V. E. Walker
Vyell Edward Walker was an English cricketer and administrator. Teddy Walker was born in Southgate and educated at Harrow School, he was the fifth of seven cricket playing brothers. They played a major part in establishing the Middlesex County Cricket Club, founded in 1864, their cricket ground in Southgate is maintained by the Walker Trust to this day. Walker was a right-handed batsman and an underarm slow right arm bowler who represented Marylebone Cricket Club, a Middlesex XI and Middlesex County Cricket Club. In 1859 for an All-England Eleven against Surrey County Cricket Club at The Oval he scored 20 not out took all 10 of the Surrey wickets. In the second innings he took another 4 wickets; this was in a season. He took 10 for 104 for Middlesex against Lancashire in 1865. A fine driving bat and the leading lob bowler of his day as well as a great captain of Middlesex and the Gentlemen, he captained the county club and served as President of the Marylebone Cricket Club and of Middlesex County Cricket Club.
He died at Arnos Grove, aged 68. Middlesex County Cricket Club The Walkers of Southgate Cricinfo Cricket Archive Middlesex County Cricket Club Official website Cricinfo page on V. E. Walker
Charles W. Alcock
Charles William Alcock was an English sportsman and administrator. He was a major instigator in the development of both international football and cricket, as well as being the creator of the FA Cup. Alcock was born in Sunderland, his family moved to Chingford part of Essex, at an early age. According to JB Smart, he was born as Charles and certainly took the middle name William in memory of his younger brother. Educated at Harrow School, Alcock was a keen schoolboy footballer, formed the Forest club with his elder brother, John, in Chingford in 1859, he was a prime mover in the 1863 foundation of Forest's more famous successor, Wanderers F. C. who were a predominantly Old Harrovian side. For their influence on the game of football the Wanderers were considered as early as 1870 to be the Marylebone Cricket Club of football; as a player, Alcock was renowned as a hard-working centre-forward with an accurate shot. On 6 March 1875, he captained England against Scotland. Alcock was one of those responsible for the first international soccer match with Scotland.
The first two of these took place in 1870, with matches in 1871 and 1872. After the 1870 games there was resentment in Scotland that their team did not contain more home grown players and some of this fire was aimed at Alcock. Alcock himself was categorical about the international standing of the 1870 games and where he felt responsibility lay for the inclusion of so many England-based players in the Scotland team, writing in the Scotsman newspaper:"I must join issue with your correspondent in some instances. First, I assert that of whatever the Scotch eleven may have been composed the right to play was open to every Scotchman whether his lines were cast North or South of the Tweed and that if in the face of the invitations publicly given through the columns of leading journals of Scotland the representative eleven consisted chiefly of Anglo-Scotians... the fault lies on the heads of the players of the north, not on the management who sought the services of all alike impartially. To call the team London Scotchmen contributes nothing.
The match was, as announced, to all intents and purposes between England and Scotland". Alcock proceeded to offer further challenges with a Scottish team drawn from Scotland and proposed the north of England as a compromise venue to take into account travelling distances. Although not recognised by FIFA as official, the Scotsman newspaper described the 1870 and 1871 games as "international" and in italics. One reason for the absence of a response to Alcock's early challenges may have been different football codes being followed in Scotland at the time. A written reply to Alcock's letter above states: "Mr Alcock's challenge to meet a Scotch eleven on the borders sounds well and is doubtless well meant, but it may not be well known that Mr Alcock is a leading supporter of what is called the "association game"... devotees of the "association" rules will find no foemen worthy of their steel in Scotland". Alcock appeared to be concerned about the number of players in Scottish football teams at the time, adding: "More than eleven we do not care to play as it is with greater numbers it is our opinion the game becomes less scientific and more a trial of charging and brute force...
Charles W Alcock, Hon Sec of Football Association and Captain of English Eleven". In 1872 Alcock's was behind the statement that'To further the interests of the Association in Scotland, it was decided that during the current season, a team should be sent to Glasgow to play a match v Scotland' in the FA's minutes of 3 October 1872; the 1872 international match took place between England and Scotland on 30 November, with Alcock ruled out of the England side which drew 0–0 at the West of Scotland Cricket Ground in Partick through injury sustained two weeks earlier, playing for Old Harrovians against Old Etonians. Instead he represented his country as umpire, with the England captaincy awarded to Cuthbert Ottaway. On 20 July 1871, Alcock, in his position as FA Secretary, proposed'That it is desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association, for which all clubs belonging to the Association should be invited to compete'. Thus, the FA Cup – the world's first national football tournament, based on Alcock's experience of inter-house'sudden death' competition at Harrow – was born.
Fifteen teams took part in the first competition in 1872, with Alcock captaining the winning Wanderers side. It was only fitting that the final should be played at The Oval, since Alcock had become Secretary of Surrey County Cricket Club the previous month. After joining the FA committee in 1866, Alcock served as FA Secretary from 1870 to 1895, before serving as Vice-President. Alcock refereed the 1875 and 1879 FA Cup Finals, was the journalist responsible for compiling the first "Football Annual" in 1868. Alcock was notable not only as an organiser and a player, but as a key proponent and pioneer of modern football playing styles that employed teamwork and passing. On 31 March 1866 Alcock was the first soccer player to be ruled offside, confirming that players – and Alcock – were probing ways of exploiting the new offside rule right from the start; as early as 1870 Alcock was the first to recognise the benefit of playing football in a "scientific" way. Alcock himself was one of the earliest soccer players to be described in contemporary reports as showing teamwork between players, for example in the 1871 England versus Scotland international:"indeed it seemed as if the defence would prove more than equal to the attack u
George Anderson (cricketer)
George Anderson was an English cricketer, who played first-class cricket for Sheffield Cricket Club from 1850 to 1862. He was born in Aiskew, Yorkshire, he early showed athletic aptitude as a cricketer. He was employed as a clerk in youth, he made the game his profession in early manhood. Anderson first appeared at Lord's in 1851, when he played for the North v. South, for the Players v. Gentlemen in 1855, he was from 1857-64 a member of the All England XI captained by William Clarke, George Parr. He met with little success, his most successful season was that of 1864, when in first-class matches he averaged 42 runs an innings, scored 99 not out for Yorkshire v. Notts, he captained the Yorkshire team for a few seasons. Anderson was a right-handed batsman, he played in ninety-nine first-class games for Yorkshire teams. He scored 2,535 runs with a highest score of 99 not out. Anderson was a handsome man of fine physique, his style as a batsman was described as'the model of manliness'. In 1862, he made a drive for eight runs at the Oval, when playing for the North of England v. Surrey.
Another hit by him off Bennett, the Kent slow bowler, was reputed to have pitched farther than any recorded at the Oval. On retiring from professional cricketing, Anderson became in 1873 actuary of the Bedale Savings Bank, held the office until the bank's failure in 1894, he died at Bedale on 27 November 1902. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Owen, W. B.. "Anderson, George". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 42. Arthur Haygarth, Scores & Biographies, Volumes 3-9, Lillywhite, 1862-1867 CricketArchive
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
John Lillywhite was an English cricketer and umpire during the game's roundarm era. John Lillywhite was part of a famous cricketing family, his father being William Lillywhite, a brother being Fred Lillywhite and his cousin being James Lillywhite. In 1863, members of the family established. Lillywhite was an all-rounder who batted right-handed and bowled right-arm roundarm, both slow and fast, his known first-class career spanned the 1848 to 1873 seasons. He took 223 wickets in 185 matches @ 11.56 with a best analysis of 8/54. He took five wickets in 10 wickets in a match twice, he scored 5127 runs @ 17.43 with a highest score of 138. He took 94 catches, he served as cricket coach at Rugby School where he nurtured star all-rounder Tom Wills, one of the founders of Australian rules football. At the end of the 1859 English cricket season, Lillywhite was one of the 12 players who took part in cricket's first-ever overseas tour when an English team led by George Parr visited North America. From 1856 to 1873, Lillywhite umpired in 29 first-class matches.
On 26 August 1862, during an All-England Eleven v. Surrey match at The Oval, Lillywhite no-balled Edgar Willsher six times in succession for what he deemed to be illegal "high" deliveries. Willsher and the majority of his All-England teammates protested and abandoned the match, Lillywhite was replaced the following day; the incident provoked much discussion and resulted in the laws of cricket being change to allow overarm bowling from the beginning of the 1864 season. CricketArchive The New York Clipper Lillywhite Family Museum H S Altham, A History of Cricket, Volume 1, George Allen & Unwin, 1926 Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999 Rowland Bowen, Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970 Arthur Haygarth, Scores & Biographies, Volumes 3-9, Lillywhite, 1862-1867 John Major, More Than A Game, HarperCollins, 2007 – includes the famous 1859 touring team photo taken on board ship at Liverpool
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
James Lillywhite was an English Test cricketer and an umpire. He was the first captain of the English cricket team in a Test match, captaining two Tests against Australia in 1876–77, losing the first, but winning the second. Lillywhite was born in Westhampnett in the son of a brickmaker, John Lillywhite, he was the nephew of William Lillywhite, so cousin to William's sons, James Lillywhite senior, John and Harry. Lillywhite is termed "junior" in sources to differentiate between his cousin James senior, he became a professional cricketer, played first-class cricket for Sussex from 1862 and 1883. He played one final first-class match in 1885. Before the pre-Ashes Test-playing tour to Australia in 1876–77, Lillywhite joined tours to North America in 1868 in a team led by Edgar Willsher, to Australia in 1873–74 in a team led by W. G. Grace, he joined three further tours to Australia in teams led by Alfred Shaw, in 1881–82, 1884–85 and 1886–87. James Lillywhite and Dave Gregory were the 1st Test Captains.
Neither were great with the bat. Of the 2 James top scored in the 1st Test scoring 10 in the 1st Innings on 17-Mar and scored 4 in the 2nd Innings on 19 March. James, having lost the toss, had his side put into bat which meant that James was the 1st Test player as he led out his England side, he was 35 years 20 days old. As his team followed him out he was passed by England No: 1 Harry Jupp and England No: 8 Tom Emmett who were both 35 years old but older than James Lillywhite, he stood including six Test matches. He umpired all four Test matches between England in the 1881 -- 82 season, he was one of the organisers of Arthur Shrewsbury's team to Australia in 1884–85 but, in spite of his experience, the Australian captain Billy Murdoch refused to allow him to umpire the first Test match at Adelaide. However, along with Ted Elliott, he umpired in the second Test of that series, when the entire Australian team refused to play unless they received fifty per cent of gate takings. Nine new faces appeared for Australia, were soundly beaten.
Lillywhite's other match as umpire was the drawn fourth Test between England and Australia at Old Trafford in 1899. He died in the last English survivor of the first Test match. History of Test cricket History of Test cricket History of Test cricket Australian Test Cricket Umpires List of Test umpires Media related to James Lillywhite at Wikimedia Commons Cricinfo page on James Lillywhite CricketArchive page on James Lillywhite Profile from CricketArchive