Diego Rodríguez Porcelos
Diego Rodríguez Porcelos, was the second Count of Castile, succeeding his father Rodrigo. He did not govern Álava, however, as his father had done, since this responsibility fell on Count Vela Jiménez. Between 882 and 884 and under the mandate of King Alfonso III of Asturias, he was in charge of the repoblación of Burgos and Ubierna. Shortly before 882, he built a castle in Pancorbo from where he confronted a large Arab army trying to annex the valley of the Ebro in two different military campaigns in 882 and 883, he created a defensive line along the river Arlanzón, in 884 founded an outpost that would develop into the city of Burgos. It appears he restored the episcopal see of Oca, his date and place of death are not agreed upon by the chronicles, though 885 is most probable as recorded in the Chronica Naierensis which states that Didacus comes...et interfectus est in Cornuta era DCCCCXXIII, secundo kalendas febroarii, that is, that he was killed in Cornudilla on 31 January, most in a battle against the Muslim troops faithful to the Banu Qasi.
Other historians, such as Justo Pérez de Urbel give 890 as his decease date. His body, was buried in the hermitage of San Felices de Oca. After his death, Castile was divided by his successors into many counties until 932; the name of the mother of his children, who were very young when he died, is not known. These were: Gómez Díaz, who should not be confused with his namesake, Gómez Díaz count in Saldaña, appears in 932 as the alférez of Count Fernán González whose eldest son, Gonzalo Fernández, married Fronilde Gómez a daughter of this Gómez Díaz. Gonzalo Díaz, who appears on 3 February 921 with his wife María at the Monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña donating some watermills at the Arlanzón River and declaring that he was the son of Count Diego. Fernando Díaz, count in Cerezo. In a roundabout near the Museum of Human Evolution in Burgos, there is an equestrian statue in his honour, made in 1983 by sculptor Juan de Ávalos, he is depicted in a sixteenth century statue in the Arco de Santa María, in the same city.
Martínez Díez, Gonzalo. El Condado de Castilla. La historia frente a la leyenda. Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León. ISBN 84-9718-275-8. Pérez de Urbel, Justo. Historia del Condado de Castilla. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. OCLC 5661964. Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de León, Margarita Cecilia. Linajes nobiliarios de León y Castilla. Siglos IX-XIII. Salamanca: Junta de Castilla y León, Consejería de educación y cultura. ISBN 84-7846-781-5
County of Álava
The County of Álava was one of the Basque señoríos, a feudal territory during the 9th and 13th centuries that corresponds to present-day Álava, in the Basque Country. Until its final incorporation into the Kingdom of Castile in the year 1200, the County was governed by counts vassals of the Kingdoms of Asturias and Navarre, being under the sphere of influence of one or the other at different times; the figure governing Alava received the title of Count of Álava. The Counts of Álava were the governing figures of the County of Álava and were, at different times, under the sphere of influence of the kingdoms of Asturias and Castile. From the year 1200, the County of Álava was incorporated into the Kingdom of Castile and the title of Count of Álava ceased to be used. Álava Kingdom of Navarre
Kingdom of Asturias
The Kingdom of Asturias was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Asturian chief Pelagius of Asturias. It was the first Christian political entity established after the Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 718 or 722; that year, Pelagius defeated an Umayyad army at the Battle of Covadonga, in what is regarded as the beginning of the Reconquista. Pelagius died in Cangas de Onís, where he had his court in 737, his son Favila was killed while hunting, torn to pieces by a bear, was succeeded by Alfonso I, son-in-law of Pelagius, who set about pushing the Reconquest as far as Galicia and Tierra de Campos. Fruela I founded Oviedo, he was assassinated, was succeeded by several petty kings and at last Alfonso II, the Chaste, who set up his court at Oviedo, recommenced the expeditions against the Muslims. The Vikings were expelled by Ramiro I from A Coruña. Many of the Vikings' casualties were caused by the Galicians' missile-throwing war machines. Vikings returned to Galicia in 859, during the reign of Ordoño I.
Alfonso III, the Great, continued the forays as far as the Sierra Morena, founded Burgos, the future capital of Castile. The Kingdom of Asturias transitioned into the Kingdom of León in 924, when Fruela II of Asturias became king with his royal court in León; the kingdom originated in the western and central territory of the Cantabrian Mountains the Picos de Europa and the central area of Asturias. The main political and military events during the first decades of the kingdom's existence took place in the region. According to the descriptions of Strabo, Cassius Dio and other Graeco-Roman geographers, several peoples of Celtic origin inhabited the lands of Asturias at the beginning of the Christian era, most notably: in the Cantabri, the Vadinienses, who inhabited the Picos de Europa region and whose settlement expanded southward during the first centuries of the modern era the Orgenomesci, who dwelled along the Asturian eastern coast in the Astures, the Saelini, whose settlement extended through the Sella Valley the Luggones, who had their capital in Lucus Asturum and whose territories stretched between the Sella and Nalón the Astures, who dwelled in inner Asturias, between the current councils of Piloña and Cangas del Narcea the Paesici, who had settled along the coast of Western Asturias, between the mouth of the Navia river and the modern city of Gijón Classical geographers give conflicting views of the ethnic description of the above-mentioned peoples.
Ptolemy says that the Astures extended along the central area of current Asturias, between the Navia and Sella rivers, fixing the latter river as the boundary with the Cantabrian territory. However, other geographers placed the frontier between the Astures and the Cantabri further to the east: Julius Honorius stated in his Cosmographia that the springs of the river Ebro were located in the land of the Astures. In any case, ethnic borders in the Cantabrian Mountains were not so important after that time, as the clan divisions that permeated the pre-Roman societies of all the peoples of Northern Iberia faded under similar political administrative culture imposed on them by the Romans; the situation started to change during the Late Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages, when an Asturian identity started to develop: the centuries-old fight between Visigothic and Suebian nobles may have helped to forge a distinct identity among the peoples of the Cantabrian districts. Several archaeological digs in the castro of La Carisa have found remnants of a defensive line whose main purpose was to protect the valleys of central Asturias from invaders who came from the Meseta through the Pajares pass: the construction of these fortifications reveals a high degree of organization and cooperation between the several Asturian communities, in order to defend themselves from the southern invaders.
Carbon-14 tests have found that the wall dates from the period 675-725 AD, when two armed expeditions against the Asturians took place: one of them headed by Visigothic king Wamba. The gradual formation of Asturian identity led to the creation of the Kingdom of Asturias after Pelagius' coronation and the victory over the Muslim garrisons in Covadonga in the early 8th century; the Chronica Albeldense, in narrating the happenings of Covadonga, stated that "Divine providence brings forth the King of Asturias". The kingdom was established by the nobleman Pelayo an Asturian noble. No substantial movement of refugees from central Iberia could have taken place before the Battle of Covadonga, in 714 Asturias was overrun by Musa bin Nusayr with no effective or known opposition, it has been claimed that he may have retired to the Asturian mountains after the Battle of Guadalete, where in the Gothic tradition of Theias he was elected by the other nobles as leader of the Astures. Pelayo's kingdom was little more than a rallying banner for existing guerilla forces.
In the progress of the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the main cities and administrative centers fell into the hands of Muslim troops. Control of the central and southern regions, such as the Guadalquivir and Ebro valleys, presented few problems for the newcomers, who used the existing Visigothic administrative structures of Roman origin. Ho
Rodrigo of Castile
Rodrigo was the first count of Castile, governing from about 862 to his death. Some Iberian Muslim writers refer to a brother or brother-in-law of Ordoño I, while others assign the same role to a Ruderick without stating a relationship, the references have been interpreted as referring to the same man; this has been used by authors such as Fernández de Béthencourt, writing in 1897, to suggest that count Rodrigo was a son of Ramiro I of Asturias and his supposed second wife,'Urraca Paterna' and half-brother of Ordoño, but Barrau-Dihago dismissed this interpretation for want of evidence. It would be unlikely that Rodrigo was the son of Ramiro and Paterna who did not marry until around 842 and would be repopulating Amaya in 860, although due to the missions entrusted to him, it is probable that he was close to the royal house, he was created governor of the eastern march of the realm, the territory called Al-Qila by the Arabs, which became the county of Castile, by Ordoño upon the latter's assumption of the crown.
He took part in Ordoño's Repoblación, repopulating Amaya in 860. Amaya was known as the "patrician city" because at one time it had been the capital of eight of the provinces of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo, conquered in 711-712 by Tariq ibn Ziyad: In era DCCCLCLVIII populavit Rudericus comes Amaya et fregit Talamanca and built a wall with towers around the city, he was at the side of the king in many battles of the Reconquista, including the siege and sack of Albelda in 859. In 863, the'brother of Ordoño' fought Muslim troops, in 865 Rodrigo was defeated magnificently at Bureba by the troops of the emir of Córdoba, resulting in the sacking of his castles and those of other noblemen in Castile, which brought to a temporary halt the process of reconquest and repopulation of the area. Upon King Ordoño's death in May 866, he was succeeded by his son Alfonso III of Asturias who at that time was about 18 years old. Alfonso took refuge in Castile. Count Rodrigo entered the Kingdom of Asturias with his troops to support the young monarch, remained at his side for some time.
Between 867 and 868, he assisted in the suppression of the Alavés rebellion of the Basque magnate Eglyón. For this service he was made count of Álava, he governed that county until 870. He last appears in a document dated 18 April 873, is said to have died 5 November of the same year, being succeeded by his son Diego Rodríguez, his role as founding count of Castile has led to an amplification of his actual activities, with forged charters pushing his rule in the county a decade earlier than it can reliably be traced, this process has led to the duplication of himself and his son, in the form of an invention of earlier counts Rodrigo and Diego. Barrau-Dihigo, L. Recherches sur l'histoire politique du royaume Asturien. Revue Hispanique. 52: 1-360. Martínez Díez, Gonzalo. El Condado de Castilla. La historia frente a la leyenda. Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León. ISBN 84-9718-275-8. Pérez de Urbel, Justo. "Los Primeros Siglos de la Reconquista" in España Christiana: Comienzo de la Reconquista, vol. 6 of Historia de España, 204-210
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Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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Sancho I of León
Sancho I, called the Fat was a king of León. He was the son of queen Urraca Sánchez of Pamplona, he succeeded his half-brother Ordoño III in 956 and reigned until his death, except for a two-year interruption from 958 to 960, when Ordoño the Wicked usurped the throne. He was a grandson of Sancho I of Toda Aznárez. At first, Sancho disputed the throne with Ordoño III who had succeeded their father in 951. Upon Ordoño's death, he took the vacant throne, but only two years he was deposed by the nobles led by the Fernán González of Castile, because of his extreme obesity. During his exile in Andalus, according to Dozy, Sancho managed to shed at least some portion of his girth under the treatment of Hasdai ibn Shaprut. At the same time, he began endeavoring to reclaim his throne, he first asked for aid. As he did not respect his treaty with the Muslims, he experienced many punishing raids in response; the final years of his reign were characterised by the growing independence of the Castilian and Galician nobility.
He was killed by poison and succeeded by his son Ramiro III. His wife was queen Teresa Ansúrez. Reinhart Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d'espagne
Ferdinand I of León
Ferdinand I, called the Great, was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. According to tradition, he was the first to have himself crowned Emperor of Spain, his heirs carried on the tradition, he was a younger son of Sancho III of Navarre and Muniadona of Castile, by his father's will recognised the supremacy of his eldest brother, García Sánchez III of Navarre. While Ferdinand inaugurated the rule of the Navarrese Jiménez dynasty over western Spain, his rise to preeminence among the Christian rulers of the peninsula shifted the locus of power and culture westward after more than a century of Leonese decline. "he internal consolidation of the realm of León–Castilla under Fernando el Magno and Sancha is a history that remains to be researched and written." There is some disagreement concerning the order of birth of Sancho III's sons, of Ferdinand's place among them. He was a younger son, he was born than 1011, by which date his parents are known to have married.
Most, the most reliable, charters name Sancho's sons in the order Ramiro, García, Gonzalo Ferdinand. Three documents from the Cathedral of Pamplona list them in this way, as well as four from the monastery of San Juan de la Peña. One charter from Pamplona, dated 29 September 1023, is witnessed by Sancho's mother, Jimena Fernández, his wife Muniadona, her children, listed García, Ferdinand Gonzalo, their brother, the illegitimate Ramiro. In five documents of the monastery of San Salvador de Leire, Ferdinand is listed after Gonzalo. Two of these are dated to 17 April 1014. If authentic, they place Ferdinand's birth before that date. Three further documents from Leire are among the only ones to place Ferdinand second among the legitimate sons, but they suffer from various anachronisms and interpolations. Two preserved diplomas of Santa María la Real de Irache put Gonzalo ahead of him. On the basis of these documents, Gonzalo Martínez Díez places Ferdinand third of the known legitimate sons of Sancho III, his birth no earlier than 1015.
The Crónica de Alaón renovada, which Martínez Díez dates to 1154, but which other scholars dismiss as a late medieval concoction, lists García, Ferdinand and Gonzalo as Sancho III's sons by Muniadona in that order, but in the same passage mistakenly places Gonzalo's death before his father's. Ferdinand was in his teens when García Sánchez, Count of Castile, was assassinated by a party of exiled Castilian noblemen as he was entering the church of John the Baptist in León, where he had gone to marry Sancha, sister of Bermudo III, King of León. In his role as feudal overlord, Sancho III of Navarre nominated his younger son Ferdinand, born to the deceased count's sister Muniadona, as count of Castile. Although Sancho was recognised as the ruler of Castile until his death, Ferdinand was granted the title "count" and was prepared to succeed in Castile. On 7 July 1029, before a council in Burgos, the capital of Castile, Óneca, aunt of the late García and queen Muniadona, formally adopted Sancho and Muniadona, making them her heirs.
The record of the council is the first recorded instance of Ferdinand bearing the title of count. A charter from the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña, dated 1 January 1030, explicits lists Sancho as king in León and Ferdinand as count in Castile; the first indication that Ferdinand was independently reigning over Castile, or was at least recognised as count in his own right, is a charter of 1 November 1032 from the monastery of San Pedro de Arlanza, which does not mention his father, but dates it to the time of "Fernando Sánchez bearing the county". Sancho's decision to name his son as count in Castile preserved its high degree of autonomy, although no Castilian document after 1028 is dated by the reign of Bermudo III nor is he named as king of León; the only sovereign whose regnal year was used was Sancho III, making Ferdinand the first count of Castile not to recognise the suzerainty of the king of León. Sancho III arranged for Ferdinand to marry García of Castile's intended bride, Sancha of León, in 1032.
The lands between the Cea and Pisuerga rivers went to Castile as her dowry. After his father's death on 18 October 1035, Ferdinand continued to rule in Castile, but he was not, as many authors have it, king of Castile. Contemporary documents stress his status as count and his relationship of vassalage to the king of León. A document issued by his brother Ramiro on 22 August 1036 at San Juan de la Peña was drawn while "emperor Bermudo reigning in León and count Ferdinand in Castile, king García in Pamplona, king Ramiro in Aragon, king Gonzalo in Ribagorza." Two private Castilian documents dated 1 January 1037 both express Ferdinand's continuing vassalage to the Leonese monarch explicitly, dating themselves by the reign of "king Bermudo and Ferdinand, count in his realms". In a dispute over the territory between the Cea and Pisuerga, nominally a vassal of Bermudo III, defeated and killed his suzerain at the Battle of Tamarón on 4 September 1037. Ferdinand took possession of León by right of his wife, the heiress presumptive, on 22 June 1038 had himself formally crowned and anointed king in León.
On 15 September 1054, Ferdinand defeated his elder brother García at the Battle of Atapuerca and reduced Navarre to a vassal state under his late brother's young son, Sancho García IV. Although Navarre at that time included the traditionally Castilian lands of Álava and La Rioja, Ferdinand demanded the cession only of Bureba. Over the next decade, he extended his control over more of the weste