Filip von Schantz
John Filip von Schantz, was a Finnish composer and musician. He left Helsinki in 1855 after being expelled from University of Helsinki, deciding to devote himself to music; the following year he began studies in violin and composition in Stockholm and continued them at Leipzig in Germany in 1857–1860. In 1860 he was employed as conductor at the Swedish Theatre in Helsinki; when the Swedish Theatre burned down in 1863 he began performing at Berns Salonger in Stockholm, Sweden. Schantz, 4. John von Filip of Nordisk familjebok
Erkki Melartin was a Finnish composer. He was a pupil of Martin Wegelius from 1892 to 1899 in Helsinki and of Robert Fuchs from 1899 to 1901 in Vienna; as well as composing, Melartin taught and directed music at the Helsinki Music College the Helsinki Conservatory. As conductor of the Vyborg Orchestra in 1908–11, despite chronic health problems, Melartin toured extensively, conducting the first performance of Gustav Mahler's music in Scandinavia, a movement of the Resurrection symphony in 1909 Although Melartin was chiefly a lyricist, the symphony was central to his musical output, he was the first Finnish composer to bear Mahler's influence. The fourth symphony uses a vocalise like that of Carl Nielsen's Sinfonia Espansiva; the fifth is a Sinfonia brevis ending in a fugue and chorale, while the sixth, harmonically more advanced than the other five, advances stepwise from a C minor first movement – with evocations of Mahler's second symphony – to an E-flat major finale. His musical output includes an opera, Aino, a violin concerto, four string quartets, many piano pieces.
His works therefore are divided into large-scale works for orchestra, chamber pieces for much smaller groups and soloists. Despite working in the same time period as Jean Sibelius he was not influenced by the more famous composer's style, his work has been overshadowed by that of Finland's most revered composer; the Juhlamarssi from his ballet Sleeping Beauty is the most popular wedding march in Finland. Aino, Opera in 2 acts, Op. 50 Sininen helmi, Ballet, Op. 160 Prinsessa Ruusunen, incidental music, Op. 22 Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 30 No. 1 Siikajoki, Symphonic Poem, Op. 28 Symphony No. 2 in E minor, Op. 30 No. 2 Prinsessa Ruusunen, Suite from incidental music, Op. 22 Symphony No. 3 in F major, Op. 40 / Score, preface in English Traumgesicht, Symphonic Poem, Op. 70 / Score, preface in English Patria, Symphonic Poem, Op. 72 Symphony No. 4 "Kesäsinfonia" in E major, Op. 80 / Score, preface in English Lyric Suite No. 3 "Impressions de Belgique", EM144 Symphony No. 5 "Sinfonia brevis" in A minor, Op. 90 / Score, preface in English Symphony No.
6, Op. 100 Divertimento, Op. 152 Intermezzo, Op. 147 Sininen helmi, Suite from the ballet, Op. 160 Symphony No. 7 "Sinfonia gaia", Op. 149 Symphony No. 8, Op. 186 Symphony No. 9, OP. 188 Concerto in D minor for violin and orchestra, Op. 60 String Quartet No. 1 in E minor, Op. 36 No. 1 Sonata for violin and piano String Quartet No. 2 in G minor, Op. 36 No. 2 String Quartet No. 3 in E♭, Op. 36 No. 3 String Quartet No. 4 in F, Op. 62 Nocturne for violin and piano, Op. 64 No. 1 Kuusi helppoa kappaletta for cello and piano, Op.121 String Trio, Op. 133 Sonata for flute and harp, Op. 135a Sonata for brass, Op. 153 Trio for flute and bassoon, Op. 154 Pieni kvartetto for four horns, Op. 185 Marionetteja, Suite for piano 4 hands, Op. 1 2 Ballads, Op. 5 Lastuja I, 6 pieces, Op. 7 3 Pieces, Op. 8 Lastuja II, 6 pieces, Op. 9 Skizzer, 5 Pieces, Op. 11 Legend II, Op. 12 Lastuja III, 5 pieces, Op. 34 Lastuja IV, 5 pieces, Op. 48 Surullinen puutarha, 5 Pieces, Op. 52 Lyric Pieces, Op. 59 4 Pieces, Op. 75 9 Little Pieces, Op. 76 Album Leaves, Op. 83 4 Sonatinas, Op. 84 24 Preludes, Op. 85 Noli me tangere, Op. 87 3 Pieces, Op. 98 Skuggspel, 7 Pieces, Op.104 Fantasia apocaliptica, Op. 111 6 Pieces, Op. 118 No. 2 The Mysterious Forest6 Pieces, Op. 123 3 Songs for voice and piano, Op. 13 Kansanlaulua Käkisalmelta, Op. 55 5 Songs for voice and piano, Op. 69 3 Songs for voice and piano, Op. 77 3 Songs for voice and piano, Op. 86 4 Songs for voice and piano, Op. 95 Pitkäranta, Inkeri: "Erkki Melartin Painter, Philosopher" Finnish Music Quarterly 1/2000 pp. 2–7.
Räihälä, Osmo Tapio. "Erkki Melartin, a Symphonic Composer of International Stature?". Finnish Music Quarterly. Helsinki: Performing Music Promotion Centre: 8–19. Retrieved 2008-08-20. Erkki Melartin Society Ondine Records Melartin Site Musical Finland in Brussels Free scores by Erkki Melartin at the International Music Score Library Project Song by Vilhelm Krag and Erkki Melartin Erkki Melartin on Victor Records O, Herre: 1918 recording by Eleonora Olson O, Herre: lyrics by Vilhelm Krag
Leevi Antti Madetoja was a Finnish composer, music critic and teacher of the late-Romantic and early-modern periods. He is considered to be among the most significant Finnish composers to emerge after Jean Sibelius, under whom he studied from 1908–10; the core of Madetoja's oeuvre consists of a set of three symphonies, arguably the finest early-twentieth century additions to the Finnish canon of any composer, Sibelius excepted. As central to Madetoja's legacy is his opera, The Ostrobothnians, dubbed Finland's "national opera" following its successful premiere and today, a stalwart of its repertoire. Madetoja's other notable works include an Elegia for strings. Acclaimed during his lifetime, Madetoja is today heard outside the Nordic countries, although his music has in recent decades enjoyed an apparent renaissance, as the recording projects of a number of Nordic orchestras and conductors evidence, his idiom is notably introverted, a blend of Finnish melancholy, folk melodies from his native region Ostrobothnia, the elegance and clarity of the French symphonic tradition, founded on César Franck and guided by Vincent d'Indy.
At times, his music reveals the influence of Sibelius. Madetoja was an influential music critic with the newspaper Helsingin sanomat, for which he reviewed concerts and penned essays on the music scenes of both Finland and France. In 1918, he married L. Onerva. Madetoja was born in Oulu, Finland, on 17 February 1887, the third son of Anders Antinpoika Madetoja and Anna Elisabeth, née Hyttinne. To provide for his family, Madetoja's father, a first mate on a merchant ship, had earlier emigrated in 1886 to the United States, only to die in 1888 of tuberculosis on the banks of the Mississippi River. Leevi thus never met his father, he and his brother, Yrjö, were raised by their mother; the Madetoja family lived in relative poverty, as a boy, Leevi sought to pull his weight, working variously as a street cleaner and as a laborer at a sawmill, the difficulty of the tasks compounded by hunger and malnutrition. As a child, Madetoja was by no means a musical prodigy, although his first attempts at composition were at the age of eight.
He studied the violin and piano on his own and played the mouth organ as a boy. Additionally, Madetoja became skilled at playing the kantele: he received a 10-string kantele on his tenth birthday, in secondary school at the Oulu Lyceum, this was upgraded to a 30-string version, built by a professional constructor. In addition, at the Lyceum, Leevi sang in the school choir and directed his fellow students in the school's male and mixed choirs. In 1906, Madetoja enrolled at the University of Helsinki and the Helsinki Music Institute, where he studied music theory and piano under, among others, Armas Järnefelt and Erik Furuhjelm. A year in the summer of 1907, the Finnish Literature Society sponsored Madetoja's trip to the Inkeri region in Russia, where he collected folk songs. Additional good fortune arrived in 1908, when Leevi was selected for the privilege of private instruction with Finland's most famous composer, Jean Sibelius. Although his lessons with Sibelius at Ainola were unstructured and sporadic, Madetoja valued his time with the master and assimilated some of Sibelius's unique musical language.
During his time at the Music Institute, Madetoja's first compositions premiered at various student concerts: in December 1908, the Op. 2 songs, Yksin and Lähdettyäs. More in January 1910, Robert Kajanus, chief conductor of the Helsinki Orchestral Society, conducted Madetoja's Elegia to great success, with the Elegia described as the "first master work" of a budding "natural orchestral composer". Upon graduation from both the Music Institute and the University of Helsinki in 1910, Madetoja began his career as a music writer and critic, penning essays and reviews for the Säveletär magazine and the Päivä newspaper. Additional praise followed Madetoja's first composition concert in Helsinki on 26 September 1910, at which he conducted the Piano Trio and excerpts from the Symphonic Suite and the Chess Suite, Op. 5. The positive reviews did, contain a note of concern. Madetoja had become interested in the Paris music scene as a result of excited and enthusiastic reports of his composer-friend, Toivo Kuula, who had earlier studied in the city.
With funding from the Finnish government and a letter of introduction from Sibelius in hand, Madetoja applied to be a student of Vincent d'Indy
A choir is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the medieval era to the present, or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor, who leads the performances with face gestures. A body of singers who perform together as a group is called a chorus; the former term is often applied to groups affiliated with a church and the second to groups that perform in theatres or concert halls, but this distinction is far from rigid. Choirs may sing without instrumental accompaniment, with the accompaniment of a piano or pipe organ, with a small ensemble, or with a full orchestra of 70 to 100 musicians; the term "Choir" has the secondary definition of a subset of an ensemble. In typical 18th- to 21st-century oratorios and masses, chorus or choir is understood to imply more than one singer per part, in contrast to the quartet of soloists featured in these works.
Choirs are led by a conductor or choirmaster. Most choirs consist of four sections intended to sing in four part harmony, but there is no limit to the number of possible parts as long as there is a singer available to sing the part: Thomas Tallis wrote a 40-part motet entitled Spem in alium, for eight choirs of five parts each. Other than four, the most common number of parts are three, five and eight. Choirs can sing without instrumental accompaniment. Singing without accompaniment is called a cappella singing. Accompanying instruments vary from only one instrument to a full orchestra of 70 to 100 musicians. Many choirs perform in many locations such as a church, opera house, or school hall. In some cases choirs join up to become one "mass" choir. In this case they provide a series of songs or musical works to celebrate and provide entertainment to others. Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as a choral concert, by way of visible gestures with the hands, arms and head.
The primary duties of the conductor or choirmaster are to unify performers, set the tempo, execute clear preparations and beats, to listen critically and shape the sound of the ensemble. The conductor or choral director stands on a raised platform and he or she may or may not use a baton. In the 2010s, most conductors do not play an instrument when conducting, although in earlier periods of classical music history, leading an ensemble while playing an instrument was common. In Baroque music from the 1600s to the 1750s, conductors performing in the 2010s may lead an ensemble while playing a harpsichord or the violin. Conducting while playing a piano may be done with musical theatre pit orchestras. Communication is non-verbal during a performance. However, in rehearsals, the conductor will give verbal instructions to the ensemble, since they also serve as an artistic director who crafts the ensemble's interpretation of the music. Conductors act as guides to the choirs they conduct, they choose the works to be performed and study their scores, to which they may make certain adjustments, work out their interpretation, relay their vision to the singers.
Choral conductors may have to conduct instrumental ensembles such as orchestras if the choir is singing a piece for choir and orchestra. They may attend to organizational matters, such as scheduling rehearsals, planning a concert season, hearing auditions, promoting their ensemble in the media. Eastern Orthodox churches, some American Protestant groups, traditional synagogues do not use instruments. In churches of the Western Rite the accompanying instrument is the organ, although in colonial America, the Moravian Church used groups of strings and winds. Many churches which use a contemporary worship format use a small amplified band to accompany the singing, Roman Catholic Churches may use, at their discretion, additional orchestral accompaniment. In addition to leading of singing in which the congregation participates, such as hymns and service music, some church choirs sing full liturgies, including propers. Chief among these are the Roman Catholic churches. Mixed choirs; this is the most common type consisting of soprano, alto and bass voices abbreviate
Yrjö Henrik Kilpinen was a Finnish composer. He was born in Helsinki, in 1907 he started his studies in the Helsingin Musiikkiopisto. In 1910 Kilpinen moved to Vienna to continue his studies and from 1913 to 1914 he studied in Berlin, he travelled extensively in Scandinavia and central Europe Germany. He became an honorary professor in 1942 and was elected to the Finnish Academy in 1948. Kilpinen is most famous for composing 790 works in the Lieder style. Among his other works were six piano sonatas, a violin sonata and a cello sonata; as a lied composer he should be considered as one of the most remarkable names of the 20th century. It is no wonder that during the 1930s and 1940s he was internationally the most well-known Finnish composer after Jean Sibelius. Kilpinen's friendship with the German national-socialistic leaders brought him a bad name after the war, after which he was more or less a "persona non grata". In April 1999, the North American Yrjö Kilpinen Society came into existence; the Sousa Archives and Center for American Music at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign holds the Jeffrey Sandborg Collection of Yrjo Kilpinen Music, 1920–1940, which consists of published scores, manuscripts and journal articles, concert programs, photographs and reel-to-reel recordings.
The Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, pg. 234. © 1940 Blue Ribbon Books, Inc. Kimmo Korhonen: Inventing Finnish Music – Contemporary Composers from Medieval to Modern, retrieved October 4, 2006
Aarre Merikanto was a Finnish composer. He was the famous romantic composer, professor Oskar Merikanto, his childhood he spent in Finland. From year 1919, he was married to Meri Grönmark, he is considered a key figure in early Finnish modernism and several of his works, most notably the opera Juha, have obtained posthumous attention. As professor of composition in the Sibelius Academy Merikanto taught several Finnish composers of the next generation, including Einojuhani Rautavaara, Usko Meriläinen, Aulis Sallinen and Paavo Heininen, he studied music in Helsinki 1911, Leipzig 1912–1914 and Moscow 1916–1917. Merikanto's early style was rooted in Finnish romanticism, but in the 1920s he developed a personal, atonal but not dodecaphonic Modernist style; the reception of Merikanto's works of this period was mixed: the "Schott" Concerto for nine instruments was awarded in a competition organized by the German publishers Schott & Söhne, but his domestic Finnish audiences and critics were unenthusiastic and his opera Juha, today considered one of his major works, was never performed during Merikanto's lifetime.
Disappointed with the reactions, starting in the early 1930s, Merikanto abandoned his more radical style and turned towards a more traditional idiom based on Neoclassicism. He destroyed or mutilated the scores of several works from his earlier style period, some of which were reconstructed by his last composition student Paavo Heininen. Merikanto was diagnosed with lung cancer in the summer 1957, he died on 28 September the following year, aged 65, his son was the sculptor Ukri Merikanto. Juha completed 1922, premiered 1963 Symphonies I B minor 1916, II A major 1918, III 1953 Violin concertos I 1915, II 1925, III 1931, IV 1954. Piano concertos I 1913, II 1937, III 1955. Cello concertos I 1919, II 1941. Symphonic poems Lemminkäinen 1916, Pan 1924, Notturno 1928,The Abduction of Kyllikki 1936 Schott Concerto for violin, horn & string sextet 1925 Nonet 1926 Symphonic Study 1928 Fantasia 1923 Konzertstück for Cello & Chamber Orchestra 1923 Ten Pieces for Orchestra 1930 Olympic Fanfare 1939 Song of the City by the Sea 1949–50 Genesis 1955 Composer profile on the Finnish Music Information Center Aarre Merikanto discography at MusicBrainz
Toivo Timoteus Kuula was a Finnish composer and conductor of the late-Romantic and early-modern periods, who emerged in the wake of Jean Sibelius, under whom he studied from 1906 to 1908. The core of Kuula's oeuvre are his many works for voice and orchestra, in particular the Stabat mater, The Sea-Bathing Maidens, Son of a Slave, The Maiden and the Boyar's Son. In addition he composed two Ostrobothnian Suites for orchestra and left an unfinished symphony at the time of his death in 1918, he was born in the Vehkakoski village of the Alavus town and registered as a native in the city of Vaasa, when Finland still was a Grand Duchy under Russian rule. He is known as a passionate portrayer of Finnish nature and people. Kuula became Jean Sibelius's first composition student, he is best remembered for his large output of vocal works. His instrumental works include two Ostrobothnian Suites for orchestra, a violin sonata, a piano trio, an unfinished Symphony. Kuula's major choral work is considered the cantata Stabat Mater, completed in spring 1915 but revised, beginning 1917 and unfinished at the time of his death.
He wrote a few dozen artistic piano works. A Swedish critic once said that Kuula's music reaches parts of the human spirit where one is forced to deep examination of one's self. Kuula was known to be a fierce Fennoman, he died in the provincial hospital in Viipuri in 1918 after being mortally wounded 18 days earlier on Walpurgis Night by a bullet fired by a Jäger. The bullet was fired as a result of a quarrel that happened at the Hotel Seurahuone in conjunction with the first victory celebration of the White victory in the Civil War of Finland. Kuula is buried in Helsinki. A simplified works list on the basis of Tero Tommila's Catalogue of Works: Op.1 Violin Sonata Op.2 Five Songs for Voice and Piano Op.3a Five Pieces for Violin and Piano: I. Cradle Song, II. Nocturne, III. Folk Song, IV. Folk Song, V. Scherzino Op.3b Three Piano Works: I. Elegy, II. Wedding March, III. Little Gavotte Op.3c Incidental Music to "Isä ja Tytär" Op.4 Seven Songs for Male Choir Op.5 Festive March for Chorus and Orchestra Op.6 Two Songs for Voice and Piano Op.7 Piano Trio Op.8 Two Songs for Voice and Piano Op.9 Ostrobothnian Suite No.1 for Orchestra: I.
Pastorale, II. Folk Song, III. Ostrobothnian Dance, IV. Devil's Dance, V. Song of the Dusk Op.10 Prelude and Fugue for Orchestra Op.11 Seven Songs for Chorus Op.12'Merenkylpijäneidot' for Voice and Orchestra/Piano Op.13 Festive March for Orchestra/Piano Op.14'Orjan poika' – Symphonic Legend for Soprano, Baritone and Orchestra Op.15 Cantata'Kuolemattomuuden toivo' Op.16a Two Songs for Voice and Piano Op.16b Two Pieces for Organ: I. Prelude, II. Intermezzo Op.17a South Ostrobothnian Dance Suites I & II for Violin and Piano Op.17b Twelve South Ostrobothnian Folk Dances for Voice/Violin and Piano Op.17c Two Pieces for Violin and Piano: I. Scherzo, II. Melodia lugubre Op.18'Impi ja pajarin poika' for Voice and Orchestra/Piano Op.19 Three Fairy-Tale Pictures for Piano Op.20 Ostrobothnian Suite No.2 for Orchestra: I. Tulopeli, II. Rain in the Forest, III. Menuet, IV. Dance of the Orphans, V; the Devils Making Magic Flames Op.21 Three Songs for Chorus Op.22/1-2 Two Pieces for Cello and Orchestra: I. Chanson sans paroles, II.
Elegy Op.22/1-2 Two Pieces for Violin/Cello and Piano: I. Chanson sans paroles, II. Elegy Op.22/3 Song for Voice and Piano Op.23 Four Songs for Voice and Piano Op.24 Four Songs for Voice and Piano Op.25 Stabat Mater for Chorus and Orchestra Op.26 Six Piano Pieces: I. Round Dance, II. Pastorale Atmosphere, III. Dance Improvisation, IV. Nocturne, V. Rauha, VI. Funeral March Op.27a Eight Songs for Male Choir Op.27b Nine Songs for Male Choir Op.28/1-2 Two Pieces for Brass Orchestra: I. At the Mountain, II. A Tune Op.28/4 March of the Cudgelmen for Choir and Orchestra Op.29a Three Songs for Voice and Piano Op.29b Four Songs for Choir Op.29c Two Songs for Male Choir Op.30a Incidental Music to'Kandaules' Op.30b Incidental Music to'Medicit' Op.30c Incidental Music to'Taikapeili' Op.31a Two Songs for Voice and Orchestra/Piano Op.31b Four Songs for Choir Op.32 Incidental Music to'Meripoikia' Op.33 March of the Carburators for Piano Op.34a Seven Songs for Male Choir Op.34b Three Songs for Chorus Op.35 Three Songs Arrangements for Voice and Orchestra Op.36 Symphony: Introduction Op.37 Two Song Transcriptions for Piano+ Six Posthumous Piano Pieces + Six Posthumous Orchestral Pieces + Twenty-Two Posthumous Chamber Pieces + Fourteen Songs + One Posthumous Cantata Toivo Kuula: Songs and Orchestral Music.
Susan Gritton, BBC Concert Orchestra, Martyn Brabbins. Dutton The Toivo Kuula Society FIMIC Articles on Kuula Toivo Kuula syntyi Alavudella saunassa Free scores by Toivo Kuula at the International Music Score Library Project Toivo Kuula at Find a Grave