Mehmet İlker Başbuğ was the 26th Chief of the General Staff of Turkey. He was charged with contravention of Articles 309, 310, 311 of the Turkish Penal Code. In August 2013, he was convicted on charges "establishing and leading a terrorist organization" and "attempting to destroy the Turkish government or to attempting to or prevent its functioning" and sentenced to life imprisonment as part of the Ergenekon trials. However, the Constitutional Court of Turkey determined that Başbuğ's legal rights were violated and overturned his conviction. İlker Başbuğ was born in Afyonkarahisar, a city in western Turkey in 1943. He graduated from the Turkish Military Academy in 1962 and the Infantry School in 1963, he served as Platoon Leader and Company Commander in various units subordinate to the Turkish Land Forces until 1971. Having graduated from the War College as staff officer in 1973, he held a wide variety of command and staff positions as Staff Officer at Plans and Operations Department at Turkish General Staff, Lecturer at the Army War College, Action Officer at the Intelligence Department at NATO Headquarters in Brussels-Belgium, Chief of Defense Research Branch of Plans and Policy Department at Turkish Land Forces Headquarters and as the Commander of the 247th Infantry Regiment, 51st Division.
Before being promoted to Brigadier General in 1989, he had completed his education at the United Kingdom Army Staff College and NATO Defense College. In this rank, he served as the Chief of Logistics and Infrastructure Department at SHAPE in Mons-Belgium and as the Commander of the 1st Armored Brigade in Istanbul, he was promoted to Major General in 1993. As Major General, he served as the Deputy Commander in Gendarmerie Security Command in Diyarbakır-Turkey and as the Turkish National Military Representative at SHAPE and was promoted to Lieutenant General in 1996. In this rank, he served as the Commander of 2nd Corps and as the Deputy of the Secretary General of the National Security Council of the Republic of Turkey, respectively. In 2002, he was promoted to the rank of General; as General, he held a variety of positions such as the Chief of Staff of the Turkish Land Forces, the Deputy Chief of the Turkish General Staff, the Commander of the First Army, the Commander of the Turkish Land Forces.
He was appointed as Commander of the Turkish Armed Forces on 30 August 2008 and served until 27 August 2010. After retirement, he wrote, he completed his second book The Greatest Leader of the 20th Century: Mustafa Kemal, covering the period between 1881 and 1923, in prison. The book became the bestseller in Turkey during the month it was published, his third book, The Greatest Leader of the 20th Century: Atatürk and covering the period between 1923 and 1938, was intended as a continuation of his previous work and was published on November 2012. Basbug continued writing: Truths Against Accusations, What Kind Of Turkey, Armenian Accusations and the Truths and Forgotten Island Cyprus.İlker Başbuğ is married to Sevil Başbuğ with two children. He speaks English. 17 months after retiring, on 2 January 2012 an investigation started for Başbuğ in the Internet Memorandum case in which he was expected to appear as a witness. In just four days, on 6 January 2012, he was arrested on terror charges after giving his testimony.
Başbuğ made a statement after the court ordered his arrest, saying, "The 26th chief of the General Staff of the Turkish Republic has been arrested on charges of forming and leading a terrorist organization. The judgment rests with the Turkish people." Başbuğ denied all accusations in his defense and said it was "tragicomic" that the chief one of the world's most powerful armies had been accused of leading a terrorist organization. To accuse the former Chief of the General Staff of being a "terrorist" appears to be an exercise in “reductio ad absurdum,” because it means a "terrorist" – with access to the most secret and sacred of state intelligence – was running the Turkish military. Eric Edelman, former U. S. Ambassador to Turkey, was “flabbergasted.”According to Gareth Jenkins, "For many, the arrest of Başbuğ on terrorist charges will be regarded not so much as demonstrating that the General staff is no longer untouchable but that the Gülen movement has the power to imprison whoever it likes, regardless of the law, due process or the absurdity of the allegations.
I think claims that he is a member of a terrorist organization are ugly."In the European Commission's "Turkey 2012 Progress Report", Başbuğ's detention was mentioned twice and it was reported that "concerns persisted over the rights of the defence, lengthy pre-trial detention and excessively long and catch-all indictments, leading to enhanced public scrutiny of the legitimacy of these trials." On 5 August 2013, Başbuğ was sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of "establishing and leading a terrorist organization" and "attempting to destroy the Turkish government or to attempting to or prevent its functioning."After being sentenced to life imprisonment, Başbuğ made a statement saying "I
Cevdet Sunay was a Turkish politician and army officer, who served as the fifth President of Turkey from 1966 to 1973. Sunay was born in 1899 in the Ottoman Empire. After attending elementary school and middle school in Erzurum and Edirne, he graduated from Kuleli Military High School in Istanbul. During World War I, he fought in 1917 at the Palestine front and became a prisoner of war of the British in Egypt in 1918. After his release, he fought first on the southern front on the western front during the Turkish War of Independence. Sunay completed his military education in 1927, graduated from the staff college in 1930 as a staff officer. Rising through the ranks to become a general in 1949 and a four-star general in 1959, he held important military posts. In 1960, he was appointed army chief and joint chief of staff. On 14 March 1966, he was appointed to the senate by Cemal Gürsel under his presidential contingency; when Gürsel's presidency was terminated due to ill health in accordance with the constitution, Cevdet Sunay was elected 5th president by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 28 March 1966.
He maintained his office despite increasing terrorist activity, student riots, threatened coups. He served the constitutional term of seven years until 28 March 1973 and became a permanent senator, he was married to Atıfet in 1929. They had three children. Cemal Sunay was elected as the fifth president by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 28th March 1966, his presidential service continued. During 1961 and 1965 Süleyman Demirel, Nihat Erim and Ferit Melen where the most prominent members in Sunay’s administration. Cevdet Sunay resigned as president due to deteriorating health conditions. Cevdet Sunay died of a heart attack on 22 May 1982 in Istanbul, his body was moved in August 1988 to a permanent burial place in the newly built Turkish State Cemetery in Ankara. Empire of Iran: Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Turkey Presidency of Turkey
Turkish Land Forces
The Turkish Land Forces, or Turkish Army, is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. Official sources trace the army's foundation to Modu Chanyu of the Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC, but the modern history of the army began with its formation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Significant events since the foundation of the army include combat in the Korean War and in the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus, acting as a NATO bulwark along Cold War frontiers through 1992; the army holds the preeminent place within the armed forces. It is customary for the Chief of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey to have been the Commander of the Turkish Land Forces prior to his appointment as Turkey's senior ranking officer. Alongside the other two armed services, the Turkish Army has intervened in Turkish politics, which has now been regulated to an extent with the reform of the National Security Council; the current commander of the Turkish Land Forces is General Yaşar Güler.
In 2010 the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated that the Turkish Army had an established strength of 402,000 active personnel, consisting of 77,000 professionals and 325,000 conscripts. A more recent estimate put the figure at 391,000. However, In October 2014 the Turkish Land Forces had a strength of 350,000 personnel according to TLF's declaration; as of late 2015, reports suggest the Turkish Army have seen their personnel strengths increase to similar levels of the 2000s. Factors contributing to this are further destabilization of Syria and Iraq due to ISIS and the Russian intervention in Syria, as-well as the re-emergence of a PKK insurgency in Turkey's south east. On 28 June 1963, the Turkish Army celebrated the 600th anniversary of its foundation. Back the accepted theory was that the Turkish Armed Forces had been founded in 1363, when the Pençik corps had been formed. In the same year, one of the prominent Pan-Turanists, Nihal Atsız, asserted that the Turkish Army had been founded in 209 BC, when Mete Khan of the Xiongnu is thought to have formed an army based on the decimal system.
In 1968, Yılmaz Öztuna proposed this theory to Cemal Tural, the Chief of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey at the time. In 1973, when the Turkish Army celebrated the 610th anniversary of its foundation, Nihal Atsız published his claim again. After the 1980 Turkish coup d'état, the Turkish Army formally adopted the date 209 BC as its year of foundation; the modern Turkish Army has its foundations in nine remnant Ottoman Army corps after the Armistice of Mudros at the end of World War I. After the rise of Turkish resistances in Anatolia, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his colleagues formed the Grand National Assembly in Ankara on April 23, 1920, Kâzım Pasha's XV Corps was the only corps which at that time had any combat value. On November 8, 1920, the GNA decided to establish a standing army instead of irregular troops. On August 26, 1922, the Army of the Grand National Assembly launched the general offensive known as the Great Offensive against the Greek forces around Kara Hisâr-ı Sâhip. Nurettin Pasha's 1st Army and Yakup Şevki Pasha's 2nd Army encircled the main body of Major General Nikolaos Trikoupis's group and defeated it near Dumlupınar.
Fahrettin Pasha's V Cavalry Corps entered Smyrna on September 9, 1922. Şükrü Naili Pasha's III Corps entered Constantinople peacefully on October 6, 1923. Subsequently to the founding of the Republic of Turkey, the Army of the GNA was reorganized into three army inspectorates. In 1935, Turkey purchased 60 T-26 mod. 1933 light tanks from the USSR, along with about 60 BA-6 armoured cars to form the 1st Tank Battalion of the 2nd Cavalry Division at Lüleburgaz. The Armoured Brigade of the Turkish Army consisted of the 102nd and the 103rd Companies armed with the T-26 mod. 1933 tanks in the end of 1937. The reserve group of the brigade had 21 T-26 tanks also. In the beginning of 1940, the Turkish Army had the Armoured Brigade in Istanbul, which belonged to the 1st Army, the 1st Tank Battalion, which belonged to the 3rd Army. Turkish T-26 tanks were taken out of service in 1942. During World War II, Turkey mobilized more than a million personnel; the Turkish Army order of battle in 1941 shows a number of formations.
The command of the Turkish Army was formed on July 1, 1949 and Nuri Yamut was appointed as the first commander of the Turkish Army. Note The Turkish Army participated in the Korean War as a member state of the United Nations, suffering 731 deaths in combat out of the 5000 soldiers of the Turkish Brigade there, which fought at battles of Kunu-ri where it was credited with saving the U. S. 2nd Infantry Division from encirclement. The brigade fought at Gimnyangjang-ni,'Operation Ripper,' or the Fourth Battle of Seoul, Vegas. After Turkey joined NATO on February 18, 1952, the government initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its Armed Forces. In July 1974, Turkey intervened in Cyprus, following a coup organized by EOKA-B and led by Nikos Sampson who ousted the democratically elected Cypriot President Archbishop Makarios III in order to establish Enosis between Cyprus and Greece; the coup was backed by the Greek military junta in Athens. The 1974 Turkish military operations in Cyprus can be divided into two distinct Turkis
Hulusi Akar is the current Turkish Minister of Defence and a former four-star Turkish Armed Forces general who served as the 29th Chief of the General Staff. Akar served as a brigade commander in various NATO engagements including ISAF, Operation Deliberate Force during the Bosnian War and the Kosovo Force during the Kosovo War. Akar was born in 1952 in Turkey, he graduated from the Turkish Military Academy in 1972 and the Turkish Infantry School in 1973. In 1975 he attended Queen's University Belfast for postgraduate studies in International Diplomacy. Akar served as a company commander, section chief and branch chief at various units and headquarters including the Turkish General Staff, he served as an instructor at the Army Command and Staff College and was posted abroad as a staff officer in the intelligence division in HQ AFSOUTH / Naples, ltaly between 1990 and 1993. From 1993 until 1994, he was the Military Assistant to the Land Forces Commander served as the Chief Public Information Officer.
On, he continued this assignment for the Commander of the Turkish Armed Forces between the years of 1994-1997. He was subsequently posted as the Commander of the Turkish Brigade - Zenica/Bosnia from 1997 until 1998. Upon his promotion to brigadier general in 1998, he commanded the Internal Security Brigade for two years, served as the Chief of Plans and Policy in Headquarters AFSOUTH / Naples, Italy between 2000 and 2002. Following his promotion to major general in 2002, he assumed the command of the Military Academy for three years and was subsequently the Commander of the Army Command and Staff College for two years until 2007. After his promotion to lieutenant general, he was the commander of Land Forces Logistics and the Commander of NRDC-T and the 3rd Corps between 2009 and 2011. Subsequent to his promotion to the rank of general in 2011, he served as the Deputy Chief of the Turkish General Staff from 2011 until 2013, the Commander of the Turkish Land Forces from 2013 until 2015. On 2 August 2015, General Akar was appointed as the 29th Chief of the General Staff and took up the position on 18 August 2015.
Akar was taken hostage on 15 July 2016 during the Turkish Armed Forces' 2016 attempted coup d'état against the Turkish government, by those responsible for leading the attempted coup. According to The Economist, Akar "was told by his aides to sign a declaration of martial law; when he refused, they tightened a belt around his neck, but he would not yield." He was held hostage at Akıncı Air Base in Ankara before pro-government forces retook control of the air base and rescued him in the early hours of 16 July 2016. The rescue was announced at 02:45 EEST on 16 July 2016 by Anadolu Agency, although CNN Türk placed the time of rescue attempt around 07:45 EEST. First Army commander General Ümit Dündar served as Acting Chief of General Staff during Akar's capture. After his release he testified that one of his captors offered to put him on the phone with alleged coup figurehead Fethullah Gülen. In 2016 Akar lead Operation Euphrates Shield, the Turkish military intervention in Syria against the jihadist group ISIL, the Syrian Democratic Forces, various Kurdish groups.
On July, 9 2018 Akar was appointed by Turkey’s President Erdogan as the Minister for National Defence. This was the first time in Turkey’s history that a civilian government appointed an active duty military officer to this position. TAF Medal of Honor, TAF Medal of Distinguished Courage and Self-Sacrifice, TAF Medal of Distinguished Service, Legion of Merit, Nishan-e-Imtiaz, Order of National Security Merit of South Korea, Azerbaijan Distinguished Service in Military Cooperation. General Hulusi Akar is married to Şule Akar, he speaks English. List of Chiefs of the Turkish General Staff List of Ministers of National Defence of Turkey
Commander of the Canadian Army
The Commander of the Canadian Army is the institutional head of the Canadian Army, is based at National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa, Ontario. Prior to 1904, militia forces in Canada were commanded by senior British Army officers appointed as General Officer Commanding the Canadian Militia. British regular forces in the Dominion had their own commander until the withdrawal of the last British garrison in 1906. From 1903 to 1904, the Canadian Army embarked on a new period of modernization that included the creation of a new office of Chief of the General Staff. Between 1904 and 1964, eighteen officers held this position, with the last of these, Lieutenant General Geoffrey Walsh, having stood down the appointment on 31 August 1964 following the official integration of the three armed services into a single Canadian Armed Forces. Following the unification of Canada's military forces in February 1968, the majority of Canada's land element was assigned to the newly created Mobile Command and the senior Canadian army officer was known as Commander of Mobile Command from 1965 to 1993.
The command was renamed Land Force Command and the senior Canadian army officer was known as Chief of the Land Staff from 1993 to 2011. Land Force Command was re-designated as the Canadian Army in 2011, at which time the appointment was renamed Commander of the Canadian Army to reflect this. General Officer Commanding the Canadian MilitiaChief of the General Staff Major-General Sir P. H. N. Lake 1904–1908 Major-General Sir W. D. Otter 1908–1910 Major General Sir C. J. Mackenzie 1910–1913 Major-General Sir W. G. Gwatkin 1913–1919 General Sir A. W. Currie 1919–1920* Major-General Sir J. H. MacBrien 1920–1927 Major-General H. C. Thacker 1927–1929 Major-General A. G. L. McNaughton 1929–1935 Major-General E. C. Ashton 1935–1938 Major-General T. V. Anderson 1938–1940 Major-General H. D. G. Crerar 1940–1941 Lieutenant-General K. Stuart 1941–1943 Lieutenant-General J. C. Murchie 1944–1945 Lieutenant-General C. Foulkes 1945–1951 Lieutenant-General G. G. Simonds 1951–1955 Lieutenant-General H. D. Graham 1955–1958 Lieutenant-General S.
F. Clark 1958–1961 Lieutenant-General G. Walsh 1961–1964The position of Chief of the General Staff was renamed "Inspector-General and Military Counsellor" between 1919 and 1920. Commander of Mobile CommandLieutenant-General J. V. Allard 1965–1966 Lieutenant-General W. Anderson 1966–1969 Lieutenant-General G. Turcot 1969–1972 Lieutenant General W. Milroy 1972–1973 Lieutenant-General S. Waters 1973–1975 Lieutenant-General J. Chouinard 1975–1977 Lieutenant General J. J. Paradis 1977–1981 Lieutenant-General C. H. Belzile 1981–1986 Lieutenant-General J. Fox 1986–1989 Lieutenant General K. Foster 1989–1991 Lieutenant-General J. Gervais 1991–1993Chief of the Land StaffCommander of the Canadian Army Chief of the Defence Staff, the second most senior member of the Canadian Armed Forces after the Commander-in-Chief Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy, institutional head of the Royal Canadian Navy Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force, institutional head of the Royal Canadian Air Force Official website
Chief of the General Staff (Egypt)
The Chief of the General Staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces is second in command after the Minister of Defence and the President. He holds the second highest military rank. Commanders of the naval forces, air forces and air defense forces are under his command; the following is a list of chiefs of the General Staff of Egypt since the Egyptian revolution of 1952. Egyptian Armed Forces Ministry of Defence and Military Production
Chief of Army Staff (Ghana)
The head of the Ghana Army was referred to as the army commander but now has the title above. The current Chief of Army Staff is Major General William Ayamdo, he was appointed to the position by President Akuffo-Addo on 9 February 2017