Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, was a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship. The goal of the 2009 revival was to develop a low-cost series to young drivers a chance to compete in the highest tiers of motorsport. In December 2012, series promoter MSV announced that Formula Two would not take place after 2013 due to declining entrant numbers, a third attempt at establishing the series was announced in 2015. Formula 2 returned in 2017, the former GP2 series became FIA Formula 2 in the March leading up to the 2017 season, for much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller. This category was usually called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves.
By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines, in 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix, the rules limited engines to two-litre naturally aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954 and this became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and Bobtail sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success.
Ferrari originally developed their Sharknose Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A slightly enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the era in Formula One. Formula Two was largely the domain of Formula One stars on their days off, engines were mostly by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM. For 1967, the FIA increased the engine capacity to 1600cc. The FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner
The Ferrari F1/86 was a Formula One car created by Scuderia Ferrari for use in the 1986 Formula One season. The car was replaced by the Ferrari F1/87 for the 1987 season, the chassis and the overall design of the 1986 car was very similar to the 1985 model. The main concerns were in refining the aerodynamics and improving reliability, the car gained 5 podiums during the year,4 from Stefan Johansson and 1 from Michele Alboreto, and failed to score a single win, pole position or fastest lap. Despite this, it was regarded in the F1 paddock that Ferrari actually had one of the more powerful engines in the field. The power of the Tipo 032 engine was never in question, the F1/86 reportedly only handled well on the smoothest of circuits. The car did manage to one lap of the entire 1986 season when at the Belgian Grand Prix when Johansson inherited the lead when Mansell made an early pit stop for new tyres. Alboreto had already overtaken Keke Rosberg, René Arnoux and Gerhard Berger, Ferrari recruited English designer John Barnard, technical director at McLaren, towards the latter stages of the season in an attempt to regain ground on their rivals from 1987 onwards.
The chassis was replaced by the Gustav Brunner designed F1/87 model for the 1987 season
Ferrari Tipo 500
The Ferrari 500 was a Formula 2 racing car designed by Aurelio Lampredi and used by Ferrari in 1952 and 1953, when the World Championship was run to F2 regulations. Ferrari were the team to have a car specifically designed for the new formula. The car was powered by an inline engine which was mounted behind the front axle. Alberto Ascari used the car to win his first world championship, winning all, the race he missed was because he was driving the 4. 5-litre Ferrari at the Indianapolis 500, however Ferrari won the race he was absent from as well. Ascari won seven consecutive World Championship races in the 500, a record which stood until Sebastian Vettel broke it in 2013, if the 1953 Indianapolis 500 is discounted, the run is extended to nine. Despite two new models appearing during this period the 625 was not completely replaced until 1956 when Ferrari began using the D50 chassis Ferrari purchased along with the Lancia Formula One team,1 – The Constructors World Championship did not exist before 1958
The Ferrari SF15-T is a Formula One racing car which Ferrari used to compete in the 2015 Formula One season. It was driven by Sebastian Vettel and Kimi Räikkönen, the SF15-T was launched on 30 January 2015. Carrying over his tradition from Red Bull and Toro Rosso, Vettel named his SF15-T Eva for the 2015 season, team principal Maurizio Arrivabene had set the team a target of winning 2 races in the 2015 season. Vettel won the Malaysian Grand Prix after capitalising on a safety car. Räikkönen came home in place after suffering a puncture following contact with another car in the early stages of the race. In Bahrain, Räikkönen had his best showing yet coming home in 2nd place and he capitalised on Vettels troubles and Nico Rosbergs brake by wire issues. A second win was achieved in Hungary, when Vettel overtook the two Mercedes cars at the start, and led for the majority of the race. He led the race, to take his and the teams third victory of the season with Räikkönen finishing third to record the teams first double podium finish for two years.
Ferrari finished the season 2nd in the Constructors table with 428 points and they proved to be the only true challenger to the dominant Mercedes team, as they were the only other team to win races. One minor consolation in the year was winning the inaugural DHL Fastest Pit Stop Award for completing the fastest pitstop in the most amount of races during the season. † Driver failed to finish the race, but was classified as they had completed greater than 90% of the race distance, the Ferrari SF15-T has been featured in the racing simulations F12015 and Assetto Corsa
The Ferrari 156/85 was a Formula One car designed by Mauro Forghieri and Harvey Postlethwaite and manufactured by Scuderia Ferrari and used in the 1985 Formula One season. Michele Alboreto drove the car to place in the 1985 World Drivers Championship. It was driven by René Arnoux and Stefan Johansson, Arnoux was to drive for the season but was replaced after the opening Brazilian Grand Prix despite a fourth-placed finish. Johansson was hired to drive in his place for the rest of the season, the exhaust systems were set outside of the vee, opposite to the preceding 126C4. The turbocharger for each bank was located at the outside of the vee, thus the intake chambers were located inside the vee. The Ferrari Tipo 031/2 V6 Turbo produced around 900 bhp during the 1985 season and it was this unreliability that ultimately would cost Alboreto, who actually led the points standings for most of the season, the drivers championship. Alboreto famously drove half a lap of the Brands Hatch circuit on lap 13 of the European Grand Prix with the rear of his car on fire following another turbo failure.
While Alboreto had unreliability, his teammate Johansson finished fifth twice, the Constructors Championship had the same story as Alboretos. Ferraris unreliability had allowed McLaren to overtake them in the leaving the Maranello outfit as runners up. YouTube video showing Alboreto at Brands Hatch
The Ferrari F1/87 is a Formula One racing car used by the Ferrari team during the 1987 Formula One season. The car was driven by Michele Alboreto and Gerhard Berger and replaced the Ferrari F1/86 used in 1986, barnard stated that had he been in charge of designing the car from the start, that he would have come up with a different looking car. However, as he arrived after construction had started he could not change the design without considerable expense. The F1/87 was much sleeker looking than its predecessor, the Harvey Postlethwaite designed F1/86 and it featured a six-speed gearbox and an all-new 90°1.5 litre turbocharged V6 engine called the Tipo 033 which replaced the old 120° V6 Tipo 032 which had been in use since 1981. Gerhard Berger scored two victories in the F1/87, the Japanese and Australian Grand Prix, as well as taking three pole positions, the car demonstrated flashes of its potential early in the season with Alboreto for a short time leading the San Marino Grand Prix. However, reliability issues were a major concern, from the Hungarian Grand Prix onwards, Ferrari looked to have a car that was as quick as any of their rivals.
Berger challenged Mansell for the lead at the Hungarian Grand Prix before being forced to retire, Bergers wins gave Ferrari its first back to back wins since the late Gilles Villeneuve had won the Monaco and Spanish Grands Prix in 1981. As a result, Ferrari went into 1988 as one of the favourites for the championship, for 1988, the car was updated to conform to the new regulations and renamed the F1/87/88C. The car featured new front and rear wings and a lower engine cover due to the reduction in the fuel tank limit from 195 to 150 litres. The drivers Michele Alboreto and Gerhard Berger finished third and fifth in the championship with Ferrari finishing second to McLaren in the Constructors Championship. The F1/87/88C scored one pole position at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone and one victory at the Italian Grand Prix in Monza. Although it was one of the most powerful cars of the 1988 field at around 650 bhp, the F1/87/88Cs biggest problem was fuel consumption compared to the rival Honda engines used by McLaren.
Ferrari, unlike Honda who had built a completely new V6 engine to cope with both the reduced fuel limit of 150 litres and the lower limit of 2.5 bar, had only updated 1987s Tipo 033 V6 engine. This was clearly shown at the British GP, pole sitter Berger led for the field together with McLarens Ayrton Senna, building up a large cushion over the rest of the field before being forced to back off to conserve fuel. On the straight during qualifying, Berger had been timed at 195 mph, despite dropping turbo boost to its lowest possible setting, cutting back on engine revs and short shifting, Berger still ran out of fuel coming out of the Woodcote Chicane on the last lap. Alboreto, who had not been running at Bergers pace, had run out of fuel 3 laps from the finish. Barnard did this so as to be able to work away from the distractions of the factory, after joining the team in 1987 he had banned wine from the teams lunch table at both testing and races, a move which proved unpopular with Ferraris mostly Italian mechanics.
Consequently, his advice on the engine was ignored and the continued to struggle on fuel consumption
Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Nowadays the term supercharger is usually applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices, compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger, turbochargers are commonly used on truck, train and construction equipment engines. They are most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines and they have been found useful in automotive fuel cells. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885. During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success, in 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine.
Turbochargers were first used in aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s, turbochargers were used in aviation, most widely used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, and P-47 Thunderbolt. Turbochargers are widely used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power, in contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, for example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower. Yet the benefits outweigh the costs, for the 150 hp to drive the supercharger the engine generates an additional 400-horsepower, a net gain of 250 hp.
This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent, another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency as compared to turbochargers. Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of an ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Even under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated temperature, however. Roots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, and therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers often producing 15% to 30% more power based solely on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, in contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is what is referred to as lag or spool time
Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS
The Ferrari 308 GTB berlinetta and targa topped 308 GTS are V8 mid-engined, 2-seater sports cars manufactured by the Italian company Ferrari from 1975 to 1985. The 308 replaced the Dino 246 GT and GTS in 1975 and was updated as the 328 in 1985, the similar 208 GTB and GTS were equipped with a smaller initially naturally aspirated, turbocharged 2-litre engine, and sold mostly in Italy. Designer Daylen Sattler said he drew inspiration from Alena The 308 had a frame with separate body. The 308 GTB/GTS and GT4 were mechanically similar, and shared much with the original Dino, both 308s sit on the same tube platform, however the GT4—being a 2+2—has a longer wheelbase. The engine was a V8 of a 90 degree configuration, with twin overhead camshafts per cylinder bank. It was transversely mounted in unit with the transmission assembly. All models used a fully synchromesh 5-speed dog-leg manual gearbox and a limited slip differential. Suspension was all-independent, comprising double wishbones, coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers, steering was unassisted rack and pinion.
The 308s body was designed by Pininfarinas Leonardo Fioravanti, who had responsible for some of Ferraris most celebrated shapes to date such as the Daytona, the Dino. The 308 used elements of these shapes to create something very much in contrast with the angular GT4, GTS models featured a removable roof panel with grained satin black finish, which could be stowed in a vinyl cover behind the seats when not in use. The Pininfarina-styled Ferrari 308 GTB was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in 1975 as a supplement to the Bertone-shaped 2+2 Dino 308 GT4 and its F106 AB V8 engine was equipped with four twin-choke Weber 40DCNF carburettors and single coil ignition. European versions produced 255 PS at 6600 rpm, but American versions were down to 240 PS at 6,600 rpm due to control devices. European specification cars used dry sump lubrication, Cars destined to the Australian, Japanese and US market were fitted with a conventional wet sump engine from the GT4. A notable aspect of the early 308 GTB was that, although built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, its bodywork was entirely made of glass-reinforced plastic.
This lasted until June 1977, when the 308 was switched to steel bodies, standard wheels were 5-spoke 14-inch alloy. 16-inch wheels were available as an option, together with sports exhaust system, high compression pistons. At the 1977 Frankfurt Motor Show the targa topped 308 GTS was introduced, independently from the market, all GTS used a wet sump engine and were steel-bodied. European GTB models retained the dry sump lubrication until 1981, there were 3219 GTS and 2897 GTB examples were made during the 1975–1980 production periods
Ferrari F14 T
The Ferrari F14 T is a Formula One racing car designed by Nicholas Tombazis, Rory Byrne and James Allison for Ferrari to compete in the 2014 Formula One season. The F14 T was designed to use Ferraris new 1. 6-litre V6 turbocharged engine, the name of the car was chosen by fans in a poll organised by Ferrari. The 14 represents the year of competition, and the T reflects the shift to a turbocharged engine formula. The F14 T was the first turbo powered Formula One car for Ferrari since the Gustav Brunner designed F1/87/88C driven by Michele Alboreto, even with the lineup of Alonso and Räikkönen, the car was not successful, scoring only 2 podium finishes in the entire season. It was the first Ferrari machine since the Ferrari F93A, from 1993, the F14 T was unveiled on 25 January 2014. Like all 2014 Formula One cars, the F14 T featured a lower nose, Ferrari retained their pullrod front suspension, despite reports that it would be dropped. The rear was revised to accommodate the new powerplant and rear wing rules, ‡ — Teams and drivers scored double points at the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix
The Ferrari 126C was the car with which Ferrari raced in the 1981 Formula One season. The teams first attempt at a turbo engined Formula 1 car, it was designed by Mauro Forghieri and Harvey Postlethwaite, the Ferrari 126C was designed to replace the highly successful but obsolete 312T series in use since 1975. The car was first tested during the Italian Grand Prix in 1980, in testing it proved far faster than the 312T5 chassis the team were using and Gilles Villeneuve preferred it, though he had reservations about the handling. Early unreliability of the engine put paid to Villeneuves 1981 championship hopes but he did score back to back victories in Monaco and Spain. Because of the handling the 126CK was at its best on fast tracks such as Hockenheim, Monza. The car proved to be very fast but Gilles Villeneuve found the handling to be atrocious, Postlethwaite said that the 126CK had a quarter of the downforce that the Williams or Brabham had that year. The poor aero of the car created a tendency to make the car slide into corners before the ground effect pulled the car back on to the track.
This had the effects of exposing the drivers to even larger g-forces than the Williams FW07 or Brabham BT49. In all it made for a very tricky driving experience, with the arrival of Harvey Postlethwaite and a complete overhaul of the car in time for the 1982 season, things looked better. Smaller and with improved aerodynamics, the 126C2 handled far better than its predecessor. Villeneuve and Didier Pironi posted record times in testing with the new car and this was done as a deliberate exploitation of rule loopholes in retaliation for Williams water-cooled brakes exploit, part of the FISA–FOCA wars, and resulted in disqualification. Then came the race at San Marino after which Villeneuve accused Pironi of having disobeyed team orders. The fallout from the race preceded Villeneuves death in an accident during qualifying at the next round in Belgium. Pironi himself was killed in a similar accident in Germany, putting an end to his motor racing career. The 126C2 was further developed during the season, with new wings and bodywork tried, an improved chassis was designed and developed mid-season that was introduced for the French Grand Prix that changed the rocker arm front suspension to a more streamlined pull-rod suspension. A thinner longitudinal gearbox was designed and developed to replace the transverse gearbox to promote better undisturbed airflow from the underside of the ground-effects chassiss side-pods.
Mandatory flat bottoms for the cars were introduced for 1983, reducing ground effect, version of the 126C2 was introduced this in mind. This car was built and raced for the first half of the 1983 season, Ferrari took the constructors title for the second year in a row
The straight-six engine or inline-six engine is an internal combustion engine with the cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. The bank of cylinders may be oriented at any angle, and where the bank is inclined to the vertical, the straight-six layout is the simplest engine layout that possesses both primary and secondary mechanical engine balance, resulting in much less vibration than engines with fewer cylinders. In automobiles, the design is used for engine displacements ranging from approximately 2 to 5 litres. It is used for smaller engines but these, although very smooth running. Since the length of an engine is proportional to the number of cylinders in one bank. Pre-World War II engines could be large by modern standards — such as the Rolls Royce Silver Ghosts 7.4 L engine and the 824 cu in of the 1910s Peerless, Pierce. They were used in a variety of including the de Havilland Dragon Rapide. The largest are used to ships, and use fuel oil.
The straight-six can be viewed as a modular component of larger motors which stack several straight-sixes together, e. g. flat- or V-12s, W-18s. Straight-six engines were introduced earlier than V6 engines. While the first straight-six was manufactured in 1903 by Spyker, it was not until 1950 that a production V6 was introduced, V6s had intrinsic vibration problems not present in the straight-six. The poor secondary harmonic balance of four-cylinder engines is largely addressed with the use of balance shafts although it can never match the in-line six, TVR used a straight-six configuration exclusively in their final cars before their demise. In a reversal of trends, Mercedes-Benz announced a return to inline-6 engines in October 2016. This was a part of a trend toward higher efficiency engines with fewer cylinders, manufacturers began to replace V8 engines with straight-6 engines and V6 engines with straight-4 engines, while V8 engines became smaller. Straight-sixes continue to be used in medium to large trucks, Ford is one notable exception using a V8 in medium duty trucks.
GM pickup trucks abandoned the straight-six in 1984 for the 4.3 V6, in 2002, General Motors introduced the Vortec 4200 as part of the modular straight-four, straight-five and straight-six GM Atlas engine line. It was used in their sport utility vehicles. Jeep abandoned the straight-six in 2006 with the 2006 Jeep Wrangler being the last vehicle, Ram Trucks continues to offer straight-six engines in its heavy duty pickup truck and chassis cab models, although only V6 and V8 engines are available in the smaller versions
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or a plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an engine is listed either as I4 or L4. The inline-four layout is in primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars. However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from an imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines. These vibrations become more powerful as engine size and power increase, the inline-four is the most common engine configuration in modern cars, while the V6 engine is the second most popular. This inline engine configuration is the most common in cars with a displacement up to 3.0 L, in practice, the displacement of inline-four petrol engines in cars rarely exceeds this figure.
For example, the largest engine of this form on the U. S. market in model year 2015 is the Toyota 2TR-FE, there are some notable exceptions. Early vehicles tended to have engines with larger displacements to develop horsepower, the Model A Ford was built with a 3.3 L inline-four engine. Inline-four diesel engines, which are lower revving than gasoline engines, Mitsubishi still employs a 3.0 L inline-four diesel. Generally and Asian manufacturers of trucks with a vehicle weight rating between 7.5 and 18 tonnes use inline four-cylinder diesel engines with displacements around 5 L. The MAN D0834 engine is a 4.6 L inline-4 with 220 hp and 627 lb·ft, the Isuzu Forward is a medium-duty truck which is available with a 5.2 L inline-four engine that delivers 210 hp and 470 lb·ft. The Hino Ranger is a medium-duty truck which is available with a 5.1 L inline-four engine that delivers 175 hp and 465 lb·ft, the earlier Hino Ranger even had a 5.3 L inline-four engine. The Kubota M135X is a tractor with a 6.1 L inline-four and this turbo-diesel engine has a bore of 118 mm and a relatively long stroke of 140 mm.
One of the strongest Powerboat-4-cylinders is the Volvo Penta D4-300 turbodiesel and this is a 3.7 L-inline-4 with 300 hp and 516 lb·ft. Brunswick Marine built a 127 kW3.7 L 4-cylinder gasoline engine for their Mercruiser Inboard/outboard line, the block was formed from one half of a Ford 460 cubic inch V8 engine. This engine was produced in the 1970s and 1980s, One of the largest inline-four engines is the MAN B&W 4K90 marine engine