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List of Finns

This is a list of notable people from Finland. Finland is a Nordic country located between Sweden and Russia; the Phonies rock band Simo Aalto – stage magician Kaarlo Bergbom – theatre director, founder of the Finnish National Theatre Ior Bock – eccentric Donner family Karl Fazerconfectionery manufacturer Janina Frostell – model, sex symbol and singer Tony Halme – show wrestler, politician Seppo Hentilä – historian Jukka Hilden – part of The Dudesons Toni Jerrman – science fiction critic Vesa Kanniainen – economist and academic Kuikka-Koponen – trickster and conjurer Armi KuuselaMiss Universe 1952 Jarno Laasala – part of The Dudesons Aarne Lakomaa – aircraft designer Jarno "Jarppi"/"Jarno2" Leppälä – part of The Dudesons Arvi Lindnewscaster Fanni Luukkonen – leader of Lotta Svärd Sophie Mannerheim – nurse Tuomas "Tunna" Milonoff – starring in the Finnish television program Madventures Väinö Myllyrinne – the tallest Finn, 248 cm Larin Paraske – poem singer Hannu-Pekka "HP" Parviainen – part of The Dudesons Arndt Pekurinen – pacifist Anne Marie Pohtamo – Miss Universe 1975 Riku Rantala – starring in the Finnish television program Madventures Krisse Salminen – comedian and talk show hostess Santa Claus Eugen Schauman – assassin who killed Nikolai Ivanovich Bobrikov Tabe Slioor – socialite, photographer.

Charles Pourtales Golightly

Charles Pourtales Golightly was an Anglican clergyman and religious writer. Golightly was born on 23 May 1807, the second son of William Golightly of Ham, gentleman, by his wife, Frances Dodd, his mother's mother, was granddaughter of Charles de Pourtalès, ‘a distinguished member of an ancient and honourable Huguenot family.’ He was educated at Eton College. In his youth he travelled in Europe, visited Rome, seeing there ‘a good deal of certain cardinals, entering into their characters and their politics.’ He matriculated 4 March 1824 at Oriel College, where he proceeded as B. A. in 1828, M. A. in 1830. His attainments would have justified his election to a fellowship, but as his private property was thought to be a disqualification he took curacies at Penshurst and afterwards at Godalming, Surrey. In 1836, when the chapel of Littlemore, near Oxford, was finished, it was suggested that Golightly's means would enable him to take it without an endowment. Golightly entered into the scheme with enthusiasm, bought one of the curious old houses in Holywell Street, Oxford.

A single sermon led, however, to a disagreement with John Henry Cardinal Newman, the vicar of St. Mary's, Oxford, to which Littlemore had been an adjunct, their official connection, though they had been acquaintances from early youth, at once ceased. In this house he remained for the rest of his life, keenly interested in church matters, struggling against the spread of what he deemed Romanism. For some time he was curate of Headington, he was a thorough student of history. His religious views were those of Hooker, he gloried in the traditions of the old high church party, but his hatred of Romanism, deepened by his Huguenot descent, made him a fierce opponent of ritualism. Opponents admitted his deep religious feelings and his frank fearlessness, he was friendly with men of every division of thought, his charity was unbounded and unostentatious. He was full of anecdote, heightened by much dryness of wit, was always accessible. For the last three years of his life he was haunted by painful illusions, his death was a release from pain.

He died on Christmas Day 1885, was buried in Holywell cemetery, near Magdalen College, Oxford. Edward Meyrick Goulburn, dean of Norwich reprinted, ‘with additions and a preface, from the “Guardian” of 13 Jan. 1886’ his reminiscences of Golightly. An auction catalogue of his furniture and library was issued in February 1886. All his publications were controversial, they comprise: ‘Look at Home, or a Short and Easy Method with the Roman Catholics,’ 1837. ‘Letter to the Bishop of Oxford, containing Strictures upon certain parts of Dr. Pusey's Letter to his Lordship. By a Clergyman of the Diocese,’ &c. 1840. ‘New and Strange Doctrines extracted from the Writings of Mr. Newman and his Friends, in a Letter to the Rev. W. F. Hook, D. D. By one of the original Subscribers to the “Tracts for the Times,”’ 2nd edition, 1841. ‘Strictures on No. 90 of the “Tracts for the Times,” by a Member of the University of Oxford,’ 1841, which reappeared as ‘Brief Remarks upon No. 90, second edition, some subsequent Publications in defence of it, by Rev. C. P. Golightly,’ 1841.

‘Correspondence illustrative of the actual state of Oxford with reference to Tractarianism,’ 1842. ‘Facts and Documents showing the alarming state of the Diocese of Oxford, by a Senior Clergyman of the Diocese,’ 1859. This publication had its origin in an article in the Quarterly Review for January 1858, in which the practices at Cuddesdon College were criticised. At a meeting in the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, on 22 Nov. 1861, an anonymous handbill, written by Golightly in condemnation of the teaching in the middle class schools connected with St. Nicholas College, was distributed; some reflections were made upon it by Francis Jeune, the vice-chancellor, this provoked: ‘A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Jeune, in vindication of the Handbill by Rev. C. P. Golightly,’ 1861. A second letter to Dr. Jeune, 1861. Still undaunted, he wrote: ‘The position of Bishop Wilberforce in reference to Ritualism, together with a Prefatory Account of the Romeward Movement in the Church of England in the days of Archbishop Laud.

By a Senior Resident Member of the University,’ 1867. He returned to the subject with: ‘A Solemn Warning against Cuddesdon College,’ 1878, related to ‘An Address respecting Cuddesdon College by Rev. E. A. Knox’, the ‘Address of the Old Students of the College to the Bishop of Oxford,’ and the ‘Report for the five years ending Trinity Term 1878, by Rev. C. W. Furse, Principal.’In the same year Golightly reissued in separate form, with his name, his ‘Brief Account of Romeward Movement in Days of Laud.’ The attack on Cuddesdon College was the subject of pp. 358–66, 415–18, vol. ii. of the ‘Life of Bishop Wilberforce,’ and Golightly retorted with ‘A Letter to the Very Reverend the Dean of Ripon, containing Strictures on the Life of Bishop Wilberforce,’ 1881. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Golightly, Charles Pourtales". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Documents held at Lambeth Palace Library Andrew Atherstone, Oxford’s Protestant Spy: The Controversial Career of Charles Golightly

Thomas Montgomery Bell

Thomas Montgomery Bell was an American politician who served as House majority whip from 1913 to 1915. Bell was born near Cleveland, Georgia, he graduated from Moore's Business University at Atlanta taught public school in Cleveland from 1878 to 1879. He worked as a traveling salesman for several years, he served as clerk of the superior court of Hall County, Georgia from 1898 to 1904 was elected as a congress member in the Democratic Party of the United States, serving from March 4, 1905 to March 3, 1931. He served as majority whip from 1913 to 1915. In 1922, he was a prominent voice of racist opposition to anti-lynching legislation, arguing that political equality for African Americans is "something that would never be tolerated and should never be advocated by anyone." After an unsuccessful renomination in 1930, he returned to the private sector and died in Gainesville, Georgia. United States Congress. "Thomas Montgomery Bell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

False arrest

False arrest is a common law tort, where a plaintiff alleges they were held in custody without probable cause, or without an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction. Although it is possible to sue law enforcement officials for false arrest, the usual defendants in such cases are private security firms. After an arrest, if the charges are dropped, a person will sometimes file legal action or a complaint against the appropriate arresting agency. In most jurisdictions, the arrest powers of police and police agents are in excess of those afforded to ordinary citizens. However, the powers of police officers to arrest are not unlimited. Speaking: Anyone may arrest a person if in possession of an arrest warrant issued by an appropriate court. In the United States, this includes bounty hunters acting under the authority of a bench warrant to bring a criminal defendant who has skipped bail to court for trial. A police officer, or a person authorized by a jurisdiction's police powers act, may arrest anyone whom the officer has probable cause to believe has committed any criminal offence.

However, in the case of a misdemeanour, summary conviction offence, or non-criminal offence the officer may arrest the suspect only long enough to identify the suspect and give the suspect a summons to appear in court, unless there is reason to believe they will not appear in answer to the summons. Any person may arrest someone suspected of committing a felony or indictable offence, as long as the arresting person believes the suspect is attempting to flee the scene of the felony. A person cannot be arrested on suspicion of committing a felony well after the fact unless the arresting officer possesses an arrest warrant. Most cases of false arrest involve accusations of shoplifting, are brought against security guards and retail stores. A guard cannot arrest someone on the suspicion that person is going to commit a theft. In most jurisdictions, there must be some proof that a criminal act has been committed. For example, a guard does not have reasonable and probable cause if a shopper has not yet paid for merchandise they are carrying in the belief that the person intends to leave without making payment.

Instead, there must be an actual act committed – the person must make an actual attempt to leave the store without paying for the merchandise. In the United States and other jurisdictions, police officers and other government officials are liable for clear deprivation of rights, but are shielded from false arrest lawsuits through the doctrine of qualified immunity, when such a violation qualifies as "not obvious," by a US Supreme Court test; this doctrine can protect officials from liability when engaged in legal grey areas including qualifying discretionary actions in the arrests of suspects. However, the officer's actions must still not violate "clearly established law," or this protection is void; this includes executing an arrest warrant against the wrong person. False statements by public servants to justify or cover up an illegal arrest are another violation of federal law. An example of this doctrine being tested is McGuigan. A police officer detained a man shopping at a mall based on the description of a suspect who had committed a theft at a store nearby, proceeded to do a routine search for weapons.

The store owner who reported the theft arrived at the scene and stated Sorrell and his friends were not the ones who had stolen from him. However, the officer still arrested Sorrell for possession of a concealed weapon, because he was carrying a folding knife with a 3 inch long blade in his pocket. In Maryland, non-automatic folding knives are not considered weapons under state law regardless of their length, the lack of length limit had been upheld multiple times in the state's highest court. However, the officer erroneously believed the knife to be a weapon. Sorrell was released after booking and was never prosecuted as there was technically no crime, sued the police officer for false arrest; the officer's qualified immunity was denied by the court, this decision was upheld in the US Court of Appeals. Bounty hunters have been subject to suits for false arrest after attempting to execute bench warrants outside of the United States—where they have no extra powers beyond those of ordinary citizens and only police officers may execute warrants.

In at least two prominent cases, bounty hunters were charged with kidnapping after taking custody of a bail jumper outside of the United States and bringing them back to the court that issued the warrant. One of them, Daniel Kear, was convicted. There have been some cases where police officers or bounty hunters have executed valid arrest warrants against the wrong person. Although many false arrest suits result in only nominal damages, such mistakes result in large awards against the arresting officers. Individuals who realize that they are the target of false arrest might attempt to flee. A few jurisdictions recognize the target's right of self-defense so as to resist unlawful arrest; this only applies when: the arresting officer used more force than necessary to effect the arrest, the resistance is only to such an extent as necessary to protect oneself from great bodily harm or death. In such jurisdictions – and under the narrowly-defined circumstances described above – resisting unlawful arrest may be used as a justification for such resistance where it would otherwise be a crime.

There are rare cases. Justification fo

New Jersey Route 175

Route 175 is a short, 2.95 miles long state highway in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. The route runs along a former alignment of New Jersey Route 29 before the construction of the John Fitch Parkway in the 1960s; the route begins at Route 29 in the capital city of Trenton, running along Sanhican Road, River Road and West Upper Ferry Road into Ewing Township. The route serves as a frontage road for Route 29; the northernmost portion of Route 175 is parallel to the Delaware and Raritan Canal until coming to an end at a merge with Route 29 in Ewing Township. Route 175 originates as alignment of Route 29, which followed local roads after the 1927 New Jersey state highway renumbering, it remained Route 29 through the 1953 New Jersey state highway renumbering and was moved onto the John Fitch Parkway upon its completion in the 1960s. By 1969, the original alignment was designated as Route 175 and both roads have remained the same since. Route 175 begins at an off-ramp from New Jersey Route 29 and Aberfeldy Drive in the capital city of Trenton.

Inside the city limits of Trenton, the route carries one-way traffic northbound and is maintained by the City of Trenton. The route heads northward; the highway continues. At an intersection with Afton Avenue, the continuation of Abernethy Drive, Route 175 changes names from Sanhican Drive to River Road; the road becomes two-way, enters Ewing Township, is maintained by the New Jersey Department of Transportation. The highway continues. A short distance Routes 175 and 29 pass under the West Trenton Railroad Bridge, which carries CSX's Trenton Subdivision and SEPTA's West Trenton Line, head along the Delaware River, passing to the south of several high-end mansions. Route 175 itself passes to the south of condominium complexes, intersecting with the access road shortly afterward. A short distance Route 175 juts to the northeast near a commercial business, interchanging with Route 29. After the short interchange, the highway continues along the side of Route 29, intersecting with Wilburtha Road in Ewing.

Routes 175 and 29 continue northward, crossing through the woodlands north of Trenton, until Route 175 makes a bend to the northeast, intersecting with West Upper Ferry Road. The highway turns onto West Upper Ferry Road, heading to the northeast, crossing through a wealthy district in Ewing surrounded by woodlands; the route begins to enter fields, crossing over the Delaware and Raritan Canal on character-less bridge. After the bridge, Route 175 turns to the north onto River Road, while West Upper Ferry Road continues as Mercer County Route 634. Route 175 heads northward along the Delaware and Raritan Canal as River Road, passing through woodlands and residential homes. A short distance it intersects with State Police Drive, a road serving the New Jersey State Police headquarters. Continuing along the canal, Route 175 progresses northward, intersecting with Trooper Drive before crossing under Interstate 295 at Interchange 76. Route 175 continues for a short distance. A short distance the highway comes to end as the right-of-way continues onto Route 29.

Route 175 is an original alignment of Route 29 through Trenton and Ewing designated in the 1927 renumbering of state highways in New Jersey. The original plan for a freeway along Route 29 started in the 1930s, with no progress until the 1950s, when construction began on John Fitch Parkway named after John Fitch. Construction of this alignment used up much of the available waterfront in Trenton, by 1969, after Route 29 was realigned onto the new freeway, Route 175 was designated on the former alignment. Route 175 was designated as a No Passing Zone by NJDOT on September 14, 1982; the two highways have remained intact since. The entire route is in Mercer County. U. S. Roads portal New Jersey portal New Jersey Roads: Route 175 New Jersey Highway Ends - 175 Enlarged view of the confluence of I-295, NJ 29 and NJ 175 in Ewing Township Speed Limits for State Roads: Route 175

Heart Wiltshire

Heart Wiltshire was a local radio station owned and operated by Global Radio as part of the Heart network. It broadcast to west Wiltshire; the station was rebranded to Heart in March 2009 in line with Global Radio's rebranding of most of the One Network, to which the station was part of. Because of the rebrand, the station started targeting 25 to 44 year-olds; the local competitors are BBC Wiltshire, 107 Sam FM and community radio station, Swindon 105.5. Heart Wiltshire launched on 12 October 1982 under Wiltshire Radio. Broadcasting from'The Limekiln' in Wooton Bassett, they capitalised on the fact that BBC Radio 1 had bad reception in North Wiltshire and it was to be nine years before BBC Local Radio launched in the county; the station began a full service commercial radio station on 96.4 and 97.4 MHz FM and 936 and 1161 kHz AM. Because there was a lack of BBC radio for Wiltshire and therefore no competition, Wiltshire Radio found it easy to build a loyal listenership and only a few months into broadcasting became profitable.

Early programmes started out with a general diet of local news, community information and middle-of-the-road pop music eventually became more and more formatted, saving its 4-hour'needle time' daily music quota for the evening show to play rock and newer pop. The station's Head of Programmes Ralph Bernard went on to become a significant figure in British commercial radio as founder of Classic FM. Commercial radio in Britain struggled to make any money. Wiltshire Radio grew as a company. WR made tentative plans for growth. Radio West never made a penny since it started and looked set to close when WR made an official approach to merge the two stations, creating a station covering from Weston-super-Mare in the west to Swindon and Hungerford in the east; this merger was approved by the British Government and was completed in 1985. In October 1985, Wiltshire Radio relaunched as a 24-hour radio station; however the sound didn't change much as GWR Radio was a revamp which coincided with the re-launch of its sister station in Bristol.

GWR Radio began splitting frequencies as required by the British Government - which declared its desire to end simulcasting on both FM and AM. In November 1988 GWR Radio launched Brunel Radio, a golden oldies service network whilst GWR FM launched an opt-out service for West Wiltshire as a more localised service, this was however dropped a few weeks citing "poor reception". A fill-in relay for Marlborough was opened on 14 October 1988 on 96.5 MHz FM. After the lifting on sanctions restricting the time spent playing music in 1988, GWR FM became more and more music-led, playing Top 40 chart music during the daytime, specialist music was over time eliminated; the local element of the station its news coverage had progressively become briefer and reduced in length moved onto Brunel Classic Gold, before being dropped altogether. The station sponsored Swindon Town Football Club from 1989 until 1991, during the time that they won promotion to the First Division via the playoffs, but remained in the Second Division due to financial irregularities.

In 1992 a re-launch of the station saw it rebranded as The New GWR FM, with a policy of reduced speech and the dropping of all R&B and hip hop music from the station's output. This policy was extended to other GWR Group stations, such as 2-Ten FM in Reading and 2CR FM in Bournemouth; the GWR Group expanded from the late 1980s through to 2005, purchasing other stations throughout southern England becoming the largest radio company in the UK. The harmonisation of playlists across the GWR Group led to the creation of The Mix Network in 1997, with GWR Wiltshire at the hub; the radio station's long held philosophy of researching the average person's listening habits and tastes led by Group chairman Ralph Bernard has created a formatted sound where popular Top 40 chart hits ex-Top 40 songs are blended in with older hits. This format, with the strapline "Better Music Mix", was subsequently adopted by all stations within the GWR Group, including Essex FM, Trent FM and Beacon Radio creating a mini national network.

The practice for the Mix Network stations were each station played a centrally produced playlist, songs were broadcast on or at the same time as neighbouring group stations and each station adopted the "Better Music Mix" tagline, to be said by local disc jockeys in between each song. Fans of the previous guises of some stations bought by the GWR Group, notably Essex FM and Beacon Radio were shocked and disgusted at the sudden re-branding of the station's taglines and playlists, accusing the new management of reducing local content such as news reports and cancelling local shows in place of programming from the Mix Network, such as Late Night Love and The Request Fest, which originated from the Bristol studios. In 2003 Now Digital, a subsidiary of GWR Group launched local DAB services for Wiltshire and Swindon. In Swindon GWR FM went digital along with sister station Classic Gold, BBC Radio Swindon, Swindon FM and XFM amongst others. In West Wiltshire and Bath GWR FM Bath and BBC Radio Wiltshire airs in place of GWR Swindon and Radio Swindon respectively.

On 9 May 2005, GWR Group merged with Capital Radio Group to form GCap Media. The programming format of GWR was unchanged by the merger, with The Mix Network being rebranded as The One Network. In 2008