This is a list of the largest European stadiums. Stadiums with a capacity of 25,000 or more are included; the list includes stadiums in Europe and in countries that take part in European sporting competitions. They are ordered by their audience capacity; the capacity figures are for each stadium's permanent total capacity, including seating and any official standing areas. The capacity does include movable seating - used by multi-purpose stadiums to convert the stadium for different sports, retractable seating for safe standing, but excludes any temporary seating or standing, such as for concerts. Stadiums are sorted in the list based on the largest of these capacities. Notes: indicates retractable seating deployed, indicates retractable seating not deployed indicates movable seating deployed indicates capacity with temporary seats to be removed An asterisk - * - indicates that a team does not play all of its home matches at that venue; the "Category" column indicates whether the stadium has been designated by UEFA as capable of hosting Champions League or Europa League matches.
The following is a list of European stadiums which are under construction and will have a capacity of 25,000 or more. List of African stadiums by capacity List of Asian stadiums by capacity List of North American stadiums by capacity List of Oceanian stadiums by capacity List of South American stadiums by capacity List of stadiums in Europe List of association football stadiums by capacity List of closed stadiums by capacity List of indoor arenas in Europe List of future stadiums List of stadiums by capacity UEFA stadium categories Notes: References
Synodontis multimaculatus, known as the dotted synodontis, is a species of upside-down catfish, native to the Democratic Republic of the Congo where it is found in the Ubangi River. It was first described by British-Belgian zoologist George Albert Boulenger in 1902, from a specimen collected in the Ubangi River in Mobayi-Mbongo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the species name multimaculatus is derived from the word multi, meaning many, the Latin word maculatus, meaning spots, referring to the many spots on the fish. Like all members of the genus Synodontis, S. multimaculatus has a strong, bony head capsule that extends back as far as the first spine of the dorsal fin. The head contains a distinct narrow, external protrusion called a humeral process; the shape and size of the humeral process helps to identify the species. In S. multimaculatus, the humeral process is narrow and rough, with a distinct ridge on the underside. The fish has three pairs of barbels; the maxillary barbels are on located on the upper jaw, two pairs of mandibular barbels are on the lower jaw.
The maxillary barbel is long and straight without a membrane at the base. It extends about the length of the head; the outer pair of mandibular barbels is about twice the length of the inner pair, both pairs have short, stiff branches near the base. The front edges of the dorsal fins and the pectoral fins of Syntontis species are hardened into stiff spines. In S. multimaculatus, the spine of the dorsal fin is shorter than the head, smooth in the front and serrated on the back. The remaining portion of the dorsal fin is made up of seven branching rays; the spine of the pectoral fin a little longer than the dorsal spine, serrated on both sides. The adipose fin is 4 times as long; the anal fin contains four unbranched and seven branched rays. The tail, or caudal fin, is moderately forked. All members of Syndontis have a structure called a premaxillary toothpad, located on the front of the upper jaw of the mouth; this structure contains several rows of chisel-shaped teeth. In S. multimaculatus, the toothpad forms a broad band.
On the lower jaw, or mandible, the teeth of Syndontis are attached to flexible, stalk-like structures and described as "s-shaped" or "hooked". The number of teeth on the mandible is used to differentiate between species; the body color is brown, with darker round spots. Smaller spots appear on the ventral and caudal fins. Large spots appear on the dorsal fin; the maximum standard length of the species is 6.4 centimetres. Females in the genus Synodontis tend to be larger than males of the same age. In the wild, the species has been found only in the area of Mobayi-Mbongo in the Ubangi River, it inhabits muddy bottoms down to at least 100 metres in lakes. The reproductive habits of most of the species of Synodontis are not known, beyond some instances of obtaining egg counts from gravid females. Spawning occurs during the flooding season between July and October, pairs swim in unison during spawning; as a whole, species of Synodontis are omnivores, consuming insect larvae, gastropods, sponges and the eggs of other fishes.
The growth rate is rapid in the first year slows down as the fish age. Data related to Synodontis multimaculatus at Wikispecies
Ilie Șteflea was a Romanian General during World War II and Chief of the Romanian General Staff between 20 January 1942 and 23 August 1944. Ilie Șteflea was born in Săliște. Economic hardships forced his family to move to the Kingdom of Romania, to the newly acquired province of Dobruja. Șteflea attended the primary school at Medgidia, the secondary schools at Constanţa and at the Gheorghe Lazăr High School in Bucharest. He graduated first at the Military School for Infantry Officers in 1909, promoted to the rank of Sublocotenent and assigned to the 34th Infantry Regiment, based in Constanţa. In 1915 he was sent on an information-gathering mission in Transylvania, in the Timiş Valley and Braşov. After the war had started, Șteflea was given the command of a machine gun company in the 34th Infantry Regiment, holding the rank of captain. On 8 September 1916 he was wounded at Daidâr during the Battle of Turtucaia and evacuated to Moldova. On 1 April 1917 he was assigned as instructor to the Military School for Infantry Officers in Botoșani, where he taught infantry tactics inspired by the French military doctrine and war experience.
After the defeat of the Legionnaires' Rebellion in January 1941, he was appointed commander of the 3rd Infantry Division, with which he participated alongside German troops in the Siege of Odessa. On 20 January 1942 he was appointed Chief of the Romanian General Staff, a position which he occupied until the fall of the Ion Antonescu regime on 23 August 1944. On that date, Ilie Şteflea was temporary. In September, he was relieved of command and arrested on 11 October 1944, because of his close cooperation with Marshal Ion Antonescu; because of his ill health, he was put under home arrest. He died at home on 21 May 1946. A month after his death, the People's Court of Bucharest ordered the closure of the Şteflea file. AsiiRomani.ro, Biography of Ilie Șteflea