Hurricane hunters are aircrews that fly into tropical cyclones to gather weather data. In the United States, the organizations that fly these missions are the United States Air Force Reserve's 53d Weather Reconnaissance Squadron and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Hunters; such missions have been flown by Navy units and other Air Force and NOAA units. Manned flights into hurricanes began in 1943 when, on a bet, pilot-trainer Colonel Joseph Duckworth flew a single-engine plane into a category 1 storm near Galveston, Texas. Since six military weather reconnaissance planes have gone down, at a cost of fifty-three lives. In one such incident, six of the seven crew members of the Navy PB4Y-2 were killed on October 1, 1945 when their plane went down in a Category 1 typhoon over the South China Sea. Before satellites were used to find tropical storms, military aircraft flew routine weather reconnaissance tracks to detect formation of tropical cyclones. While modern satellites have improved the ability of meteorologists to detect cyclones before they form, aircraft are able to measure the interior barometric pressure of a hurricane and provide accurate wind speed information–data needed to predict hurricane development and movement.
The Air Force Reserve 53d Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, the world's only operational military weather reconnaissance unit, is based at Keesler Air Force Base in Biloxi, Mississippi. The term "hurricane hunters" was first applied to its missions in 1946; the USAFR hurricane hunters fly weather missions in an area midway through the Atlantic Ocean to the Hawaiian Islands, have on occasion flown into typhoons in the Pacific Ocean and gathered data in winter storms. The 53d WRS hurricane hunters operate ten Lockheed WC-130J aircraft, which fly directly into hurricanes penetrating the hurricane's eye several times per mission at altitudes between 500 feet and 10,000 feet; the civilian and NOAA Corps crew members of the NOAA Hurricane Hunters, until based at the Aircraft Operations Center at MacDill AFB, in Tampa, Florida perform surveillance and reconnaissance with instrumented aircraft including airborne Doppler weather radar measurements in both Atlantic and Pacific storms. In June 2017, the Hunters moved in to a new facility at Lakeland Linder Airport in Lakeland, after being at MacDill since 1993.
They fly two Lockheed WP-3D Orion aircraft instrumented flying laboratories modified to take atmospheric and radar measurements within tropical cyclones and winter storms, a G-IV Gulfstream high-altitude jet above 41,000 feet to document upper- and lower-level winds that affect cyclone movement. The computer models that forecast hurricane tracks and intensity use G-IV dropsonde data collected day and night in storms affecting the United States. Among the types of aircraft that have been used to investigate hurricanes, are an instrumented Lockheed U-2 flown in Hurricane Ginny during the 1963 Atlantic hurricane season. Other types include the A-20 Havoc, 1944. WB-29, 1951–1956; the idea of aircraft reconnaissance of hurricane storm trackers was put forth by Captain W. L. Farnsworth of the Galveston Commercial Association in the early 1930s. Supported by the United States Weather Bureau, the "storm patrol bill" passed both the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives on June 15, 1936.
The 1943 Surprise Hurricane, which struck Houston, during World War II, marked the first intentional meteorological flight into a hurricane. It started with a bet; that summer, British pilots were being trained in instrument flying at Bryan Field. When they saw that the Americans were evacuating their AT-6 Texan trainers in the face of the storm, they began questioning the construction of the aircraft. Lead instructor Colonel Joe Duckworth took one of the trainers out and flew it straight into the eye of the storm. After he returned safely with navigator Lt. Ralph O'Hair, the base's weather officer, Lt. William Jones-Burdick, took over the navigator's seat and Duckworth flew into the storm a second time; this flight showed that hurricane reconnaissance flights were possible, further flights continued occasionally. In 1946, the moniker "Hurricane Hunters" was first used, the Air Force and now Air Force Reserve have used it since; the United States Navy's VW-4 / WEARECORON FOUR Weather Reconnaissance Squadron Four, "Hurricane Hunters" was the seventh U.
S. Navy squadron dedicated to weather reconnaissance, they flew several types of aircraft, but the WC-121N "Willy Victor" was the aircraft most associated with flying into the "eye of the storm." The squadron operated WC-121s between late 1954 and 1972. VW-4 lost one aircraft and crew in a penetration of Hurricane Janet, another to severe damage in a storm, but the damaged Willy Victor brought her crew home, although she never flew again. During 1973–1975, VW-4 operated the turbine-propeller Lockheed WP-3A Orion. In 1974, a newly converted WC-130 was transferred to the 54th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, the "Typhoon Chasers", at Andersen Air Force Base on Guam; the aircraft was sent to investigate Typhoon Bess. The crew departed Clark Air Base in the Philippines with the callsign "Swan 38". Radio contact with the aircraft was lost on 12 October 1974 as the aircraft was heading into the typhoon's eye to make a second position fix. There were no radio transmissions indicating an emergency on board, search teams could not locate the aircraft or its crew.
All six crew membe
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
1935 Labor Day hurricane
The 1935 Labor Day hurricane was the most intense tropical cyclone to make landfall in the United States on record in terms of both pressure and wind speed. It was the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record until Hurricane Gilbert in 1988; the fourth tropical cyclone, third tropical storm, second hurricane, second major hurricane of the 1935 Atlantic hurricane season, the Labor Day Hurricane was the first of three Category 5 hurricanes to strike the United States at that intensity during the 20th century. After forming as a weak tropical storm east of the Bahamas on August 29, the system proceeded westward and became a hurricane on September 1; the hurricane intensified passing near Long Key on the evening of September 2. The region was swept by a massive storm surge as the eye passed over the area; the waters receded after carving new channels connecting the bay with the ocean. The storm continued northwestward along the Florida west coast, weakening before its second landfall near Cedar Key, Florida, on September 4.
The compact and intense hurricane caused catastrophic damage in the upper Florida Keys, as a storm surge of 18 to 20 feet swept over the low-lying islands. The hurricane's strong winds and the surge destroyed nearly all the structures between Tavernier and Marathon; the town of Islamorada was obliterated. Portions of the Key West Extension of the Florida East Coast Railway were damaged or destroyed; the hurricane caused additional damage in northwest Florida and the Carolinas. "The first indications of conditions favorable to the origin of this disturbance were noted during the last 3 or 4 days of August, to the eastward and northward of Turks Islands. Hurricane intensity was doubtless reached by the developing disturbance near the south end of Andros Island on September 1." "A broad recurve brought it to the Florida Keys late on September 2. By that time it was of small diameter but of tremendous force.... There was a calm of forty minutes on Lower Matecumbe Key and about fifty-five minutes at the Long Key fishing camp, 9:20 to 10:15 p.m.
The rate of progress of the hurricane was about ten miles an hour and the calm center must have been nine to ten miles in diameter. After leaving the Keys, the storm skirted the Florida Gulf coast on a broad recurve, passed inland at Cedar Keys and left the continent near Cape Henry." Heavy rainfall spread in advance and magnified to the left of the track across the Mid-Atlantic states. Rainfall totals of 16.7 inches in Easton, 13.4 inches at Atlantic City, New Jersey, were the highest seen with the storm. The storm continued into "the North Atlantic Ocean, off southern Greenland, it was lost on September 10, after merging with a cyclone of extratropical origin."The first recorded instance of an aircraft flown for the specific purpose of locating a hurricane occurred on the afternoon of September 2. The Weather Bureau's 1:30 PM advisory placed the center of the hurricane at north latitude 23° 20', west longitude 80° 15', moving westward; this was about 27 miles north of Isabela de Sagua, Villa Clara, 145 miles east of Havana.
Captain Leonard Povey of the Cuban Army Air Corps volunteered to investigate the threat to the capital. Flying a Curtis Hawk II, Captain Povey, an American expatriate, the CEAC's chief training officer, observed the storm north of its reported position but, flying an open-cockpit biplane, opted not to fly into it, he proposed an aerial hurricane patrol. Nothing further came of this idea until June 1943, when Colonel Joe Duckworth and Lieutenant Ralph O'Hair flew into a hurricane near Galveston, Texas; the Labor Day Hurricane was the most intense storm known to have struck the United States, having the lowest sea level pressure recorded in the United States—a central pressure of 892 mbar —suggesting an intensity of between 162 kn and 164 kn. The somewhat compensating effects of a slow translational velocity along with an tiny radius of maximum wind led to an analyzed intensity at landfall of 160 kt, Category 5; this is the highest intensity for a U. S. landfalling hurricane in HURDAT2, as 1969's Hurricane Camille has been reanalyzed to have the second highest landfalling intensity with 150 kn.
Records of the lowest pressure were secured from three aneroid barometers, the values ranging from 26.75 to 26.98 inches. However, none of these barometers had been compared to standard. One of the barometers, owned by Ivar Olson, was shipped to the Weather Bureau in Washington where it was tested in the Instrument Division. Careful laboratory tests showed it to be an exceptionally responsive and reliable instrument and that the correct reading at the position of the needle indicated by Mr. Olson at the center of the storm was 26.35 inches. This is the world's lowest record of pressure at a land station. Northeast storm warnings were ordered displayed from Fort Pierce to Fort Myers in the September 1, 9:30 AM Weather Bureau advisory. Upon receipt of this advisory the U. S. Coast Guard Station, Miami, FL, sent a plane along the coast to advise boaters and campers of the impending danger by dropp
Hurricane Andrew was a destructive Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that struck the Bahamas and Louisiana in mid-to-late August 1992. It was the most destructive hurricane to hit Florida until Hurricane Irma surpassed it 25 years later, it was the strongest in decades and the costliest hurricane to make landfall anywhere in the United States until it was surpassed by Katrina in 2005. Andrew caused major damage in the Bahamas and Louisiana, but the greatest impact was felt in South Florida, where the storm made landfall as a Category 5 hurricane, with sustained wind speeds as high as 165 mph. Passing directly through the city of Homestead in Dade County, Andrew stripped many homes of all but their concrete foundations. In total, Andrew destroyed more than 63,500 houses, damaged more than 124,000 others, caused $27.4 billion in damage, left 65 people dead. Andrew began as a tropical depression over the eastern Atlantic Ocean on August 16. After spending a week without strengthening itself in the central Atlantic, it intensified into a powerful Category 5 hurricane while moving westward towards the Bahamas on August 23.
Though it weakened to Category 4 status while traversing the Bahamas, it regained Category 5 intensity before making landfall in Florida on Elliott Key and Homestead on August 24. With a barometric pressure of 922 mbar at the time of landfall in Florida, Andrew is the sixth most-intense hurricane to strike the United States. Several hours the hurricane emerged over the Gulf of Mexico at Category 4 strength, with the Gulf Coast of the United States in its dangerous path. After turning northwestward and weakening further, Andrew moved ashore near Morgan City, Louisiana, as a low-end Category 3 storm. After moving inland, the small hurricane curved northeastward and lost its intensity, merging with a frontal system over the southern Appalachian Mountains on August 28. Hurricane Andrew first inflicted structural damage as it moved through the Bahamas in Cat Cays, lashing the islands with storm surge, hurricane-force winds, tornadoes. About 800 houses were destroyed in the archipelago, there was substantial damage to the transport, sanitation and fishing sectors.
Andrew left $250 million in damage throughout the Bahamas. In parts of southern Florida, Andrew produced severe winds; the cities of Florida City and Cutler Ridge received the brunt of the storm. As many as 1.4 million people lost power at the height of the storm. In the Everglades, 70,000 acres of trees were downed, while invasive Burmese pythons began inhabiting the region after a nearby facility housing them was destroyed. Rainfall in Florida was substantial. In Florida, Andrew left a record $25 billion in damage. Prior to making landfall in Louisiana on August 26, Andrew caused extensive damage to oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, leading to $500 million in losses for oil companies, it produced hurricane-force winds along its path through Louisiana, damaging large stretches of power lines that left about 230,000 people without electricity. Over 80% of trees in the Atchafalaya River basin were downed, the agriculture there was devastated. Throughout the basin and Bayou Lafourche, 187 million freshwater fish were killed in the hurricane.
With 23,000 houses damaged, 985 others destroyed, 1,951 mobile homes demolished, property losses in Louisiana exceeded $1.5 billion. The hurricane caused the deaths of 17 people in the state. Andrew spawned at least 28 tornadoes along the Gulf Coast in Alabama and Mississippi. In total, Andrew caused $27.3 billion in damage. It is the seventh-costliest Atlantic hurricane to hit the United States, behind only Katrina, Sandy, Harvey and Maria, as well as the eighth-costliest Atlantic hurricane, behind the aforementioned systems and Wilma, it is the third-strongest hurricane to hit the U. S. mainland by wind speed. A tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa on August 14. A ridge of high pressure to its north caused the wave to move westward. An area of convection developed along the wave axis to the south of the Cape Verde islands, on August 15, meteorologists began classifying the system with the Dvorak technique; the thunderstorm activity became more concentrated, narrow spiral rainbands began to develop around a center of circulation.
It is estimated that Tropical Depression Three developed late on August 16, about 1,630 mi east-southeast of Barbados. Embedded within the deep easterlies, the depression tracked west-northwestward at 20 mph. Moderate wind shear prevented strengthening, until a decrease in shear allowed the depression to intensify into Tropical Storm Andrew at 12:00 UTC on August 17. By early August 18, the storm maintained convection near the center with spiral bands to its west as the winds increased to 50 mph. Shortly thereafter, the storm began weakening because of increased southwesterly wind shear from an upper-level low. On August 19, a Hurricane Hunters flight into the storm failed to locate a well-defined center and on the following day, a flight found that the cyclone had degenerated to the extent that only a diffuse low-level circulation center remained; the flight indicated. After the upper-level low weakened and split into a trough, the wind shear decreased
Hurricane Michael was the third-most intense Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in the United States in terms of pressure, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane and Hurricane Camille of 1969, as well as the strongest storm in terms of maximum sustained wind speed to strike the contiguous United States since Andrew in 1992. In addition, it was the strongest storm on record in the Florida Panhandle, was the fourth-strongest landfalling hurricane in the contiguous United States, in terms of wind speed; the thirteenth named storm, seventh hurricane, second major hurricane of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season, Michael originated from a broad low-pressure area that formed in the southwestern Caribbean Sea on October 2. The disturbance became a tropical depression after nearly a week of slow development. By the next day, Michael had intensified into a hurricane near the western tip of Cuba, as it moved northward; the hurricane strengthened in the Gulf of Mexico, reaching major hurricane status on October 9, peaking as a high-end Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale becoming the strongest Atlantic hurricane to form in the month of October since Hurricane Wilma.
As it approached the Florida Panhandle, Michael attained peak winds of 155 mph just before making landfall near Mexico Beach, Florida, on October 10, becoming the first to do so in the region as a Category 4 hurricane, making landfall as the strongest storm of the season. As it moved inland, the storm weakened and began to take a northeastward trajectory toward Chesapeake Bay, weakening to a tropical storm over Georgia, transitioning into an extratropical cyclone off the coast of the Mid-Atlantic states on October 12. Michael subsequently strengthened into a powerful extratropical cyclone and impacted the Iberian Peninsula, before dissipating on October 16. By January 2019, at least 72 deaths had been attributed to the storm, including 57 in the United States and 15 in Central America. Hurricane Michael caused an estimated $25.1 billion in damages, including $100 million in economic losses in Central America, damage to U. S. fighter jets with a replacement cost of $6 billion at Tyndall Air Force Base, at least $6.23 billion in insurance claims in the U.
S. Losses to agriculture alone exceeded $3.87 billion. As a tropical disturbance, the system caused extensive flooding in Central America in concert with a second disturbance over the eastern Pacific Ocean. In Cuba, the hurricane's winds left over 200,000 people without power as the storm passed to the island's west. Along the Florida panhandle, the cities of Mexico Beach and Panama City suffered the worst of Michael, with catastrophic damage reported due to the extreme winds and storm surge. Numerous homes were flattened and trees felled over a wide swath of the panhandle. A maximum wind gust of 129 mph was measured at Tyndall Air Force Base near the point of landfall; as Michael tracked across the Southeastern United States, strong winds caused extensive power outages across the region. Early on October 2, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring a broad area of low pressure that had developed over the southwestern Caribbean Sea. While strong upper-level winds inhibited development, the disturbance became better organized as it drifted northward and eastward toward the Yucatán Peninsula.
By October 6, the disturbance had developed well-organized deep convection, although it still lacked a well-defined circulation. The storm was posing an immediate land threat to the Yucatán Peninsula and Cuba. Thus, the NHC initiated advisories on Potential Tropical Cyclone Fourteen at 21:00 UTC that day. By the morning of October 7, radar data from Belize found a closed center of circulation, while satellite estimates indicated a sufficiently organized convective pattern to classify the system as a tropical depression; the newly-formed tropical cyclone quickly strengthened into Tropical Storm Michael at 16:55 UTC that day. The nascent system meandered before the center relocated closer to the center of deep convection, as reported by reconnaissance aircraft, investigating the storm. Despite moderate vertical wind shear, Michael proceeded to strengthen becoming a high-end tropical storm early on October 8, as the storm's cloud pattern became better organized. Continued intensification occurred, Michael attained hurricane status on the same day.
Shortly afterwards, rapid intensification ensued and deep bursts of convection were noted within the eyewall of the growing hurricane, as it passed through the Yucatán Channel into the Gulf of Mexico late on October 8, clipping the western end of Cuba. Meanwhile, a 35 nmi wide eye was noted to be forming; the intensification process accelerated on October 9, with Michael becoming a major hurricane at 21:00 UTC that day. In addition, the central pressure in the eye was noted to have dropped about 20 mb in the span of 6 hours, into the first hours of October 10. Rapid intensification continued throughout the day as a well-defined eye appeared, culminating with Michael achieving its peak intensity at 18:00 UTC that day as a high-end Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 155 mph and a minimum central pressure of 919 mbar, just below Category 5 intensity, as it made landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States near Mexico Beach, ranking by pressure as the third-most intense Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in the United States.
Once inland, Michael began to weaken, as it moved over the inner Southeastern United States, with the eye dissipating from satellite view, weakening to a tropical storm twelve hours after it made landfall. However, Michael managed to reach Georgia as a Ca
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment. NOAA was formed in 1970 and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees, its research and operations are further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps. Since October 2017, NOAA has been headed by Timothy Gallaudet, as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA interim administrator. NOAA plays several specific roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the US economy and into the larger global community: A Supplier of Environmental Information Products. NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere.
This is clear through the production of weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather Service, but NOAA's information products extend to climate and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is a steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, local and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate and water, commerce and transportation; the five "fundamental activities" are: Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data. Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time.
Engaging and informing the public and partner organizations with important information. Managing resources for the betterment of society and environment. NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies, some of which were among the oldest in the federal government: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807 Weather Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917Another direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration, into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965. NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4 and formed on October 3, 1970 after U. S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment… for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources."
In 2007, NOAA celebrated 200 years of service in its role as successor to the United States Survey of the Coast. In 2013, NOAA closed 600 weather stations. Since October 25, 2017 Timothy Gallaudet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, has served as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the US Department of Commerce and NOAA's interim administrator. Gallaudet succeeded Benjamin Friedman, who served as NOAA's interim administrator since the end of the Obama Administration on January 20, 2017. In October 2017, Barry Lee Myers, CEO of AccuWeather, was proposed to be the agency's administrator by the Trump Administration. NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices, the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Ocean Service, the National Weather Service, the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and the Office of Marine & Aviation Operations, and in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library, the Office of Program Planning and Integration.
The National Weather Service is tasked with providing "weather and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, 13 river forecast centers, more than 120 local weather forecast offices. They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories and warnings on a daily basis, they issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion; the NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio, a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements and warnings 24 hours a day; the National Ocean Service focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe and productive.
NOS scientists, natural resource managers, specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation, promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, conserving mari
1928 Okeechobee hurricane
The Okeechobee hurricane of 1928 known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest hurricanes in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin. It developed off the west coast of Africa on September 6 as a tropical depression, but it strengthened into a tropical storm that day, shortly before passing south of the Cape Verde islands. Further intensification was slow and halted late on September 7. About 48 hours the storm strengthened and became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe on September 12, where it brought great destruction and resulted in 1,200 deaths; the islands of Martinique and Nevis reported damage and fatalities, but not nearly as severe as in Guadeloupe. Around midday on September 13, the storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane and peaked with sustained winds of 160 mph. About six hours the system made landfall in Puerto Rico. Strong winds resulted in severe damage in Puerto Rico.
Heavy rainfall led to extreme damage to vegetation and agriculture. On Puerto Rico alone, there were about $50 million USD in damage. While crossing the island and emerging into the Atlantic, the storm weakened falling to Category 4 intensity, it began crossing through the Bahamas on September 16. The storm made landfall near Florida early on September 17, with winds of 145 mph. In the city, more than 1,711 homes were destroyed; the storm surge caused water to pour out of the southern edge of the lake, flooding hundreds of square miles to depths as great as 20 feet. Numerous houses and buildings were swept away in the cities of Belle Glade, Canal Point, Chosen and South Bay, Florida. At least 2,500 people drowned; the system weakened while crossing Florida, falling to Category 1 intensity late on September 17. It curved north-northeast and emerged into the Atlantic on September 18, but soon made another landfall near Edisto Island, South Carolina with winds of 85 mph. Early on the following day, the system weakened to a tropical storm and became an extratropical cyclone over North Carolina hours later.
Overall, the hurricane killed at least 4,112 people. On September 6, ships reported a tropical depression developing just off the west coast of Africa near Dakar, Senegal. On the next day, a ship reported winds of tropical storm status. However, lack of observations for several days prevented the system from being classified in real time as it moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean. On September 10, the S. S. Commack first observed the storm about 900 mi to the east of Guadeloupe, which at the time was the most easterly report of a tropical cyclone received through ship's radio; that day, two other ships confirmed the intensity of the storm, the Hurricane Research Division estimated it strengthened into a hurricane at 18:00 UTC on September 10. As the storm neared the Lesser Antilles, it continued to intensify. Between 17:30 and 18:30 UTC on September 12, the hurricane's eye moved over Guadeloupe with a barometric pressure of 937 mbar, suggesting maximum sustained winds of 140 mph, or Category 4 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson scale.
Continuing to the west-northwest, the hurricane passed about 10 mi south of Saint Croix before approaching Puerto Rico. On September 13, the 15 mi eye crossed Puerto Rico in eight hours from the southeast to the northwest, moving ashore near Guayama and exiting between Aguadilla and Isabela. A ship near the southern coast reported a pressure of 931 mbar, the cup anemometer at San Juan reported sustained winds of 160 mph before failing; as the wind station was 30 mi north of the storm's center, winds near the landfall point were unofficially estimated as high as 200 mph. On this basis, the hurricane is believed to have made landfall in Puerto Rico as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, although there was uncertainty in the peak intensity, due to the large size and slow movement of the storm. After emerging from Puerto Rico, the hurricane had weakened to winds of about 140 mph, based on a pressure reading of 941 mbar at Isabela; the storm brushed the northern coast of Hispaniola while moving west-northwestward restrengthening.
On September 15, it passed within 35 mi of Grand Turk. The storm continued through the Bahamas as a strong Category 4 hurricane, passing near Nassau at 10:00 UTC on September 16. Richard Gray of the U. S. Weather Bureau was optimistic. However, at 00:00 UTC on September 17, the large hurricane made landfall in southeastern Florida near West Palm Beach, with estimated winds of 145 mph; this was based on a pressure reading of 929 mbar in the city, which at the time was the lowest pressure reading in the mainland United States.