Leendert van der Vlugt
Leendert Cornelis van der Vlugt was a Dutch architect in Rotterdam. In the architects office Brinkman & Van der Vlugt he was responsible for the architecture of the Van Nelle Factory, a listed monument of the UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2014. After the death of the Rotterdam architect Michiel Brinkman in 1925, his son Johannes Brinkman, a constructional engineer, took over the architectural office and made Leendert van der Vlugt co-director; the new practice was called J. A. Brinkman & L. C. van der Vlugt. The activities of the Brinkman & Van der Vlugt office lasted only about ten years because Leendert van der Vlugt has died in 1936. Shortly after the death of Jan Duiker in 1935, the Netherlands lost with Leendert van der Vlugt a second young architectural talent. Both architects had created buildings of international rank: the Van Nelle Factory in Rotterdam by Leendert van der Vlugt and the Zonnestraal Sanatorium in Hilversum by Jan Duiker. Since the death of Leendert van der Vlugt, there has been a misleading attribution of his work.
In all books of architectural history, credit for the design of his buildings has gone to J. A. Brinkman & L. C. van der Vlugt. Attributions of this kind suggest that J. A. Brinkman was the creative mind in the practice. Jacob Bakema has dealt with this question in his small book "L. C. van der Vlugt". The fact that Leendert van der Vlugt was the creative architect and not Johannes Brinkman is indicated by the following quotations from Bakema's booklet: Former Van Nelle director C. H. van der Leeuw: "Brinkman Jr. played no part whatsoever in the design and construction of the Van Nelle Factory...". It is worth mentioning that Johannes Brinkman finished his study at the Delft University of Technology in 1931, not as an architect, but as a civil engineer, he had less creative ability than his father Michiel Brinkman. Mart Stam: "I worked in the Brinkman & Van der Vlugt office as design draughtsman... I didn't much care for the curved building of the office section, but Van der Vlugt was in charge of the project...
He gave the instructions...". Le Corbusier, 30 May 1936: "With the death of Van der Vlugt, modern architecture loses one of its best representatives. I am familiar with Van der Vlugt's outstanding achievement, the Van Nelle Factory in Rotterdam... A few years ago, I visited the Factory together with the director. I met Van der Vlugt at a luncheon... How many works are there in the modern world that can rival the Van Nelle Factory?... The fact that we shall not see him any more and shall no longer witness the development of his outstanding talent is regrettable...". To eliminate any misunderstandings about, responsible for the design work, Leendert van der Vlugt's name should be placed first; the attribution of responsibility for the design of the Van Nelle Factory, for example, could be formulated as follows: Leendert van der Vlugt of Brinkman & Van der Vlugt Architects. From 1926 to 1928, Mart Stam was an assistant in the office and was involved in the design of this project. Through his communicative skills and many connections, Mart Stam had made contact with the Russian avant-garde in Berlin in 1922.
In 1926, during his first year of work for the Brinkman & Van der Vlugt office, he organized an architectural trip to the Netherlands for the Russian artist El Lissitzky and his wife Sophie Küppers, a collector of contemporary art. They visited Gerrit Rietveld, Cornelis van Eesteren and others. According to Sophie Küppers, Mart Stam told them about "his" factory in the course of the excursion; the influence of Russian Constructivism is evident at different parts of the building: the idea of using large letters on the roofs, for example. The aspect of Constructivism may have come from Mart Stam. On the other hand, the fascinating rounded architectural forms are attributable to Leendert van der Vlugt; the years 1926-28 were full of hectic activity for Mart Stam. In addition to his work for Leendert van der Vlugt, he was occupied with the houses for the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, with a competition for a water tower and with the first steel cantilever chair, not to mention his contacts with his Russian friends and his participation at the first CIAM Congress.
In retrospect, one can say. The question arises, whether Leendert van der Vlugt, the more experienced of the two architects, had any hand in the design of the houses in Stuttgart; the great elegance one finds in them is evident in buildings by Leendert van der Vlugt, but not in the works of Mart Stam. The question is justified, for in his history of architecture, Kenneth Frampton raised it in a reversed form. A lot of architects and historians have allowed themselves to be impressed too much by Mart Stam's brilliant perspective drawings. Another question would be why the well-known Dutch Forum Group did not undertake a reappraisal of Leendert van der Vlugt similar to that accorded to Jan Duiker. One explanation might be that the Forum editor, Jacob Bakema, the youngest member of an architectural practice with a long tradition and ongoing development, was not interested in a reassessment of Leendert van der Vlugt; the architectural database archINFORM contains a short biography of Johannes Brinkman, which begins as follows
Pieter de Keyser
Pieter de Keyser was a Dutch Golden Age architect and sculptor. He followed in the footsteps of his father Hendrick de Keyser and completed a number of Hendrick de Keyser's buildings after his death in 1621. Pieter de Keyser was died in Amsterdam, he was commissioned by his father to oversee the construction of the Huis Bartolotti house on the Herengracht canal in Amsterdam in c. 1617. After his father's death in 1621, he succeeded him as Amsterdam's master mason and oversaw the completion of the Westerkerk and Noorderkerk churches as well as the Huis met de Hoofden house on Keizersgracht canal. In addition, he finished two other uncompleted projects of his father's: a mausoleum for William the Silent in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft as well as a statue of Erasmus in Rotterdam. De Keyser designed and oversaw the construction of the Saaihal in Amsterdam, as well as the gallery and boys' school of the city's Civil Orphanage, now the Amsterdam Museum; the Accijnshuis building in Amsterdam is atrributed to Jacob van Campen but could have been designed by Pieter de Keyser.
His work in sculpture includes a mausoleum for the naval commander Piet Hein in the Oude Kerk in Delft, a mausoleum for stadholder William Louis of Nassau-Dillenburg in Leeuwarden, a mausoleum for Adriaan Pauw in the Reformed Church at Heemstede, a mausoleum for Swedish military commander Erik Soop in the cathedral of Skara, Sweden. Pieter de Keyser was married three times: to Magdalena Geens, Magdalena Jacobs, Catharina Beghin or Bagijn, his brother Thomas de Keyser became an architect, but chose to become a painter, although he remained active as an architect. The English sculptor and architect Nicholas Stone was an apprentice of Hendrick and Pieter de Keyser in the years 1603-1613. Amsterdam Monumenten: Hendrik de Keyser Amsterdam Monumenten: Het Huis Bartolotti
Hendrik Petrus Berlage
Hendrik Petrus Berlage was a prominent Dutch architect. Berlage was born in Amsterdam, he studied architecture at the Zurich Institute of Technology between 1875 and 1878 after which he traveled extensively for 3 years through Europe. In the 1880s he formed a partnership in the Netherlands with Theodore Sanders which produced a mixture of practical and utopian projects. A published author, Berlage held memberships in various architectural societies including CIAM I. Berlage was influenced by the Neo-Romanesque brickwork architecture of Henry Hobson Richardson and of the combination of structures of iron seen with brick of the Castle of the Three Geckos of Domènech i Montaner; this influence is visible in his design for the Amsterdam Commodities Exchange, for which he would draw on the ideas of Viollet-le-Duc. The load-bearing bare brick walls and the notion of the primacy of space, of walls as the creators of form, would be the constitutive principles of the'Hollandse Zakelijkheid'. A visit Berlage made to the U.
S. in 1911 affected his architecture. From on the organic architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright would be a significant influence. Lectures he gave when returned to Europe would help to disseminate Wright's thoughts in Germany. A notable overseas commission was the 1916 Holland House, built as offices for a Dutch shipping company in Bury Street in the City of London. Considered the "Father of Modern architecture" in the Netherlands and the intermediary between the Traditionalists and the Modernists, Berlage's theories inspired most Dutch architectural groups of the 1920s, including the Traditionalists, the Amsterdam School, De Stijl and the New Objectivists, he received the British RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 1932. Berlage died at The Hague in 1934. In 1970, the IAU named the lunar crater Berlage after him. Among the public collections holding works by Hendrik Petrus Berlage are: Museum de Fundatie, Netherlands Gemeentemuseum Den Haag Kröller-Müller Museum Berlage Institute Sergio Polano, Giovanni Fanelli, Vincent Van Rossem: Hendrik Petrus Berlage, Phaidon Press, ISBN 1-904313-11-6 Hendrik Berlage: Hendrik Petrus Berlage: Thoughts on Style, 1886-1909, The Getty Center For The History Of Art, ISBN 0-89236-334-7 Kohlenbach: H.
P. Berlage: Schriften zur Architektur, Birkhäuser Basel. P. Berlage. Idea and style; the quest for modern architecture, Haentjens Dekker & Gumbert Dennis Sharp: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Architects and Architecture, Watson-Guptill, ISBN 0-8230-2539-X, ISBN 978-0-8230-2539-8 Biography and works of Berlage Gemeentemuseum Den Haag National Library of the Netherlands - dossier Berlage
Hendrick de Keyser
Hendrick de Keyser was a Dutch sculptor and architect born in Utrecht, instrumental in establishing a late Renaissance form of Mannerism in Amsterdam. He was the father of Thomas de Keyser, an architect and portrait painter; as a young man the Utrecht-born artist Hendrick de Keyser was apprenticed to master Cornelis Bloemaert the elder. At the age of 26 he followed Bloemaert to Amsterdam. Soon he set to work as an independent artist; when his talent became appreciated he was appointed city stonemason and sculptor. In fact his duties included all of the tasks now associated with the job of city architect. De Keyser is famous for a number of important buildings which belong to the core of Dutch historic sites. Today the Zuiderkerk and accompanying tower, the Delft Town Hall, the Westerkerk and Westertoren are among the historic buildings which provide important insights into De Keyser’s work, his Commodity Exchange of 1608-1613 was pulled down in the 19th century. Hendrick de Keyser's projects in Amsterdam during the early decades of the 17th century helped establish a late Mannerist style referred to as "Amsterdam Renaissance".
The Amsterdam Renaissance style deviates in many respects from sixteenth-century Italian Renaissance architecture. Classical elements such as pilasters and frontons were used on a large scale, but as decorative elements. De Keyser never slavishly followed the tenets of classical architecture as laid down in the Italian treatises, his version came to full bloom at the end of the second decade of the 17th century, set the stage for the Dutch classical phase of Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post. The East India House in Amsterdam was most also designed by him. Apart from pursuing a career as an architect, De Keyser remained active as a sculptor, he designed the tomb of William the Silent for the Nieuwe Kerk at Delft. However, De Keyser did not live to see the finished product, he died in Amsterdam, his son Pieter completed the project. In 1631, ten years after De Keyser’s death, Cornelis Danckertsz included the architect’s most important sketches in his book ’Architectura Moderna’. De Keyser's career was not limited to Amsterdam, his international contacts helped him to keep in touch with the mainstream of European architecture.
The Amsterdam city administrators sent him to England. Jones was the first English architect who went to Italy to learn all he could about classical architecture, he studied the famous treatises written by the Roman architect Vitruvius, his intimate knowledge of the work of Palladio gave him the nickname the English Palladio. The Banqueting House in London, designed for the Stuart monarchs, became the prototype of classical architecture in England; when De Keyser returned to Amsterdam one of Jones’ assistants, Nicholas Stone, joined him. Stone worked with De Keyser in Amsterdam from 1607 to 1613 and became his son-in-law. De Keyser attention to England and English architecture reflect Amsterdam's position as a commercial centre in Europe. Ca. 1603: Rasphuispoortje, Amsterdam. 1606: Oost-Indisch Huis, Amsterdam. 1606: Montelbaanstoren, Amsterdam. 1611: Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser, Amsterdam. 1603-1611: Zuiderkerk, Amsterdam. 1618: Haarlemmerpoort, Amsterdam. 1622: Erasmus-statue, Rotterdam. 1620-1623: Noorderkerk, Amsterdam.
1614-1623: Praalgraf Willem van Oranje, Delft. 1618-1620: Stadhuis, Delft. 1620-1631: Westerkerk, Amsterdam. Works attributed to Hendrick de Keyser: Jan Roodenpoortstoren, Amsterdam. 1616. Haringpakkerstoren, Amsterdam. 1607. Huis met Keizersgracht 123, Amsterdam. 1622. Huis Bartolotti, Herengracht 170-172, Amsterdam. Ca. 1617. Hendrick de Keyser at Archimon Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Hendrick de Keyser
Salomon de Bray
Salomon de Bray was a Dutch Golden Age architect and painter. De Bray was born in Amsterdam, but established himself in Haarlem before 1617, where he is registered as being a member of the schutterij that year in the St. Adrian's cloveniers, he followed draftsmanship and painting lessons in the small academy started by Karel van Mander, Hendrick Goltzius and Cornelis van Haarlem, where he married in 1625. He is registered as a pupil of Goltzius and Cornelis van Haarlem, but he started his training in Amsterdam with Jan Pynas, Nicolaes Moeyaert and Pieter Lastman, he painted history paintings and landscapes. As a Catholic he also made altar pieces for the Haarlem underground Catholic churches known as mission stations, or staties, he was a poet and member of the Chamber of rhetoric called "De Wijngaertranken". One of his poems was set to music by his friend the composer Cornelis Padbrué; this is how he met his wife Anna, the sister of the painter Jan and the poet Jacob Westerbaen, who were members of De Wijngaertrancken.
They married in 1625. In 1630 he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, he cooperated with fellow guild member and Catholic architect-artist Jacob van Campen in the decoration of Huis ten Bosch in The Hague. His works draw on the spirit of the Dutch classicism beginning at that time, are comparable with those of his Catholic colleague Pieter de Grebber. De Bray became active as an architect and designer of silverwork, became headman of the Guild of St. Luke, he prepared a new charter for the guild in 1631, signed by Pieter de Molijn, Outgert Ariss Akersloot, Willem Claesz Heda, Cornelis Cornelisz, Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen, Floris van Dyck, Isaak Halinck, respected members of the guild. This charter met with a lot of opposition from the Haarlem council, was rejected for its efforts to promote painting above other guild pursuits such as engraving, tapestry-making and pottery. In 1632 he made efforts to retrieve the St. Lucas guild relic, stored in the guild altar of the St. Bavochurch.
It had been given to a representative of the Catholic church for safekeeping and De Bray felt it should be brought back to Haarlem, but the relic was never found. As an architect, he was involved in the construction or expansion of Haarlem's City Hall in 1630, the new consistory of the Bavokerk, the Zijlpoort, St. Annakerk. Outside of Haarlem, he designed a new entrance in 1629 for the Huis te Warmond that featured pilasters and a broad pediment. In Nijmegen he made a design for the city orphanage, he was a town planner for the city council of Haarlem. He designed an ambitious plan to expand the city on the North side with three canals, implemented in the decades after his death with the Nieuwe Gracht and what is today the Parklaan. In 1631 Salomon de Bray wrote "Architectura Moderna" which provided a biography and descriptions of buildings built by Hendrick de Keyser and Cornelis Danckerts de Ry, two of the key Dutch architects of the period. Salomon de Bray was the father of ten children, he died of the plague that hit Haarlem in 1664, as he and his children Jacob, Josef and Margaretha all died in April and May of that year.
His wife had died the previous year. He was buried in the Sint-Bavokerk in Haarlem. Works and literature on PubHist Salomon de Bray on Artnet
Pieter Lodewijk Kramer was a Dutch architect, one of the most important architects of the Amsterdam School. From 1903 to 1911 Piet Kramer worked in the architectural practice of Eduard Cuypers, where he came into contact with the architects Johan van der Mey and Michel de Klerk. In 1911 van der Mey received the commission to design the Scheepvaarthuis, a cooperative building for six Dutch shipping companies. Van der Mey sought the assistance of his former colleague-architects Piet Kramer and Michel de Klerk to realize this building; the Scheepvaarthuis is considered the starting point of the Amsterdam School movement. Piet Kramer collaborated with Michel de Klerk on the well-known De Dageraad housing project in Amsterdam South. Outside Amsterdam he built one of the De Bijenkorf Store in The Hague. After the death of Michel de Klerk in 1923, Piet Kramer was the leading architect of the Amsterdam School until the end of this movement in the beginning of the 1930s. In the years of economic crisis of the 1930s the expensive architecture of the Amsterdam School was passé.
A new architecture and town planning was in process of development in Amsterdam, represented by CIAM-Rationalists like Cornelis van Eesteren and Ben Merkelbach. In the new architecture the principle of spatial corridors between functionalistic blocks was relevant. On the contrary, the Amsterdam School town planning was based on a town structure with streets and places. In the second half of his professional life, the main job of Piet Kramer was architect for canal bridges in the municipal public works department in Amsterdam, he made the drawings for more than 500 bridges. The total number of realized Piet Kramer bridges is 64 of them in the Amsterdamse Bos park. Besides the bridges he designed the additional bridge houses and landscaping; the sculptural work was done by Hildo Krop. After the death of Piet Kramer in 1961, on the high point of the Rationalist movement, no architectural institution or museum was interested in his Expressionist work. For that reason all his drawings and models were burnt.
De Dageraad, part of Plan Zuid by Berlage. Working-class Socialist housing by Piet Kramer and Michel de Klerk; the architectural contribution by Piet Kramer is shown in this article. See Michel de Klerk. Plan West, working-class Socialist housing. Buildings by different architects of the Amsterdam School. Piet Kramer made the drawings for more than 500 bridges; the total number of realized Piet Kramer bridges is 64 of them in the Amsterdamse Bos park. De Bijenkorf Store, Grote Marktstraat / Wagenstraat Bernhard Kohlenbach, Pieter Lodewijk Kramer 1881-1961 - Architekt der Amsterdamer Schule, Wiese Verlag, Basel 1994 Wim de Boer and Peter Evers, Amsterdamse bruggen 1910-1950, Amsterdam 1983 and 1995 Maristella Casciato, The Amsterdam School, 010 Publishers, Rotterdam 1991 Joseph Buch, A Century of Architecture in The Netherlands, NAI Publishers, Rotterdam 1995 Scheepvaarthuis 1911-16 De Bijenkorf Store, The Hague 1924-26
Philips Vingboons was a Dutch architect. He was part of the school of Jacob van Campen. Vingboons was highly regarded in his native city of Amsterdam. Philips Vingboons was born in circa 1607 in Amsterdam in the Dutch Republic, his father David Vinckboons was a painter from the Southern Netherlands who had fled from Antwerp to Amsterdam during the Dutch Revolt. Vingboons had nine sisters, his brother Johannes Vingboons was a painter and his brother Justus Vingboons was an architect. Vingboons started his career as a painter in the family business with his father and siblings, where he was educated with cartography, mathematics and classics, he became an architect, he was a student of the architect Jacob van Campen. He became engaged to Petronella Questiés on 21 April 1645, he had a set of his designs engraved by his brother Jan in 1648 for the Amsterdam council, Justus Danckerts published these in 1688. Thanks to this book, much of his work can be attributed including some designs that were not executed, such as his maquette for the Amsterdam city hall, the buitenplaats Vredenburch in Beemster.
Vingboons was buried on 10 February 1678 in Amsterdam. In contrast with Jacob van Campen, Vingboons knew how to fit classicism creatively with the narrow city houses of Amsterdam. Philips Vingboons is well named as the inventor of the Amsterdam "Halsgevel" type of facade, since in 1638 he designed the oldest surviving "Halsgevel" in Amsterdam, at Herengracht 168. Indeed, it is sometimes called the "Vingboonsgevel" after him, it was imitated in the period of Dutch Classicism on a grand scale. On simpler houses, it appeared as a simple brick pilaster-halsgevel, with a few restrained ornaments - this type is named a "Vingboons-imitatie". Another of his designs was Kloveniersburgwal 95, in 1642, one of the most finely proportioned classical-school city-palaces in Amsterdam. Philips Vingboons lived during the high point of Amsterdam's power and wealth, halfway through the 17th century, became the city's most important architect and designer, he designed houses since, as a Catholic, he was passed over for state commissions.
In 1648 and 1674 a book was published with Philips Vingboons' designs, through which we have a good idea of his work. Vingboons designed country homes for Amsterdam regency members such as Driemond, near Weesp, 1642, Havezate Rollecate near Vollenhove, circa 1654, Westwijk for Reinier Pauw de Jonge in Purmer and Peckendam near Diepenheim, 1656, Gansenhoef in Maarssen, Vanenburg for Hendrik van Eessen near Harderwijk, 1664, Borg Nittersum for Joan Clant in Stedum, Harsveld in Ootmarsum. Bureau Monumentenzorg Amsterdam Koen Ottenheym, Philips Vingboons, Zutphen, 1989, ISBN 90-6011-626-7 Jacobine E. Huisken, Friso Lammertse, Het kunstbedrijf van de familie Vingboons. Schilders, architecten en kaartmakers in de gouden eeuw, Maarssen, 1989, ISBN 90-6179-073-5 Jacqueline Heijenbrok, Guido Steenmeijer, Een stadswandeling langs de huizen van Philips en Justus Vingboons, Den Haag/Amsterdam, 1989, ISBN 90-6179-077-8