Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
Ferrari 330 TRI/LM
The Ferrari 330 TRI/LM Spyder is a unique racing sports car purpose-built in 1962 by Ferrari to achieve victory at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. It was the last Ferrari racing sports car with a front-mounted engine and the last of a series of Ferrari race cars known as the Testa Rossas; the "I" in its designation indicates. Beginning in 1960 as a 250 TRI/60 Fantuzzi Spyder, the car was badly damaged in a crash during a practice session for the 1960 Targa Florio road race, it was rebuilt, failing to finish at the 1960 24 Hours of Le Mans finishing second at the 1961 12 Hours of Sebring, before being damaged again in its second Targa Florio outing. After finishing second at the 1961 Nürburgring 1000km and 1961 24 Hours of Le Mans, it won at the 1961 Pescara 4 Hours. Following Pescara, regulatory changes allowed Ferrari to rebuild 0780TR into its final form as the 330 TRI/LM, with a larger 4.0 liter V12 engine and a new body. The 330 TRI/LM won the 1962 24 Hours of the last front-engine car to win the race.
It was sold to Luigi Chinetti's NART, competing in North America with some success before returning to the 1963 24 Hours of Le Mans. The car was running in third place into the night against newer, factory-mid-engine Ferrari prototypes when it crashed and dropped out of the race; the 330 TRI/LM's racing career ended after the 1963 24 Hours of Le Mans and it was subsequently repaired and rebuilt as a road car. Since it has been owned by several different collectors and restored back to 1962 specification; the car most sold to Gregorio Pérez Companc, who paid €7,000,000 in 2007. The Testa Rossa family began in 1956 with a customer request for a two-liter, four-cylinder sports car capable of defeating arch-rival Maserati's 200 S; this resulted in the creation of the 500 TR, a two-seater spider with engine and suspension based on the Tipo 500 Formula Two car. The 500 TR first raced at the 1956 1000 km Monza, where Peter Collins and Mike Hawthorn took it to its maiden win, with 500 TRs placing 2nd and 4th.
The unlimited-displacement class of the World Sportscar Championship was ended in response to the accident at the 1957 Mille Miglia, as the ruling bodies of motor racing attempted to make racing safer by reducing engine power and thus overall speed. The World Sportscar Championship imposed a three-liter displacement limit, which Ferrari supported to accommodate American racer-customers. In response, Ferrari developed the 1957 250 TR, based on the 500 TR chassis but now powered by a tuned version of the 250 series Colombo-designed V12; the 250 TR achieved great racing success from 1957 though 1961, although by the end of the 1961 season the 3 liter engine and front-engine, rear-wheel-drive chassis were showing their age. The 330 TRI/LM was the final development of the Testa Rossa platform, before mid-engined cars such as the 250 P took over this racing category; the car was built as a Fantuzzi-bodied 250 TRI60, leaving the factory in March 1960. The car debuted with Scuderia Ferrari at the 1960 Targa Florio, where it was badly damaged by Cliff Allison during a practice session following a tire blowout.
The car was rebuilt with parts from a wrecked 250 TR59/60 and subsequently raced at the 1960 24 Hours of Le Mans. Driven by Willy Mairesse and Richie Ginther, it retired with a broken driveshaft in the Sunday morning; the car returned to the factory to be modified with a TRI61-style high rear body with Kamm tail, retaining its 250 TRI/60 front end. In this form the car was used as an aerodynamic test bed by Carlo Chiti and Giotto Bizzarrini to develop the new 1961 TRI61 body, it returned to racing in the 1961 season for the 12 Hours of Sebring, driven by Giancarlo Baghetti, Mairesse and Wolfgang von Trips, finishing second overall behind teammates Phil Hill and Olivier Gendebien. At the Targa Florio it was team's sole front-engine entry, with Mairesse and Pedro Rodríguez driving, they retired. 0780TR returned to the factory for repairs and modification of its nose to TRI/61 style. This was completed in time for the car to be run by the factory-supported North American Racing Team in the 1961 1000 km Nürburgring.
Driven by Pedro Rodríguez and his younger brother Ricardo, the car finished second behind the Maserati Tipo 61 of Lloyd Casner and Masten Gregory. The Rodriguez brothers had to pit late in the race after destroying a front wheel, eliminating any chance of a win; the car was entered by Scuderia Ferrari in the 1961 24 Hours of Le Mans, driven by Mairesse and Mike Parkes. After a poor start, they finished second, again behind Gendebien, they ran third for much of the race, achieving second when the Rodríguez brothers' 250 TRI61 retired with broken pistons with two hours to go. In the season-ending Pescara 4 Hours 0780TR was driven to victory by Scuderia Ferrari's Lorenzo Bandini and Giorgio Scarlatti, despite an oil leak that saw Bandini fall back to 27th. From this position, he regained second place with his rapid pace and won when the leading Camoradi Maserati Tipo 61 retired. Ferrari had dominated sports-car racing since 1958, with three World Sportscar Championships and three 24 Hours of Le Mans victories in four attempts.
In 1962, the CSI and ACO restructured their rules and classifications to emphasize GT cars and make the three-litre sports-racing class obsolete. The displacement limit for GT cars and the new experimental class was raised to four litres. At this time, Ferrari replaced its sports racers with mid-engine designs and V6s or V8s and decided to rebuild chassis 0780TR as the 330 TRI/LM for th
The Ferrari 250 is a series of sports cars and grand tourers built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The company's most successful early line, the 250 series includes many variants designed for road use or sports car racing. 250 series cars are characterized by their use of a 3.0 litres Colombo V12 engine designed by Giaoccino Colombo. They were replaced by the 330 series cars. Most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases, 2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type. Nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its light weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa and GTO; the V12 weighed hundreds of pounds less than its chief competitors — for example, it was nearly half the weight of the Jaguar XK straight-6. Ferrari uses the displacement of a single cylinder as the model designation; the light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories. Typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years.
The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco and Alfonso Rolfo. The Mercedes-Benz W194 racers of Rudolf Caracciola, Hermann Lang, Karl Kling were faster on the long straights but the 230 PS Ferrari made up sufficient ground in the hills and curves to win the race; the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana. The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a "Tuboscocca" tubular trellis frame. Suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear; the car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period. The dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Ferrari showed a more conventional chassis for the new 250 engine at the 1952 Paris Motor Show. Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show.
Carrozzeria Vignale's open barchetta version was an innovative design whose recessed headlights and side vents became a Ferrari staple for the 1950s. The 250 MM's wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, with the coupé 50 kg heavier than the 850 kg barchetta; the V12 engine's dry sump was omitted from the production car, the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS; the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MM's race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto. A Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia; the 1954 250 Monza was an unusual hybrid of the 250 line. The model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza; the first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of a one-off 500 Mondial. Two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder. Although a frequent entrant through 1956, the 250 Monzas failed to gain much success and the union of the Monza chassis and 250 engine was not pursued beyond this model.
The racing 250 Testa Rossa was one of the most successful Ferrari racing cars in its history, with three wins at Le Mans, four wins at Sebring, two wins at Buenos Aires. One example sold at auction for a record-breaking $16.39 million. The 250 GTO was produced from 1962 to 1964 for homologation into the FIA's Group 3 Grand Touring Car category. GTO stands for "Gran Turismo Omologato", Italian for "Homologated Grand Tourer"; when new, the GTO sold for $18,500 in the United States, buyers had to be approved by Enzo Ferrari and his dealer for North America, Luigi Chinetti. In May 2012, the 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO chassis number 3505GT sold by an auction for US$38,115,000. In October 2013, the 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO chassis number 5111GT sold by Connecticut-based collector Paul Pappalardo to an unnamed buyer in a private transaction for US$52 million. Thirty-six cars were made in 1962 and 1963. In 1964 the Series II was introduced. Three such cars were made, four older Series I cars were given a Series II body.
It brought the total number of GTOs produced to 39. In 2004, Sports Car International placed the 250 GTO eighth on a list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, nominated it the top sports car of all time. Motor Trend Classic placed it first on a list of the "Greatest Ferraris of all time"; the 250 P was a prototype racer produced in 1963, winning that year's 12 Hours of Sebring, 1000 km Nürburgring and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The 250 P used an engine derived from the 250 Testa Rossa, mounted in a rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive configuration; the mid-engined 250 Le Mans looked much the prototype racer but was intended for production as a road-going GT. Descended from the 250 P, the Le Mans appeared in 1963 and sported Pininfarina bodywork. Ferrari was unable to persuade the FIA that he would build the 100 examples required to homologate the car for GT racing. 32 LMs were built up to 1965. As a result, Ferrari withdrew from factory participation in the GT class of the 1965 World Sportscar Championship, allowing the Shelby Cobra team to dominate.
A 250LM, competing in the Prototype category, won the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans. Only the early LM's were true 25
Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa
The Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa, or 250 TR, is a racing sports car built by Ferrari from 1957 to 1961. It was introduced at the end of the 1957 racing season in response to rule changes that enforced a maximum engine displacement of 3 liters for the 24 Hours of Le Mans and World Sports Car Championship races; the 250 TR was related to earlier Ferrari sports cars, sharing many key components with other 250 models and the 500 TR. The 250 TR achieved many racing successes, with variations winning 10 World Sports Car Championship races including the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1958, 1960, 1961, the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1958, 1959 and 1961, the Targa Florio in 1958, the 1000 Km Buenos Aires in 1958 and 1960 and the Pescara 4 Hours in 1961; these results led to World Sports Car Championship constructor's titles for Ferrari in 1958, 1960 and 1961. The 250 Testa Rossa was developed to compete in the 1957 World Sports Car Championship racing season, in response to rule changes planned for the upcoming 1958 season that would enforce a maximum engine displacement of 3 liters.
The objective was to improve on the existing 4-cylinder 2.0L 500 TR/500 TRC Testa Rossa by integrating the more powerful Colombo-designed 3.0L V12 as used in 250 GT series. Along with the new engine, Ferrari improved bodywork; as with other Ferrari racing cars, Enzo Ferrari demanded absolute reliability from all components, resulting in a somewhat conservative design approach that aimed for endurance racing success through durability rather than overall speed. Carlo Chiti was the chief designer during 250 TR development and his continual experimentation counterbalanced Mr. Ferrari's conservatism and led to the many revisions that kept the car competitive through 1962. Other Ferrari engineers had major contributions to the 250 TR, notably Giotto Bizzarrini, who helped with aerodynamic improvements for the 1961 season, Andrea Fraschetti, who helped developed the first 250 TR prototype before his 1957 death during a test drive; the 250 TR was raced and continually developed by Scuderia Ferrari from 1957 through 1962.
In total, 33 250 TRs of all types were built between 1957 and 1962. Included in this total are 19 "customer versions" of the 250 TR sold to independent racing teams, replacing the 500 TRC for this market. All customer cars had left hand live rear axles, they did not benefit from the continual improvements to Scuderia Ferrari cars, although many independent teams modified their 250 TRs or purchased ex-Scuderia Ferrari cars in order to stay competitive. The 250 Testa Rossa engine was based on Colombo-designed 3.0L V12 used in 250 GT road and racing cars. Carlo Chiti and other Ferrari engineers made several modifications to increase the performance of this proven engine; the starting point was a 1953-style cylinder block with an overall capacity of 2953 cc, a 73mm bore and 58.8 mm stroke. Six two-barrel Weber 38 DCN carburetors fed the engine, increased from the 3 carburetors typical for 250 GT engines; the cylinder heads used single overhead cams, 2 valves per cylinder and helical double-coil valve springs.
The helical valve springs were much smaller than used torsion springs, allowing the cylinder heads to be strengthened and secured with 24 studs rather than 18 in previous 250 engines. This increased the overall reliability of the engine by improving head gasket sealing. One spark plug was used per cylinder and the position was changed from earlier 250 designs, now located outside the engine vee between exhaust ports; this allowed for a more efficient combustion. Piston connecting rods were now machined from steel billet, rather than forged, which resulted in more stress-resistance at higher RPMs; the cam covers were painted bright red, the source of the name "Testa Rossa". This tradition and name originated with the 500 TR; the resulting engine was generated 300 hp at 7000 rpm. The power/displacement ratio of 100 hp/liter was a particular point of pride for Ferrari, as it demonstrated how Ferrari's engineering prowess could create a competitive engine under rules restricting displacement; the engineering team improved a well understood, proven design by incorporating new technology and strengthening known weak points.
They created a massive benefit in endurance racing. Other Ferrari racing cars achieved racing success with the same basic engine well into the 1960s, years after the 250 TR chassis was obsolete. 1957-1958 250 TRs used a 4-speed transmission, followed by a 5-speed transmission in 1959. Customer cars were equipped with a 250 GT-style transmission positioned directly behind the engine, while Scuderia Ferrari team cars sometimes used rear-mounted transaxles for better weight distribution; the 250 Testa Rossa used a tubular steel spaceframe chassis, similar to that used in the 500 TR. Compared to the 500 TR, the wheelbase was extended by 10 cm to 2.35 meters. The chassis gained a reputation for durability, as it was designed according to Enzo Ferrari's desire for absolute reliability at the expense of excess weight. All 250 TRs used independent front suspension with coil springs. All customer cars had live rear axles. Pre-1960 factory team cars used either live or de Dion rear axles while the 1960 250 TRI60 and 1961 250 TRI61 used independent rear suspension.1957 and 1958 250 TRs were equipped with drum brakes on all four wheels.
Enzo Ferrari insisted on the use of drum brakes in the early 250 TRs as he believed they were more reliable and predictable in how they faded compared to more powerful but new disc brakes. Drum brakes were unpopular with drivers as they required tremendous physical exertion to operate, due to
Ferrari 212 Inter
The Ferrari 212 Inter replaced Ferrari's successful 166 and 195 Inter grand tourers in 1951. Unveiled at the Brussels Motor Show that year, the 212 was an evolution of the 166 — a sports car for the road that could win international races; the chassis was similar to the 125 with a suspension featuring double wishbones in front and live axle in back. Coachbuilders included Carrozzeria Touring, Ghia-Aigle, Stabilimenti Farina, now Pinin Farina; the latter was an important move for the company, as Farina was well-known and adding his styling skills would be a tremendous boost for Maranello. However, Pinin Farina was as prideful as Enzo Ferrari, neither would go to the other to request business up to this point. A mutual meeting halfway between Maranello and Turin was the negotiated solution. First Ferrari to be bodied by Pinin Farina was 212 Inter Cabriolet, chassis no. 0177E. The Inter's 2,600 mm wheelbase was 4" longer than the 2,500 mm Export's; the cars shared a larger, bored-out 2.6 L version of Ferrari's Colombo V12 engine.
Output was 150 hp for 165 hp for the triple Weber Export. Improved cylinder heads raised power 5 hp in 1952; the British magazine Autocar got hold of what they described as the first production model Ferrari 212 in 1950, which outperformed any car that they had tested. It recorded a top speed of over 116 mph and acceleration times of 0 to 60 mph of 10.5 seconds and 100 mph in 22.5 seconds. The test appears to have been the Autocar team's first encounter with a five speed gear box. A single 212 Inter, chassis no. 0223EL2, was fitted with the available "225" or 2.7 L Colombo V12, creating a unique model that would be properly referred to as a 225 Inter. This one-off model was given a Giovanni Michelotti penned berlinetta body built by Vignale. Another 212 Inter, chassis number 0253EU received the 2.7 liter three-carburetor V12, was bodied as the last Barchetta by Carrozzeria Touring in their Superleggera construction method. It was acquired by Ford Motor Company for Henry Ford II for study in the research leading to the development of Ford's competitor to the Corvette, the Thunderbird.
The car is in the collection of the Petersen Automotive Museum in Los Angeles, CA
Ferrari 195 Inter
See the 195 S sports racerThe 195 Inter is a sportscar produced by Ferrari in 1950 as a grand tourer version of the Ferrari 195 S racer. Introduced at the 1950 Paris Motor Show, it was similar to the 166 Inter shown a year earlier and was aimed at the same affluent clientele. 27 were built in less than a year. Out of the 27 cars, 12 were bodied by Carrozzeria Vignale, 11 by Carrozzeria Ghia, 3 by Carrozzeria Touring and 1 by Motto; the more-potent Ferrari 212 Inter was introduced at the 1951 Paris Motor Show and replaced the 195 Inter. Like the last of the 166 Inters, the wheelbase was stretched by 80 mm to 2,500 mm, but the larger 2.3 L version of the Colombo V12 was the true differentiator. The engine increase was accomplished by pushing the bore from 60 to 65 mm, retaining the 58.8 mm stroke. A single Weber 36DCF carburettor was fitted, for a total output of 130 hp though some used triple carbs
The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta and race car versions between 1963 and 1968. The first, the 2+2 330 America, was a 250 GT/E with a larger 3.3 litre engine. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series. All 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamerica's 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was changed, with wider bore spacing and an alternator replacing a generator; the 1963 330 America shared the outgoing 250 GTE's chassis but not its engine, being powered by the new 4.0 L Tipo 209 V12, with 300 hp at 6600 rpm. As for the 250-series, "330" refers to the approximate displacement of each single cylinder. Like the 250 GTE the 330 America fitted 185VR15 Pirelli Cinturato tyres About 50 330 Americas were built before being replaced by the larger 330 GT 2+2; the provisional 330 America was replaced in January 1964 by the new 330 GT 2+2. It was first shown at the Brussels Show, early that year.
It was much more than a re-engined 250, with a sharper nose and tail, quad headlights, a wide grille. The wheelbase was 50 mm longer. A dual-circuit Dunlop braking system was used with discs all around, though it separated brakes front to back rather than diagonally as on modern systems; when leaving the factory the 330 GT fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres. The 1965 Series II version featured a five-speed gearbox instead of the overdrive four-speed of the prior year. Other changes included the switch back to a dual-light instead of quad-light front, alloy wheels, the addition of optional air conditioning and power steering. Prior to the introduction of the'Series II' 330 GTs, a series of 125'interim' cars were produced, with the quad-headlight external configuration of the Series I cars, but with the five-speed transmission and'suspended' foot pedals of the'Series II' cars. 625 Series I and 455 Series II 330 GT 2+2 cars had been built when the car was replaced by the 365 GT 2+2 in 1967. Production of the smaller 330 GTC and GTS models overlapped with the GT 2+2 for more than a year.
The 330 GTC and 330 GTS were more like their 275 counterparts than the 330 GT 2+2. They shared the short wheelbase of the 275 as well as its independent rear suspension & the same tyres 205VR14 Michelin XWX; these models were more refined than earlier Ferraris and easier to drive. It has been stated that this "was the first Ferrari in which you could enjoy a radio"; the GTC berlinetta was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March, 1966. It was a two-seater coupé with a Pininfarina-designed body. A 1967 GTC was given one-off bodywork by Zagato at the behest of American importer Luigi Chinetti in 1974; this car was called the "Zagato Convertibile". The GTS spider followed at the Paris Motor Show. About 600 coupés and 100 spiders were produced before the 1968 introduction of the 365 GTC and GTS. In the early 1970s, Ferrari allowed Swiss specialist Felber to use the Ferrari name on a retro roadster using 330 GTC underpinnings. Six or seven examples of the Felber FF were built between 1974 and 1977, with hand-made aluminium bodywork by Panther Westwinds, who helped develop the car.
Four 330 LMB GT racing cars were built in 1963. This model is known as the 330 LM. First presented in March 1963 alongside the mid-engined 250 P, they were a development of the 250 GTOs and fitted with the 4-litre 330 engine, here rated at 390 hp at 7,500 rpm. Although the front is visually similar to the 250 GTOs, the main structure came from the 250 Lusso; the four 330 LMBs are distinct from the three 1962 330 GTOs. The wheelbase, at 2,420 mm, was 20 mm longer than either the Lusso's or the GTO's; the raised plates on the top of the rear fenders were necessary to clear the rear tires. The 330 LMB did not see much racing, as Ferrari was moving over to the mid-engined layout for racing. One retired at Sebring 1963, while of three starters at Le Mans that year, two retired and the car of Jack Sears and Mike Salmon came in fifth. After this, the LMB saw no more works entries. Four models of mid-engined racing cars used the 330 engine and name as well — the 330 P/P2/P3/P4 range of the mid 1960s; the 330 P4 had 450 hp at 8000 rpm, which combined with its low weight of 792 kg resulted in a top speed of 320 km/h.
Eaton, the Editors of Consumer Guide, eds. Ferrari: The Sports/Racing and Road Cars, New York, NY: Beekman House, ISBN 0-517-381982CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Eaton, The Complete Ferrari, London: Cadogan Books, pp. 92f. 131–135, 140–150, 163/164, 353f. ISBN 0-947754-10-5 330 GT Registry