Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar, along with other species. Related creatures outside the genus include the peccary, the babirusa, the warthog. Pigs, like all suids, are native to the African continents. Juvenile pigs are known as piglets. Pigs are social and intelligent animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world. Pigs can consume a wide range of food. Pigs are biologically similar to humans and are thus used for human medical research; the Online Etymology Dictionary provides anecdotal evidence as well as linguistic, saying that the term derives from Old English *picg, found in compounds, ultimate origin unknown. "young pig". Related to Low German bigge, Dutch big.... Another Old English word for "pig" was fearh, related to furh "furrow," from PIE *perk- "dig, furrow". "This reflects a widespread IE tendency to name animals from typical attributes or activities".
Synonyms grunter, oinker are from sailors' and fishermen's euphemistic avoidance of uttering the word pig at sea, a superstition based on the fate of the Gadarene swine, who drowned. The Online Etymology Dictionary traces the evolution of sow, the term for a female pig, through various historical languages: Old English sugu, su "female of the swine," from Proto-Germanic *su-, from PIE root *su- imitative of pig noise, it is likely that the word to call pigs, "soo-ie," is derived. An adjectival form is porcine. Another adjectival form is suine. A typical pig has a large head with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage at the tip; the snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a acute sense organ. There are four hoofed toes on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground; the dental formula of adult pigs is 126.96.36.199.1.4.3. The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male, the canine teeth form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other.
Captive mother pigs may savage their own piglets if they become stressed. Some attacks on newborn piglets are non-fatal. Others may cause the death of the piglets and sometimes, the mother may eat the piglets, it is estimated that 50% of piglet fatalities are due to the mother attacking, or unintentionally crushing, the newborn pre-weaned animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is one of the most numerous large mammals on the planet; the ancestor of the domestic pig is the wild boar, one of the most numerous and widespread large mammals. Its many subspecies are native to all but the harshest climates of continental Eurasia and its islands and Africa as well, from Ireland and India to Japan and north to Siberia. Long isolated from other pigs on the many islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, pigs have evolved into many different species, including wild boar, bearded pigs, warty pigs. Humans have introduced pigs into Australia and South America, numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar.
The wild pig can take advantage of any forage resources. Therefore, it can live in any productive habitat that can provide enough water to sustain large mammals such as pigs. If there is increased foraging of wild pigs in certain areas, it can cause a nutritional shortage which can cause the pig population to decrease. If the nutritional state returns to normal, the pig population will most rise due to the pigs' increased reproduction rate. Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both animals. In the wild, they are foraging animals eating leaves, roots and flowers, in addition to some insects and fish; as livestock, pigs are fed corn and soybean meal with a mixture of vitamins and minerals added to the diet. Traditionally, they were raised on dairy farms and called "mortgage lifters", due to their ability to use the excess milk as well as whey from cheese and butter making combined with pasture. Older pigs will consume three to five gallons of water per day; when kept as pets, the optimal healthy diet consists of a balanced diet of raw vegetables, although some may give their pigs conventional mini pig pellet feed.
Domesticated pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets. Domestic pigs are raised commercially as livestock; because of their foraging abilities and excellent sense of smell, they are used to find truffles in many European countries. Both wild and feral pigs are hunted; the short, coarse hairs of the pig are called brist
In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker, music composer, oral historian and genealogist, employed by a patron, to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities. A specific, lower class of poet, contrasting with the higher rank known as fili in Ireland and Highland Scotland, with the decline of living bardic tradition in the modern period the term "bard" acquired generic meanings of an author or minstrel a famous one. For example, William Shakespeare and Rabindranath Tagore, are known as "the Bard of Avon" and "the Bard of Bengal" respectively; the word is a Celtic loan word from Scottish Gaelic bàrd, Irish bard, Welsh bardd. In 16th-century Scotland, it was a derogatory term for an itinerant musician. In medieval Gaelic and Welsh society, a bard or bardd was a professional poet, employed to compose eulogies for his lord. If the employer failed to pay the proper amount, the bard would compose a satire.
In other Indo-European societies, the same function was fulfilled by skalds, rhapsodes and scops, among others. A hereditary caste of professional poets in Proto-Indo-European society has been reconstructed by comparison of the position of poets in medieval Ireland and in ancient India in particular. Bards were those who sang the songs recalling the tribal warriors' deeds of bravery as well as the genealogies and family histories of the ruling strata among Celtic societies; the pre-Christian Celtic peoples recorded no written histories. Bards facilitated the memorisation of such materials by the use of metre and other formulaic poetic devices. One of the most notable bards in Irish Mythological was Amergin Glúingel, he was bard and judge for the Milesians. In medieval Ireland, bards were one of two distinct groups of poets. According to the Early Irish law text on status, Uraicecht Becc, bards were a lesser class of poets, not eligible for higher poetic roles as described above. However, it has been argued that the distinction between filid and bards was a creation of Christian Ireland, that the filid were more associated with the church.
By the Early Modern Period, these names came to be used interchangeably. Irish bards formed a professional hereditary caste of trained, learned poets; the bards were steeped in the history and traditions of clan and country, as well as in the technical requirements of a verse technique, syllabic and used assonance, half rhyme and alliteration, among other conventions. As officials of the court of king or chieftain, they performed a number of official roles, they were chroniclers and satirists whose job it was to praise their employers and damn those who crossed them. It was believed that a well-aimed bardic satire, glam dicenn, could raise boils on the face of its target; the bardic system lasted until the mid-17th century in Ireland and the early 18th century in Scotland. In Ireland, their fortunes had always been linked to the Gaelic aristocracy, which declined along with them during the Tudor Reconquest; the early history of the bards can be known only indirectly through mythological stories.
The first mention of the bardic profession in Ireland is found in the Book of Invasions, in a story about the Irish colony of Tuatha De Danann called Danonians. They became the aos sí, comparable to Norse British fairy. During the tenth year of the reign of the last Belgic monarch, the people of the colony of Tuatha De Danann, as the Irish called it, invaded and settled in Ireland, they were divided into three tribes—the tribe of Tuatha who were the nobility, the tribe of De who were the priests and the tribe of Danann, who were the bards. This account of the Tuatha De Danann must be considered legendary; the best-known group of bards in Scotland were the members of the MacMhuirich family, who flourished from the 15th to the 18th centuries. The family was centred in the Hebrides, claimed descent from a 13th-century Irish bard who, according to legend, was exiled to Scotland; the family was at first chiefly employed by the Lords of the Isles as poets and physicians. With the fall of the Lordship of the Isles in the 15th century, the family was chiefly employed by the chiefs of the MacDonalds of Clanranald.
Members of the family were recorded as musicians in the early 16th century, as clergymen as early as the early 15th century. The last of the family to practise classical Gaelic poetry was Domhnall MacMhuirich, who lived on South Uist in the 18th century. A number of bards in Welsh mythology have been preserved in medieval Welsh literature such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin; the bards Aneirin and Taliesin may be legendary reflections of historical bards active in the 6th and 7th centuries. Little historical information about Dark Age Welsh court tradition survives, but the Middle Welsh material came to be the nucleus of the Matter of Britain and Arthurian legend as they developed from the 13th century; the Laws of Hywel Dda compiled around 900 A. D, identify a bard as a member of a king's household, his duties, when the bodyguard were sharing out booty, included the singing of the sovereignty of Brit
A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion. Alternative names for this landform are cwm. A cirque may be a shaped landform arising from fluvial erosion; the concave shape of a glacial cirque is open on the downhill side, while the cupped section is steep. Cliff-like slopes, down which ice and glaciated debris combine and converge, form the three or more higher sides; the floor of the cirque ends up bowl-shaped as it is the complex convergence zone of combining ice flows from multiple directions and their accompanying rock burdens: hence it experiences somewhat greater erosion forces, is most overdeepened below the level of the cirque's low-side outlet and its down slope valley. If the cirque is subject to seasonal melting, the floor of the cirque most forms a tarn behind a dam which marks the downstream limit of the glacial overdeepening: the dam itself can be composed of moraine, glacial till, or a lip of the underlying bedrock; the fluvial cirque or makhtesh, found in karst landscapes, is formed by intermittent river flow cutting through layers of limestone and chalk leaving sheer cliffs.
A common feature for all fluvial-erosion cirques is a terrain which includes erosion resistant upper structures overlying materials which are more eroded. Glacial cirques are found amongst mountain ranges throughout the world. Situated high on a mountainside near the firn line, they are partially surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs; the highest cliff is called a headwall. The fourth side forms the lip, threshold or sill, the side at which the glacier flowed away from the cirque. Many glacial cirques contain tarns dammed by a bedrock threshold; when enough snow accumulates it can flow out the opening of the bowl and form valley glaciers which may be several kilometers long. Cirques form in conditions; these areas are sheltered from heat. The process of nivation follows, whereby a hollow in a slope may be enlarged by ice segregation weathering and glacial erosion. Ice segregation erodes the rock vertical rock face and causes it to disintegrate, which may result in an avalanche bringing down more snow and rock to add to the growing glacier.
This hollow may become large enough that glacial erosion intensifies. The enlarging of this open ended concavity creates a larger leeward deposition zone, furthering the process of glaciation. Debris in the ice may abrade the bed surface; the hollow may become a large bowl shape in the side of the mountain, with the headwall being weathered by ice segregation, as well as being eroded by plucking. The basin will become deeper as it continues to be eroded by ice abrasion. Should ice segregation and abrasion continue, the dimensions of the cirque will increase, but the proportion of the landform would remain the same. A bergschrund forms when the movement of the glacier separates the moving ice from the stationary ice forming a crevasse; the method of erosion of the headwall lying between the surface of the glacier and the cirque’s floor has been attributed to freeze-thaw mechanisms. The temperature within the bergschrund changes little, studies have shown that ice segregation may happen with only small changes in temperature.
Water that flows into the bergschrund can be cooled to freezing temperatures by the surrounding ice allowing freeze-thaw mechanisms to occur. If two adjacent cirques erode toward one another, an arête, or steep sided ridge, forms; when three or more cirques erode toward one another, a pyramidal peak is created. In some cases, this peak will be made accessible by one or more arêtes; the Matterhorn in the European Alps is an example of such a peak. Where cirques form one behind the other, a cirque stairway results as at the Zastler Loch in the Black Forest; as glaciers can only originate above the snowline, studying the location of present-day cirques provides information on past glaciation patterns and on climate change. Although a less common usage, the term cirque is used for amphitheatre-shaped, fluvial-erosion features. For example, an 200 square kilometres anticlinal erosion cirque is at 30°35′N 34°45′E on the southern boundary of the Negev highlands; this erosional cirque or makhtesh was formed by intermittent river flow in the Makhtesh Ramon cutting through layers of limestone and chalk, resulting in cirque walls with a sheer 200 metres drop.
The Cirque du Bout du Monde is another such a feature, created in karst terraine in the Burgundy region of the department of Côte-d'Or in France. Yet another type of fluvial erosion formed cirque is found on Réunion island, which includes the tallest volcanic structure in the Indian Ocean; the island consists of an active shield-volcano and an extinct eroded volcano. Three cirques have eroded there in a sequence of agglomerated, fragmented rock and volcanic breccia associated with pillow-lavas overlain by more coherent, solid lavas. A common feature for all fluvial-erosion cirques is a terrain which includes erosion resistant
The coracle is a small, lightweight boat of the sort traditionally used in Wales, in parts of the West Country and in Ireland the River Boyne, in Scotland the River Spey. The word is used of similar boats found in India, Vietnam and Tibet; the word "coracle" is an English spelling of the original Welsh cwrwgl, cognate with Irish and Scottish Gaelic currach, is recorded in English text as early as the sixteenth century. Other historical English spellings include corougle, corracle and coricle; the structure is made of a framework of interwoven willow rods, tied with willow bark. The outer layer was an animal skin such as horse or bullock hide, with a thin layer of tar to waterproof it – today replaced by tarred calico, canvas, or fibreglass; the Vietnamese/Asian version of the coracle is made of interwoven bamboo and waterproofed by using resin and coconut oil. Oval in shape and similar to half a walnut shell, the coracle has a keel-less flat bottom to evenly spread the load across the structure and to reduce the required depth of water – to only a few inches.
This makes it ideal for use on rivers. Each coracle is tailored to the local river conditions. In general there is one design per river; the Teifi coracle, for instance, is flat-bottomed, as it is designed to negotiate shallow rapids, common on the river in the summer, while the Carmarthen coracle is rounder and deeper, because it is used in tidal waters on the Tywi, where there are no rapids. Teifi coracles are made from locally harvested wood – willow for the laths, hazel for the weave – while Tywi coracles have been made from sawn ash for a long time; the working boats tend to be made from fibreglass these days. Teifi coracles use no nails, relying on the interweaving of the laths for structural coherence, whilst the Carmarthen ones use copper nails and no interweaving, they are an effective fishing vessel because, when powered by a skilled person, they hardly disturb the water or the fish, they can be manoeuvred with one arm, while the other arm tends to the net. The coracle is propelled by means of a broad-bladed paddle, which traditionally varies in design between different rivers.
It is used in the blade describing a figure-of-eight pattern in the water. The paddle is used towards the front of the coracle, pulling the boat forward, with the paddler facing in the direction of travel; the Welsh Coracle is intended to be carried on the back. Designed for use in swiftly flowing streams, the coracle has been in use in the British Isles for millennia, having been noted by Julius Caesar in his invasion of Britain in the mid first century BC, used in his military campaigns in Spain. Remains interpreted as a possible coracle were found in an Early Bronze Age grave at Barns Farm near Dalgety Bay, others have been described, from Corbridge and from near North Ferriby. Where coracle fishing is performed by two coraclers the net is stretched across the river between the two coracles; the coraclers will paddle one handed, dragging the net in the other, draw the net downstream. When a fish is caught, each hauls up an end of the net until the two boats are brought to touch, the fish is secured, using a priest to stun the fish.
In the 1920s and 30s James Hornell visited hundreds of rivers in the British Isles to talk with remaining coracle makers and users. He documented the tradition in his book British Coracles and the Curraghs of Ireland containing drawings and construction details gleaned from regular makers. Coracles are now seen only in tourist areas of West Wales, irregularly in Shropshire on the River Severn – a public house in Sundorne, Shrewsbury called "The Coracle" has a pub sign featuring a man using a coracle on a river; the Welsh Rivers Teifi and Tywi are the most common places. On the Teifi they are most seen between Cenarth, Cilgerran and the village of Llechryd. In 1974, a Welsh coracle piloted by Bernard Thomas of Llechryd crossed the English Channel to France in 13 1⁄2 hours; the journey was undertaken to demonstrate how the Bull Boats of the Mandan Indians of North Dakota could have been copied from coracles introduced by Prince Madog in the 12th century. For many years until 1979, Shrewsbury coracle maker Fred Davies achieved some notability amongst football fans.
Although Davies died in 1994, his legend is still associated with the club. The Coracle Society is a UK-based organisation was founded in 1990 by its former president, Sir Peter Badge; the five founding aims of the Society were: To promote the knowledge of coracles and allied craft, their making and use, their study and collection, To take all reasonable steps to support the continuance of fishing involving the use of coracles and to encourage the holding of coracle regattas and the like, To publish a newsletter as a means of communication between all those interested in coracles, To use its best endeavours to obtain supplies of materials for the construction of coracles, To promote demonstrations, exhibitions and lectures relating to coracles. The current president of the Society is Irving Finkel, Assistant Keeper in the Department if the Middle East at the British Museum, known for decoding a cuneiform tablet detailing Noah's Ark – the description of which resembles a l
Cawl is a Welsh dish. In modern Welsh language, the word is used to refer to any broth. In English language, it is used to refer to a traditional Welsh soup referred to as cawl Cymreig in Welsh. Ingredients tended to vary, but the most common recipes are with lamb or beef with leeks, swedes and other seasonal vegetables. Cawl is recognised as a national dish of Wales. With recipes dating back to the fourteenth century, cawl is considered to be the national dish of Wales. Cawl was traditionally eaten during the winter months in the south-west of Wales. Today, the word is used to refer to a dish containing lamb and leeks, due to their association with Welsh culture, but it was made with either salted bacon or beef, along with swedes and other seasonal vegetables. With the introduction of the potato into the European diet in the latter half of the 16th century, it - too - would become a core ingredient in the recipe; the meat in the dish was cut into medium-sized pieces and simmered with the vegetables in water.
The stock was thickened with either oatmeal or flour, was served, without the meat or vegetables, as a first course. The vegetables and slices of the meat would be served as a second course. Cawl served as a single course is today the most popular way to serve the meal, similar to its north Wales equivalent lobsgows. Lobsgows differs in that the meat and vegetables were cut into smaller pieces and the stock was not thickened."Cawl cennin", or leek cawl, can be made without meat but using meat stock. In some areas cawl is served with bread and cheese; these are served separately on a plate. The dish was traditionally cooked in an iron pot or cauldron over the fire and eaten with wooden spoons; the Welsh phrase gwneud cawl o means'to mess something up'. The word cawl in Welsh is first recorded in the 14th century, is thought to come from the Latin caulis, meaning the stalk of a plant, a cabbage stalk or a cabbage. An alternative suggestion is that it is from Latin calidus, meaning warm, as this is the source of Spanish caldo, with the senses of broth or gravy.
Davies, John. The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6. Freeman, Bobby. First Catch Your Peacock, a book of Welsh food. Talybont, Ceredigion: Y Lolfa Cyf. ISBN 978-0862433154. Freeman, Bobby. A Book of Welsh Soups and Savouries: Including Traditional Welsh Cawl. Talybont, Ceredigion: Y Lolfa Cyf. ISBN 978-0862431426. BBC recipe for Cawl Cennin recipe for cawl and other Welsh food
The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 81 genera, which are divided into 9 subgroups or tribes, they are small fish, most of them less than 20 cm long, although the largest, the humphead wrasse, can measure up to 2.5 m. They are efficient carnivores. Many smaller wrasses follow the feeding trails of larger fish, picking up invertebrates disturbed by their passing. Juveniles of some representatives of the genera Bodianus, Cirrhilabrus and Paracheilinus hide among the tentacles of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis; the word "wrasse" comes from the Cornish word wragh, a lenited form of gwragh, meaning an old woman or hag, via Cornish dialect wrath. It is related to the Welsh gwrach and Breton gwrac'h. Most wrasses inhabit the tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, though some species live in temperate waters: the Ballan wrasse is found as far north as Norway.
Wrasses are found in shallow-water habitats such as coral reefs and rocky shores, where they live close to the substrate. Wrasses have protractile mouths with separate jaw teeth that jut outwards. Many species can be recognized by their thick lips, the inside of, sometimes curiously folded, a peculiarity which gave rise the German name of "lip-fishes" and the Dutch name of lipvissen; the dorsal fin has eight to 21 spines and six to 21 soft rays running most of the length of the back. Wrasse are sexually dimorphic. Many species are capable of changing sex. Juveniles are a mix of males and females; the wrasses have become a primary study species in fish-feeding biomechanics due to their jaw structures. The nasal and mandibular bones are connected at their posterior ends to the rigid neurocranium, the superior and inferior articulations of the maxilla are joined to the anterior tips of these two bones creating a loop of four rigid bones connected by moving joints; this "four-bar linkage" has the property of allowing numerous arrangements to achieve a given mechanical result, thus decoupling morphology from function.
The actual morphology of wrasses reflects this, with many lineages displaying different jaw morphology that results in the same functional output in a similar or identical ecological niche. Most labroids are protogynous hermaphrodites within a haremic mating system. A good example of this reproductive behavior is seen in the California sheephead. Hermaphroditism allows for complex mating systems. Labroids exhibit three different mating systems: polygynous, lek-like, promiscuous. Group spawning and pair spawning occur within mating systems; the type of spawning that occurs depends on male body size. Labroids exhibit broadcast spawning, releasing high numbers of planktonic eggs, which are broadcast by tidal currents. Wrasses of a particular subgroup of the family Labridae, Labrini, do not exhibit broadcast spawning. Sex change in wrasses is female-to-male, but experimental conditions have allowed for male-to-female sex change. Placing two male Labroides dimidiatus wrasses in the same tank will result in the smaller of the two becoming female again.
Additionally, while the individual to change sex is the largest female, evidence exists of the largest female instead "choosing" to remain female in situations in which she can maximize her evolutionary fitness by refraining from changing sex. The subgroup Labrini arose from a basal split within family Labridae during the Eocene period. Subgroup Labrini is composed of eight genera. Broodcare behavior ranges from simple to complex parental care of spawn. In species that express this behavior, eggs cannot survive without parental care. Species of Symphodus and Labrus genera exhibit broodcare behavior. Cleaner wrasses are the best-known of the cleaner fish, they live in a cleaning symbiosis with larger predatory, grooming them and benefiting by consuming what they remove. "Client" fish congregate at wrasse "cleaning stations" and wait for the cleaner fish to remove gnathiid parasites, the cleaners swimming into their open mouths and gill cavities to do so. A single wrasse works for around four hours a day, in that time, it can inspect more than 2,000 clients.
Cleaner wrasses are best known for feeding on dead tissue and scales and ectoparasites, although they are known to'cheat', consuming healthy tissue and mucus, energetically costly for the client fish to produce. The bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, is one of the most common cleaners found on tropical reefs. Few cleaner wrasses have been observed being eaten by predators because parasite removal is more important for predator survival than the short-term gain of eating the cleaner; when cleaner wrasses were experimentally removed, from a reef in Australia, the total number of fish species halved, their numbers fell by three-quarters. There's some evidence, from another Australian study, that cleaned fish are smarter than those not serviced by the wrasse. Cleaner wrasse have become the first fish to pass the mirror test. In the western Atlantic coastal region of North America, the most common food species for indigenous humans was the tautog, a species of wrasse. Wrasses today are found i