Bandera County, Texas
Bandera County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population is 20,485, its county seat is Bandera. The county was formed in 1856 from Uvalde counties; the county and its seat are named for Bandera Pass. Bandera County is part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is recognized as the "Cowboy Capital of the World" by the Texas Legislature. 8000 to 4000 BC Earliest human habitation. In the 17th century Native Americans settled including Lipan Apache and Comanche. 1841 or 1843 – Battle of Bandera Pass, John Coffee Hays and a troupe of Texas Rangers defeat a large party of Comanche warriors. 1853 John James and Charles S. DeMontel plan the town of Bandera. A. M. Milstead, Thomas Odem, P. D. Saner, their families camp along the river and begin making cypress shingles. James and Company build a horse-powered sawmill and open a store. 1855 Sixteen Polish families arrive in Bandera to work in DeMontel's sawmill. August Klappenbach opens the first post office.
1856 The legislature marks off Bandera County from portions of Bexar County, the county is formally organized. 1860 Population 399, including 12 slaves. 1880 Sheep and Angora goats become more profitable for Bandera than farming. 1920 Cora and Ed Buck began beginning the tourist trade in Bandera. 1933 Frontier Times Museum opens to the public. 1979 Lost Maples State Natural Area opens to the public. 1982 Eighty-two percent of the land in the county is in ranches. 1984 Hill Country State Natural Area opens to the public. 2000 The Nature Conservancy purchases 1,400 acres of Love Creek Ranch from Baxter and Carol Adams, creating the Love Creek Preserve. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 798 square miles, of which 791 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. Kerr County Kendall County Bexar County Medina County Uvalde County Real County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,485 people residing in the county. 92.8% were White, 0.8% Native American, 0.5% Black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 3.8% of some other race and 1.8% of two or more races.
16.7% were Hispanic or Latino. 17.6 % were of 13.7 % English, 10.2 % Irish and 10.1 % American ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,645 people, 7,010 households, 5,061 families residing in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 9,503 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.02% White, 0.33% Black or African American, 0.90% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.55% from other races, 1.86% from two or more races. 13.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,010 households out of which 29.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.80% were married couples living together, 7.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.80% were non-families. 23.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 5.80% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 27.60% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,013, the median income for a family was $45,906. Males had a median income of $31,733 versus $24,451 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,635. About 7.70% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.20% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Bandera County: Bandera Independent School District Medina Independent School District Northside Independent School District Utopia Independent School District Bandera Lake Medina Shores Lakehills Bandera Falls Medina Pipe Creek Tarpley Vanderpool List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Bandera County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Bandera County Official website Bandera County Chamber of Commerce Bandera County Convention and Visitor Bureau Bandera County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Bandera County from the Texas Almanac Bandera County from the TXGenWeb Project Pioneer history of Bandera County: seventy-five years of intrepid history, published 1922, hosted by The Portal to Texas History
Coleman County, Texas
Coleman County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 8,895; the county seat is Coleman. The county was founded in 1858 and organized in 1864, it is named for Robert M. Coleman, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and soldier at the Battle of San Jacinto. Around 10,000 BC, indigenous peoples of the Americas were the first inhabitants. Inhabitants included the Jumano, Lipan Apache, Comanche. In 1632, Father Salas led an expedition to the upper Colorado River. In 1650, Captains Hernán Martín and Diego del Castillo explored the western portion of the county to the Concho River, returned with pearls. Diego de Guadalajara followed the same path as Martín and Castillo in 1654. From 1683–84, Juan Domínguez de Mendoza established a short-lived Quicuchabe mission. In 1855, the county's oldest community, was founded as a trading post for the ranching activities of John Chisum. Coleman County was formed from Brown and Travis Counties in 1858; the county is named for Robert M. Coleman, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence.1861 Rich Coffey settles the communities of Leaday and Voss.
In 1876, the site was chosen for the county seat. The community of Santa Anna was established in 1879, it is named after the Santa Anna Mountains. In 1886 the Santa Fe Railway completed a spur to Coleman from nearby Coleman Junction. In 1908, the first oil well came in near Trickham. In 1914 the Santa Fe completed the Coleman Cutoff between Coleman and Clovis; this put Coleman on the road's main line. Coleman's distinctive brick-and-stucco Santa Fe depot was completed in 1915. Oil was discovered north of Coleman on the J. P. Morris ranch in 1917; the Coleman County Medical Center opened in 1923. By 1925, tenant farmers comprised 63% of local agriculture. In 1930, the Coleman County population peaked at 23,669; the Coleman County oilfields produce over a million barrels in 1948. In 2000, Wind Clean Corporation, harnessing energy from wind power, was founded. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,281 square miles, of which 1,262 square miles is land and 19 square miles is covered by water.
U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 283 State Highway 153 State Highway 206 Callahan County Brown County McCulloch County Concho County Runnels County Taylor County As of the census of 2000, 9,235 people, 3,889 households, 2,609 families resided in the county; the population density was 7 people per square mile. The 5,248 housing units averaged 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.53% White, 2.19% African American, 0.62% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 6.53% from other races, 1.91% from two or more races. About 14% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 3,889 households, 27.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.80% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were not families. The average household size was 2.33, the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was distributed as 23.60% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 22.70% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 23.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,658, for a family was $31,168. Males had a median income of $25,993 versus $17,378 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,911. About 15.50% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.40% of those under age 18 and 14.90% of those age 65 or over. These school districts serve Coleman County: Bangs ISD Coleman ISD Cross Plains ISD Panther Creek Consolidated ISD Santa Anna ISD Coleman Novice Santa Anna Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Coleman County Coleman County government's website Coleman County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Historic Coleman County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Burleson County, Texas
Burleson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,187, its county seat is Caldwell. The county is named for a general and statesman of the Texas Revolution. Burleson County is part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. From 1975 to 1995, the Burleson county judge, who presides over the commissioner's court, were the son and father team of Mark Steglich Caperton, a Caldwell attorney, Woods Allen Caperton. Mark Caperton was the judge from 1975 to 1983 and was succeeded by his father, a former agent of the United States Soil Conservation Service. Woods Caperton served seventeen years as a member of the Caldwell Independent School District and was a member too of the Burleson County Hospital District. During his time on each board, a new high school and hospital were begun. Woods Caperton was chairman of the Brazos Valley Development Council and the Brazos Valley Mental Health Mental Retardation Center, he founded the Caldwell Cub Scouts and was instrumental in the development of the Caldwell Little League.
Another son, Kent Caperton, served from 1981 to 1991 as the District 5 state senator. Kent Caperton of Bryan, is a lobbyist and lawyer in Austin. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 677 square miles, of which 659 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. State Highway 21 State Highway 36 Robertson County Brazos County Washington County Lee County Milam County As of the census of 2000, there were 16,470 people, 6,363 households, 4,574 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 8,197 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.07% White, 15.06% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 8.25% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. 14.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.8% were of German, 11.3% American, 10.7% Czech and 6.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 6,363 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.40% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families.
24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,026, the median income for a family was $39,385. Males had a median income of $28,795 versus $20,146 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,616. About 13.20% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.90% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. Caldwell Snook Somerville National Register of Historic Places listings in Burleson County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Burleson County Burleson County official website Burleson County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas.
History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Bastrop, Travis and Burleson counties, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Gonzales County, Texas
Gonzales County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 19,807; the county is named for the city of Gonzales. The county was organized the following year. Paleo-Indians Hunter-gatherers were here thousands of years ago; the historic Comanche and Waco tribes migrated into the area and competed most with European American settlers of the nineteenth century. 1519–1685 Hernando Cortez and Alonso Álvarez de Pineda claim Texas for Spain. 1685–1690 France plants its flag on Texas soil, but departs after only five years. 1821 Mexico won its independence from Spain. Citizens of the United States were granted Mexican citizenship. 1825Green DeWitt's petition for a land grant to establish a colony in Texas is approved by the Mexican government. Gonzales is established and named for Rafael Gonzales, governor of Coahuila y Tejas.1828 When Jean Louis Berlandier visits, he finds settler cabins, a fort-like barricade and livestock, as well as nearby villages of Tonkawa and Karankawa.
1829, September 15 – Mexican President Vicente Ramon Guerrero, a former slave of Spanish and Native American descent, emancipates all slaves within the Republic of Mexico: 1st – Slavery is abolished in Mexico. 2nd – Consequently, those who have been until now considered slaves are free. 3rd – When the circumstances of the treasury may permit, the owners of the slaves will be indemnified in the mode that the laws may provide. And in order that every part of this decree may be complied with, let it be printed and circulated. Given at the Federal Palace of Mexico, the 15th of September, 1829. Vicente Guerrero To José María Bocanegra 1831 The Coahuila y Tejas government sends a six-pound cannon to Gonzales for settlers' protection against Indian raids. 1835The colony sends delegates to conventions to discuss disagreements with Mexico. September – The Mexican government views the conventions as treason. Troops are sent to Gonzales to retrieve the cannon. October 2 – The Battle of Gonzales becomes the first shots fired in the Texas Revolution.
The colonists put up armed resistance, with the cannon pointed at the Mexican troops, above it a banner proclaiming, "Come and take it". Commemoration of the event becomes the annual "Come and Take It Festival". October 13 – December 9 – Siege of Bexar becomes the first major campaign of the Texas Revolution.1836Gonzales County is established. February 23 – Alamo messenger Launcelot Smithers carries to the people of Gonzales, the Colonel William Barret Travis letter stating the enemy is in sight and requesting men and provisions. February 24 – Captain Albert Martin delivers to Smithers in Gonzales the infamous "Victory or Death" Travis letter addressed "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World" stating the direness of the situation. Smithers takes the letter to San Felipe, site of the provisional Texas government. February 27 – The Gonzales Alamo Relief Force of 32 men, led by Lieutenant George C. Kimble, depart to join the 130 fighters at the Alamo. March 1 – The Gonzales "Immortal 32" make their way inside the Alamo.
March 2 – Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico establishes the Republic of Texas. March 6 – The Alamo falls. March 13–14 – Susanna Dickinson, the widow of the Alamo defender Almaron Dickinson, arrives in Gonzales with her daughter Angelina and Colonel Travis' slave Joe. Upon hearing the news of the Alamo, Sam Houston orders the town of Gonzales torched to the ground, establishes his headquarters under a county oak tree. April 21–22 – Battle of San Jacinto, Antonio López de Santa Anna captured. May 14 – Santa Anna signs the Treaties of Velasco.1838 Gonzales men found the town of Walnut Springs in the northwest section of the county. 1840 Gonzales men join the Battle of Plum Creek against his Comanches. 1845, December 29 – Texas Annexation by the United States 1846, May 13 – The United States Congress declares war on Mexico. 1848, February 2 – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican–American War. 1850 Gonzales College is founded by slave-owning planters, is the first institution in Texas to confer A.
B. degrees on women. 1853 The Gonzales Inquirer begins publication. 1860 County population is 8,059, including 3,168 slaves. 1861County votes 802–80 in favor of secession from the Union. February 1 – Texas secedes from the Union March 2 – Texas joins the Confederate States of America1863January 1 – Abraham Loncoln announces the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in Confederate held territory to be free. December – The Confederacy commissions Fort Waul, constructs it with slave labor.1865The main Confederate armies east of the Mississippi surrender in April ending the American Civil War. The Confederate military forces in Texas follow suit in May, as the units either surrender or disband; the soldiers return to their homes. June 19 – Major General Gordon Granger arrives in Galveston to enforce the emancipation of all slaves, it is the first time. The date becomes celebrated annually in Texas as Juneteenth, as an official state holiday known as Emancipation Day. December 6 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits slavery.1866–1876 The Sutton–Taylor feud, which involves outlaw John Wesley Hardin, is the bloodiest and longest in Texas history.
Hardin's men are known to have stayed in the community of Pilgrim. 1870, March 30 – The United States Congress readmits Te
Bastrop County, Texas
Bastrop County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 74,171, its county seat is Bastrop. The county was created in 1834 as a municipality of Mexico and organized as a county in 1837, it is named for Felipe Enrique Neri, Baron de Bastrop, an early Dutch settler who helped Stephen F. Austin obtain land grants in Texas. Bastrop County is included in TX metropolitan statistical area. In September 2011, Bastrop County suffered the most destructive wildfire in Texas history, which destroyed over 1,600 homes. From January 8, 1836 to December 13, 1837, the Municipality and County of Mina consisted of parts of present-day Mason, Llano, Williamson, Blanco, Hays, Caldwell, Lee, Fayette and Lavaca counties. On December 14, 1837, the Second Congress of the Republic of Texas passed legislation changing the geographical limits, creating Fayette County, removing Gonzales and Caldwell Counties from the boundaries and, five months added parts of Kimble and Comal Counties.
On December 18, 1837, Sam Houston signed an act incorporating the town of Mina and, on the same day, changing the name of the county and town of Mina to Bastrop. May 24, 1838 to January 24, 1840, shows the borders of Bastrop County to contain parts of present-day Blanco, Williamson, Hays, Caldwell, Lee and Fayette counties. From January 25, 1840 to January 25, 1850 the border changed to its present size with a small portion of Lee, Caldwell and Fayette counties included. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 896 square miles, of which 888 square miles is land and 7.4 square miles is water. Williamson County Lee County Fayette County Caldwell County Travis County As of the census of 2000, there were 57,733 people, 20,097 households, 14,771 families residing in the county; the population density was 65 people per square mile. There were 22,254 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.24% White, 8.79% Black or African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 7.60% from other races, 2.15% from two or more races.
23.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,097 households out of which 35.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.50% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 21.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.23. As of the 2010 census, there were about 7.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 10.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 105.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,578, the median income for a family was $49,456. Males had a median income of $32,843 versus $25,536 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $18,146. About 8.40% of families and 11.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. Bastrop County has several societies and associations dedicated to preserving historical information and sites; the following school districts serve Bastrop County: Bastrop Independent School District Elgin Independent School District McDade Independent School District Smithville Independent School District As of 2010 Central Texas Airport is under development in Bastrop County. U. S. Highway 290 State Highway 21 State Highway 71 State Highway 95 State Highway 304 Bastrop State Park Buescher State Park Bastrop Elgin Mustang Ridge Smithville Camp Swift Circle D-KC Estates McDade Wyldwood Several Hollywood feature films and notable independent films have used locations in Bastrop County. List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Bastrop County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Bastrop County Bastrop County website Bastrop County from the Handbook of Texas Online Bastrop County from the Texas Almanac Bastrop County from the TXGenWeb Project Bastrop County Sheriff's Office
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes