President of Colombia Roberto Urdaneta Arbeláez, but only came into effect six months later. According to the Colombian Constitution of 1991 the executive power for this region will be vested in a single individual elected by popular vote and will be called Governor of the Córdoba Department. Remberto Burgos Puche June 18, 1952, to August 22, 1952 Manuel Antonio Buelvas Cabrales August 23, 1952, to October 7, 1953 Miguel García Sánchez October 8, 1953, to May 10, 1957 Eusebio Cabrales Pineda May 10, 1957, to January 17, 1958 Eugenio Giraldo Revueltas January 18, 1958, to September 5, 1958 José Jiménez Altamiranda September 6, 1958, to July 14, 1960 Remberto Burgos Puche July 15, 1960, to October 6, 1962 José Miguel Amín Araque October 6, 1962, to March 14, 1963 Germán Bula Hoyos March 15, 1963, to October 4.
1964 Ramón Berrocal Failach October 4, 1964, to August 25, 1966 Amaury García Burgos August 26, 1966, to September 4, 1968 Alfonso Ordosgoitia Yarzagaray September 5, 1968, to March 13, 1969 Álvaro Sotomayor Macea March 14, 1969, to November 2, 1969 Eugenio Giraldo Revueltas November 3, 1969, to August 31, 1970 Amaury García Burgos August 31, 1970, to July 12, 1971 Germán Bula Hoyos July 12, 1971, to May 25, 1972 Donaldo Cabrales Anaya May 26, 1972, to August 15, 1974 Casio Obregón Nieto August 16, 1974, to March 13, 1975 Néstor Padrón Guzmán March 14, 1975, to November 7, 1975 José María Cabrales November 7, 1975, to January 25, 1977 Libardo López Gómez January 25, 1977, to October 27, 1977 Ramón Martínez Vallejo October 28, 1977, to August 25, 1978 Alfonso De la Espriella Espinosa August 25, 1978, to June 6, 1980 Camilo Jiménez Villalba June 6, 1980, to March 25, 1981 Gastón Berrocal Canabal March 25, 1981, to July 27, 1981 Simón Gómez Villadiego July 28, 1981, to September 3, 1981 Ramiro Sánchez Kerguelén September 4, 1981, to August 26, 1982 Julio César Zapateiro Rodríguez August 27, 1982, to August 9, 1984 Camilo Jiménez Villalba August 10, 1984, to January 28, 1985 Fernando Salas Calle January 29, 1985, to August 21, 1986 Héctor Lorduy Rodríguez August 22, 1986, to June 17, 1987 José Gabriel Amín Manzur June 18, 1987, to January 10, 1990 Raúl Quintero Lyons January 4, 1989, to January 15, 1989 Fredy Sánchez Arteaga January 11, 1990, to August 22, 1990 Jorge Ramón Elías Náder August 23, 1990, to June 11, 1991 Carlos Henao Gallo June 12, 1991, to July 30, 1991 Luciano Lepesquer Gossaín 30 de julio de 1991 a 31 de diciembre de 1991 Jorge Manzur Jattin January 1, 1992, to January 19, 1994 Javier Jiménez Amín January 20, 1994, to October 10, 1994.