The Davis Cup is an annual international team event in men's tennis. Established in 1900 as the International Lawn Tennis Challenge, it is run by the International Tennis Federation, who describe it as the "World Cup of tennis." The first event in 1900 was a match between Great Britain and the United States, while 135 nations have entered the 2016 Davis Cup. The tournament sees players competing for their country in four singles and one doubles matches, known as rubbers, over the course of three days, with the team that wins three rubbers progressing; the countries are divided into groups based upon their performance in previous years. The Davis Cup World Group is the top level of the competition and features matches between players from the top 16 countries at the start of the year. Countries that lose their first round match face a relegation play-off against winning countries from the continental zones. World Group winning countries progress to the quarter-finals. Nations have to win a further three ties in order to claim the position of Davis Cup champions.
The United States are the most successful nation in the history of the competition, with 32 victories. Australia are second with 28 and Great Britain and France are tied for third with 10. Teams from Europe have won the competition the most with 46 victories, followed by North America with 32 and Oceania with 28. Spain are the current holders, they beat Canada 2-0 in the final in 2019; the Davis Cup was founded in 1900 as the International Lawn Tennis Challenge. Four members of Harvard University wished to challenge Great Britain in a tennis competition. One of the American players, Dwight F. Davis, designed a tournament format and ordered a sterling silver trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low for $1,000; the first match, held at Longwood Cricket Club in Boston, was won by the American team 3–0. There was no match the following year, but the United States retained the trophy in 1902, beating Great Britain 3–2; this was followed by four successive victories for Britain, from 1903 to 1906. The 1904 Davis Cup saw new teams compete for the first time, as France entered.
Australasia became the first victors outside of Britain and the United States when they won the tournament in 1907. No tournament was held in 1910 as no country challenged Australasia, who retained the trophy until 1912 when they were defeated by Great Britain; the United States and Australasia won the two competitions prior to the outbreak of the First World War, in 1914. The tournament resumed in 1919, with Australasia retaining the trophy, beating Great Britain 4–1; the Americans won the following seven tournaments before they were defeated 3–2 by France in 1927. The tournament underwent restructuring for the 1923 edition. Teams were split into two zones; the French won a further five successive tournaments before they were beaten 3–2 by Great Britain in 1933. Australia were the last winners before the onset of the Second World War, they beat the United States 3–2 in 1939. Upon resumption of the tournament in 1946, it was renamed the Davis Cup after the death of Dwight D. Davis in 1945; the United States regained the title after they beat Australia 5–0.
They retained the title until 1950 when Australia won 4–1. This marked the start of Australian dominance of the Davis Cup, as they only lost three times from 1950 to 1967. Prior to 1972, the champion received a bye directly to the final; the 1974 Davis Cup marked the first time that neither Australia or the United States won the final since 1936, as South Africa and India were the finalists. However, the final was not contested as the Indian team refused to travel to South Africa in protest at the South African government's apartheid policies. South Africa were awarded the Davis Cup on walkover. Sweden beat Czechoslovakia 3–2 the following year to become the first European nation since 1936 to win the Davis Cup; the Davis Cup underwent further reorganisation in 1981. The remaining nations were split into regional groups with promotion and relegation to and from the World Group. Sweden lost both times to West Germany; the United States regained the title in 1990. They regained the title a year but could not defend it in 1993 as Germany won.
Sweden were victorious in 1994, they won a further two Davis Cups in 1997 and 1998. Australia regained the Davis Cup in 1999, but they lost the following two finals to Spain and France respectively. Russia won their first Davis Cup in 2002. Spain won the tournament for the second time in 2004, would win a further three titles in 2008, 2009 and 2011; the Czech Republic won successive Davis Cups in 2012 and 2013, before Switzerland won their first title in 2014. In 2015 Great Britain bridged the longest winning gap in the competition's history, 80 years, when they won their first Davis Cup since 1936, beating Belgium 3–1; the "Year" column refers to the year the Davis Cup tournament was held, wikilinks to the article about that tournament. Links in the "Winners" and "Runners-up" columns point to the articles for the national teams of the countries, not the articles for the countries
Clarence Evans Kilburn was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from New York. Kilburn was born in New York, he graduated from Cornell University in 1916. He enlisted for World War I, completed officer training at Madison Barracks, New York, received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry. Kilburn served in France with the 26th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, returned to the United States as an instructor in the use of trench mortars, he was discharged at Camp Gordon, Georgia as a captain in 1919. After the war Kilburn worked for a Malone ice cream and candy wholesaler before beginning a career in banking. In 1930 he was appointed president of the People's Trust Co. of Malone. He was a member of the board of directors of the Marine Midland Trust Company of Northern New York, he was elected to Congress in 1940 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Wallace E. Pierce and served from February 13, 1940 until January 3, 1965. During his years in Congress, Kilburn was one of the more conservative members of the New York Republican delegation, but was liberal on the issue of foreign aid, like most members of the New York delegation.
He is notable for being the only member of the New York Congressional delegation to vote against the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He died in Malone, New York, was buried at Morningside Cemetery. United States Congress. "Clarence E. Kilburn". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clarence E. Kilburn at Find a Grave
David Walsh is a Welsh former footballer, who played as a goalkeeper for Wrexham and Caernarfon Town. Having came up from Wrexham's youth system, Walsh signed his first professional contract with the club in 1997. Acting as back-up, he got games in the FAW Welsh Cup during his early years. Making a few league appearances as back-up to Kevin Dearden, Walsh was loaned out to League Of Wales side Rhyl in 2001. Walsh was released by Wrexham in May 2002. After appearing in a friendly for Shrewsbury Town in pre-season, with various other clubs, including Rushden & Diamonds, Tranmere Rovers and Hereford United, Walsh was left without a club until being signed by Welsh Premier League side Caernarfon Town in 2004
William Melton was the 43rd Archbishop of York. Melton was the son of Nicholas of Melton, the brother of Henry de Melton, John Melton, he was born in Melton about nine miles from Kingston upon Hull. He was Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely; the two prelates were associated in public matters and were the most powerful churchmen of their period in England. Melton was Controller of the Wardrobe at the accession of Edward II in 1307 and was a pluralist through and through at the time of his elevation to the see of York. Among other things, he was Archdeacon of Barnstaple and Provost of Beverley, he was Lord Privy Seal from 1307 to about 1312, having been Dean of St. Martin's-le-Grand at that time also, he was promoted to Keeper of the Household Wardrobe from 1314 to 1316. He was elected by the chapter of York within a month of Archbishop Greenfield's death, in December 1315, but difficulties arose and he was not consecrated until September 1317, at Avignon by Pope John XXII. While serving as archbishop, Melton had to deal with numerous cases of fugitive or rebellious nuns at the Benedictine nunnery St Clement's by York, most notably Joan of Leeds.
Throughout Melton's archiepiscopate, he was concerned in the affairs of Scotland. Between 1318 and 1322, the Scots, under James Douglas, Lord of Douglas, made raids into Yorkshire, devastating great parts of the country, destroying churches and sacking the richest monasteries; these continued raids led to a dispute between the City of York and Melton regarding the responsibility for the upkeep of part of the city's motte and bailey defences known as the Old Baile. During the raid of 1319, the King was at the siege of Berwick and much of the trained soldiery was there with him. Archbishop Melton was ordered to lead them against the Scots. Clergy and citizens of York were accordingly gathered and the result was the Battle of Myton on the Swale, in which the English were routed. Queen Isabella, in York at the time, managed to escape to safety at Nottingham. Connected with the Scottish raids of 1322 was the battle of Boroughbridge, in which the Earl of Lancaster was taken prisoner, led from Boroughbridge to his own castle of Pontefract and there beheaded.
Archbishop Melton had aided Lancaster at one point, seems, in consequence, to have fallen into some disfavour with Edward II. By 1325 however, the King's good opinion had been recovered, since Melton became Lord Treasurer of England until 1326. Melton did not desert Edward II in his latter days, regarding his imprisonment with great displeasure. Nor was he present at the coronation of Edward III, is said afterwards to have been engaged in a dangerous intrigue to upset the new government, for which he was arrested, though acquitted. In January 1328, Melton married the young king to Philippa of Hainault. In 1330 he was reappointed Treasurer, but left the office in 1331. Archbishop Melton completed the building of the nave of York Minster and his figure still remains above the great western portal, he is said to have assisted in building St. Patrick's Church, Patrington, in Holderness, gave much toward the fabric of Beverley Minster, he died 5 April 1340 at Cawood Palace, was buried in the north aisle of the nave at York Minster, a memorial window installed shortly after his death being transferred to St James' Church, High Melton in the 1790s by the Dean of York, John Fountayne.
Melton died wealthy, having custody of many manors and estates. His heir was his nephew, William Melton of Aston, near Sheffield, the progenitor of one of the most powerful knightly families in the south of Yorkshire. Melton kept a detailed log of his activities while he was Archbishop of York, published as The Register of William Melton in five volumes. Secretary of State Archbishop of York
Patrice Buzzanell is a distinguished professor at the Brian Lamb School of Communication at Purdue University. She focuses on organization communication with a feminist viewpoint. A majority of the research Dr. Buzzanell has completed is geared towards how everyday interactions and social structures can be affected by the intersections of gender, she researches how these dynamics can impact overall practices and results in the workplace, more in the STEM field work environments. Dr. Buzzanell has written four books and 85 book chapters, published over 80 journal articles, as well as contributed numerous conference papers, she is a involved professor at Purdue University where she is affiliated faculty with both Women's, Sexuality Studies and the Center for Families, serves as a faculty team advisor, maintains a courtesy appointment with the School of Engineering Education. She serves as the Butler Chair and Director of the Susan Bulkeley Butler Center for Leadership Excellence. Dr. Buzzanell attended Towson University to earn her B.
S. where she graduated Summa Cum Laude. A. and she attended Purdue University to earn her Ph. D. in organizational communication. She worked as an Associate Professor for five years at Northern Illinois University, but she has been teaching in the Brian Lamb School of Communication at Purdue University for the past eighteen years, she resides in Indiana Area. Dr. Buzzanell began publishing in 1991, covering topics such as feminist organizational communication theory, reframing the glass ceiling as a constructed process, researching leadership processes in alternative organizations, she released her first edited book in 2000, titled Rethinking Organizational and Managerial Communication from Feminist Perspectives. She has since been a featured author of chapters in different books and has written several articles. Patrice Buzzanell continues to stay active in her research agenda, as well as contribute to the field in other ways. Dr. Buzzanell is on the International Academic Committee, an advisory board for the Global Communication Research Institute.
She is a part of the National Communication Association on both the NCA Publications Board and the NCA Task Force on Inclusivity and is a Council of Communication Associations ICA representative as well. She currently serves as a board member for eight different journals, she has been involved as president of the International Communication Association, the Council of Communication Associations, the Organization for the Study of Communication and Gender. Dr. Buzzanell has received awards for top papers and books, has been presented with numerous awards for mentoring/teaching as well as research and scholarship honors, has been recognized for her engagement in different service organizations, she has been awarded over 75 times throughout her career, including the 2014 Provost’s Outstanding Graduate Mentor Award, the Teresa Award in 2012 for the feminist viewpoint she incorporated into organizational communication. Some other awards/honors Dr. Buzzanell has received are: -University Distinguished Professor at Purdue University from 2015 to present-B.
Aubrey Fisher Mentorship Award in 2016-Top Panel Award in 2016 for “Reframing and Repurposing Work/Life Boundaries through Communication”-Helen B. Schleman Gold Medallion in 2010-Outstanding Scholarly Article in 2006 for her article "Struggling with Maternity Leave Policies and Practices: A Poststructuralist Feminist Analysis of Gendered Organizing-Charles H. Woolbert Research Award in 2006-Violet Haas Award in 2003-Outstanding Young Women in America in 1982Dr. Buzzanell has a number of distinguished lectures and keynote addresses at different universities across both the country and world. Cases in Organizational and Managerial Communication: Stretching Boundaries Distinctive qualities in communication research Gender in Applied Communication Contexts Rethinking Organization and Managerial Communication from Feminist Perspectives Public Understandings of Women in STEM: A Prototype Analysis of Governmental Discourse from the C-SPAN Archives How Resilience is Constructed in Everyday Work-life Experience Across the Lifespan Revisiting Sexual Harassment in Academe: Using Feminist Ethical and Sensemaking Approaches to Analyze Macrodiscourses and Micropractices of Sexual Harassment Having—and doing—it all?
The Hidden Nature of Informal Support Systems in Career and Personal Life Management Stories of Caregiving: Intersections of Academic Research and Women’s Everyday Experiences Negotiating Maternity Leave Expectations: Perceived Tensions Between Ethics of Justice and Care An Organizational Communication Challenge to the Discourse of Work and Family Research: From Problematics to Empowerment Gendered Practices in the Contemporary Workplace: A Critique of What Often Constitutes Front Page New in the Wall Street Journal Intersectionality Organizational communication
Autoimmune disease in women is a description of the autoimmune diseases that affect women. Some of these differences are unique to women such as the effects during pregnancy. Women with autoimmune diseases can safely have children. There are be some risks for the baby, depending on the disease and how severe it is. For instance, pregnant women with lupus have a higher risk of preterm stillbirth. Pregnant women with myasthenia gravis might have symptoms that lead to trouble breathing during pregnancy. For some women, symptoms tend to improve during pregnancy, while others find their symptoms tend to flare up; some medicines used to treat autoimmune diseases might not be safe to use during pregnancy. Talking with a health care provider before becoming pregnant is recommended, they may suggest to wait until the disease is in remission or suggest a change in medication before becoming pregnant. There are endocrinologists; some women with autoimmune diseases may have problems getting pregnant. This can happen for many reasons.
Tests can tell if fertility problems are caused by an unrelated reason. Fertility treatments are able to help some women with autoimmune disease become pregnant. Although most autoimmune diseases cannot be cured, it is possible to manage the disease and participate in same activities that other women are able to do. Women with autoimmune diseases lead active lives. Seeing a specialist will assist in maintaining function and the maintenance of optimal health. Non-pharmacological treatments are effective in treating autoimmune disease and contribute to a sense of well-being. Women can: Eat healthy, well-balanced meals that includes fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk products, lean sources of protein. A healthy diet limits saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and added sugars. Engage in regular physical activity without overdoing it. Consulting with a clinician about what types of physical activity is appropriate. A gradual and gentle exercise program works well for people with long-lasting muscle and joint pain.
Some types of yoga or tai chi may be helpful. Get enough rest. Rest allows body tissues and joints the time they need to repair. Sleeping helps both body and mind. Lack of sleep, stress levels and symptoms might get worsen. Immunity to other infections or diseases is reduced. Rest contributes to the ability to handle the problems. Many people need at least 7 to 9 hours of sleep each day to feel well-rested. Reduce stress. Stress and anxiety can trigger symptoms to flare up with some autoimmune diseases. Simplifying daily stressors will help contribute to a sense of well-being. Meditation, self-hypnosis, guided imagery, may be effective in reducing stress, reducing pain, the ability to deal with other aspects of living with the disease. Instructional materials can assist with learning these activities such as self-help books, audio sources, tapes, or with the help of an instructor. Joining a support group or talking with a counselor might help manage stress and cope with the disease; some complementary treatments can be effective and include: Listening to music Taking time to relax in a comfortable position Using imagery throughout the day Imagining confronting the pain and watching it be destroyed.