1965 Formula One season
The 1965 Formula One season, the 19th season of FIA Formula One racing, featured the 16th World Championship of Drivers and the 8th International Cup for F1 Manufacturers. The two titles were contested concurrently over a ten-round series which commenced on 1 January and ended on 24 October; the season included a number of non championship races for Formula One cars. Jim Clark's second championship included six wins interrupted only by non-starting at Monaco whilst he was away winning the Indianapolis 500. Jackie Stewart finished third in the championship in his debut season and Richie Ginther won his only, Honda's first, grand prix in the final race of the 1.5 litre formula. The Austrian Grand Prix at the Zeltweg Airfield supposed to be run between the German and Italian Grands Prix, was cancelled after safety complaints made by the teams and drivers about the roughness of the track; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1965 FIA World Championship. Points towards the 1965 World Championship of Drivers were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the top six finishers at each round.
Only the best six round results could be retained. Points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis at each round with only the best six round results retained. Only the best placed car from each manufacturer at each round was eligible to score points. Bold results counted to championship totals. Other Formula One races were held in 1965, which did not count towards the World Championship; the last of them, the 1965 Rand Grand Prix, was the first Formula One race for cars with 3-litre engines. 1965 World Championship images at www.f1-photo.com 1965 World Championship race results and images at www.f1-facts.com 1965 FIA Formula One World Championship results at Formula1.com
Formula One car
A Formula One car is a single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel racing car with substantial front and rear wings, an engine positioned behind the driver, intended to be used in competition at Formula One racing events. The regulations governing the cars are unique to the championship; the Formula One regulations specify that cars must be constructed by the racing teams themselves, though the design and manufacture can be outsourced. The modern-day Formula One cars are constructed from composites of carbon fibre and similar ultra-lightweight materials; the minimum weight permissible is 733 kg including the driver but not fuel. Cars are weighed with dry-weather tyres fitted. Prior to the 2014 F1 season, cars weighed in under this limit so teams added ballast in order to add weight to the car; the advantage of using ballast is that it can be placed anywhere in the car to provide ideal weight distribution. This can help lower the car's centre of gravity to improve stability and allows the team to fine-tune the weight distribution of the car to suit individual circuits.
The 2006 Formula One season saw the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile introduce a then-new engine formula, which mandated cars to be powered by 2.4-litre aspirated engines in the V8 engine configuration, with no more than four valves per cylinder. Further technical restrictions, such as a ban on variable intake trumpets, have been introduced with the new 2.4 L V8 formula to prevent the teams from achieving higher RPM and horsepower too quickly. The 2009 season limited engines to 18,000 rpm in order to improve engine cut costs. For a decade, F1 cars had run with 3.0-litre aspirated engines with all teams settling on a V10 layout by the end of the period. Teams started to use exotic alloys in the late 1990s, leading to the FIA banning the use of exotic materials in engine construction, with only aluminium and iron alloys being allowed for the pistons, connecting rods and crankshafts; the FIA has continually enforced design restrictions to limit power. With the restrictions, the V10s in the 2005 season were reputed to develop 980 hp, power levels not seen since the ban on turbo-charged engines in 1989.
The lesser funded teams had the option of keeping the current V10 for another season, but with a rev limiter to keep them competitive with the most powerful V8 engines. The only team to take this option was the Toro Rosso team, the reformed and regrouped Minardi. In 2012, the engines consumed around 450 l of air per second. All cars have the engine located between the rear axle; the engines are a stressed member in most cars, meaning that the engine is part of the structural support framework, being bolted to the cockpit at the front end, transmission and rear suspension at the back end. In the 2004 championship, engines were required to last a full race weekend. For the 2005 championship, they were required to last two full race weekends and if a team changes an engine between the two races, they incur a penalty of 10 grid positions. In 2007, this rule was altered and an engine only had to last for Saturday and Sunday running; this was to promote Friday running. In the 2008 season, engines were required to last two full race weekends.
However, for the 2009 season, each driver is allowed to use a maximum of 8 engines over the season, meaning that a couple of engines have to last three race weekends. This method of limiting engine costs increases the importance of tactics, since the teams have to choose which races to have a new or an already-used engine; as of the 2014 season, all F1 cars have been equipped with turbocharged 1.6-litre V6 engines. Turbochargers had been banned since 1988; this change may give an improvement of up to 29% fuel efficiency. One of the many reasons that Mercedes dominated the season early, was due to the placement of the turbocharger's compressor at one side of the engine, the turbine at the other; the benefit is that air is not traveling through as much pipework, in turn reducing turbo lag and increases efficiency of the car. In addition, it means that the air moving through the compressor is much cooler as it is further away from the hot turbine section. Formula One cars use semi-automatic sequential gearboxes, with regulations stating that 8 forward gears and 1 reverse gear must be used, with rear-wheel drive.
The gearbox is constructed of carbon titanium, as heat dissipation is a critical issue, is bolted onto the back of the engine. Full automatic gearboxes, systems such as launch control and traction control, are illegal, to keep driver skill important in controlling the car; the driver initiates gear changes using paddles mounted on the back of the steering wheel and electro-hydraulics perform the actual change as well as throttle control. Clutch control is performed electro-hydraulically, except to and from a standstill, when the driver operates the clutch using a lever mounted on the back of the steering wheel. A modern F1 clutch is a multi-plate carbon design with a diameter of less than 100 mm, weighing less than 1 kg and ha
Racing flags are traditionally used in auto racing and similar motorsports to indicate track condition and to communicate important messages to drivers. The starter, sometimes the grand marshal of a race, waves the flags atop a flag stand near the start/finish line. Track marshals are stationed at observation posts along the race track in order to communicate both local and course-wide conditions to drivers. Alternatively, some race tracks employ lights to supplement the primary flag at the start/finish line. While there is no universal system of racing flags across all of motorsports, most series have standardized them, with some flags carrying over between series. For example, the chequered flag is used across all of motorsport to signify the end of a session, while the penalty flags differ from series to series. FIA-sanctioned championship flags are the most used internationally as they cover championships such as Formula 1, the FIA World Endurance Championship and WTCC, are adopted by many more motorsport governing bodies across the world such as, for example, the MSA.
Status flags are used to inform all drivers of the general status of the course during a race. In addition, the green and red flags described below may be augmented or replaced by lights at various points around the circuit; the solid green flag is displayed by the starter to indicate the start of a race. During a race, it is displayed at the end of a caution period or a temporary delay to indicate that the race is restarting; the waving of a green flag is universally supplemented with the illumination of green lights at various intervals around the course on ovals. If the race is not under caution or delayed, it is said to be under green-flag conditions. However, the flag itself is not continuously waved by the starter. No flag displayed at the starter's stand implies green-flag conditions. At all times, the green lights remain lit; when shown at a marshalling post, a green flag may indicate the end of a local yellow-flag zone. A separate green flag displayed at the entrance to the pit area indicate.
In NASCAR, a green and yellow flag waved at the same time indicates that the race is being started or restarted under caution and laps are being counted. This is sometimes called a "running yellow" and occurs when a track is drying after a rain delay; the officials will utilize the cars in the field to facilitate the final drying of the course, but in order to not waste fuel, delay the race further, the laps are counted towards the advertised race distance. In 1980, USAC flagman Duane Sweeney started a tradition at the Indianapolis 500 of waving twin green flags for added visual effect at the start of the race. Green flags waved at restarts. Since the 1990s, some races on occasion invite celebrity guests to wave the green flag at the start of the race. Before the use of starting lights in Formula One and most other FIA sanctioned or associated events, the national flag of the country in which a race is occurring, instead of a green flag, was used to signal its start, still does on occasion in the event of equipment failure.
The solid yellow flag, or caution flag, universally requires drivers to slow down due to a hazard on the track an accident, a stopped car, debris or light rain. However, the procedures for displaying the yellow flag vary for different racing styles and sanctioning bodies. In Formula One racing, a yellow flag displayed at the starter's stand or a marshal station indicates that there is a hazard "downstream" of the station; the manner of display depends on the location of the hazard: A single waved flag denotes a hazard on the racing surface itself. A single stationary flag denotes a hazard near the racing surface. Two flags waved denotes a hazard that wholly or blocks the racing surface; this informs the driver that there may be marshals on the track and to prepare to stop, if necessary. When shown at a station, drivers are forbidden from overtaking until either the hazard or the next flag station displaying a green flag is passed; this flag is shown at the discretion of the marshals manning the station.
When the safety car is on the circuit, all flag points will display a'safety car board'. When flag points are under radio control, this will happen otherwise, the board is displayed when the safety car comes round for the first time; this is accompanied by a waved yellow flag. Standard yellow flag conditions apply to the whole circuit; when the safety car comes in and the race resumes, a green flag is displayed at the start line, subsequently at all flag points around the circuit for one lap. Overtaking is not allowed until the cars have passed the start/finish line, or in F1, the safety car line at pit entry; when there are circumstances where double-waved yellow flags are needed yet usage of the safety car is not warranted the race will be under a Virtual Safety Car period, during which all flag points will display a'VSC board' and all light panels on track will display the letters'VSC' surrounded by a flashing yellow border. Under the VSC procedure, all drivers on the track must reduce their speed and stay above a minimum time set by race officials at least once in each marshalling sector.
Overtaking is not permitted unless if another driver enters the pit lane or if a car slows down due to an obvious problem. When deemed safe to end the VSC procedure, teams are notified via the official messaging
McLaren Racing Limited is a British motor racing team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but competes in the Indianapolis 500 and has won the Canadian-American Challenge Cup; the team is the second oldest active Formula One team after Ferrari, where they compete as McLaren F1 Team. They are the second most successful team in Formula One history after Ferrari, having won 182 races, 12 Drivers' Championships and eight Constructors' Championships; the team is a wholly owned subsidiary of the McLaren Group. Founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren, the team won its first Grand Prix at the 1968 Belgian Grand Prix, but their greatest initial success was in Can-Am, which they dominated from 1967 to 1971. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972 and Johnny Rutherford in 1974 and 1976. After Bruce McLaren died in a testing accident in 1970, Teddy Mayer took over and led the team to their first Formula One Constructors' Championship in 1974, with Emerson Fittipaldi and James Hunt winning the Drivers' Championship in 1974 and 1976 respectively.
The year 1974 marked the start of a long-standing sponsorship by Phillip Morris' Marlboro cigarette brand. In 1981, McLaren merged with Ron Dennis' Project Four Racing; this began the team's most successful era: with Porsche and Honda engines, Niki Lauda, Alain Prost, Ayrton Senna took between them seven Drivers' Championships and the team took six Constructors' Championships. The combination of Prost and Senna was dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, the two winning every constructors' title between 1984 and 1994. However, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, the team went three seasons without a win. With Mercedes-Benz engines, West sponsorship, former Williams designer Adrian Newey, further championships came in 1998 and 1999 with driver Mika Häkkinen, during the 2000s the team were consistent front-runners, driver Lewis Hamilton taking their latest title in 2008.
Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing over to long time McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh. However, at the end of 2013, after the team's worst season since 2004, Whitmarsh was ousted. McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz; the team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix. In September 2017, McLaren announced they had agreed on an engine supply with Renault from 2018 to 2020. Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a works driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 World Championship. Wanting to compete in the Australasian Tasman Series, Bruce approached his employers, but when team owner Charles Cooper insisted on using 1.5-litre Formula One-specification engines instead of the 2.5-litre motors permitted by the Tasman rules, Bruce decided to set up his own team to run him and his prospective Formula One teammate Timmy Mayer with custom-built Cooper cars.
Bruce won the 1964 series, but Mayer was killed in practice for the final race at the Longford Circuit in Tasmania. When Bruce McLaren approached Teddy Mayer to help him with the purchase of the Zerex sports car from Roger Penske, Teddy Mayer and Bruce McLaren began discussing a business partnership resulting in Teddy Mayer buying in to Bruce McLaren Motor Racing Limited becoming its largest shareholder; the team was based in Feltham in 1963–1964, from 1965 until 1981 in Colnbrook, England. The team held the British licence. Despite this, Bruce never used the traditional British racing green on his cars. Instead, he used colour schemes. During this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it, he continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that team's form to be waning, decided to race his own cars in 1966. Bruce made the team's Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race.
His race ended after nine laps due to a terminal oil leak. The 1966 car was the M2B designed by Robin Herd, but the programme was hampered by a poor choice of engines: a 3.0-litre version of Ford's Indianapolis 500 engine and a Serenissima V8 were used, the latter scoring the team's first point in Britain, but both were underpowered and unreliable. For 1967 Bruce decided to use a British Racing Motors V12 engine, but due to delays with the engine, was forced to use a modified Formula Two car called the M4B powered by a 2.1-litre BRM V8 building a similar but larger car called the M5A for the V12. Neither car brought the best result being a fourth at Monaco. For 1968, after driving McLaren's sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, racing for McLaren in Can-Am; that year's new M7A car, Herd's final design for the team, was powered by Cosworth's new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine and with
Michael Schumacher is a retired German racing driver who raced in Formula One for Jordan Grand Prix and Ferrari, where he spent most of his career, as well as for Mercedes upon his return to the sport. Regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers and regarded by some as the greatest of all time, Schumacher is the only driver in history to win seven Formula One World Championships, five of which he won consecutively; the most successful driver in the history of the sport, Schumacher holds the records for the most World Championship titles, the most Grand Prix wins, the most fastest laps and the most races won in a single season, according to the official Formula One website, Schumacher was "statistically the greatest driver the sport has seen" at the time of his retirement from the sport. After success in karting as a child, Schumacher won titles in Formula König and Formula Three before joining Mercedes in the World Sportscar Championship. In 1991, his Mercedes-funded race debut for the Jordan Formula One team resulted in Schumacher being signed by Benetton for the rest of that season.
He finished third in 1992 and fourth in 1993, before becoming the first German World Drivers' Champion in 1994 by one point over Damon Hill, albeit in controversial circumstances. In 1995 he repeated this time with a greater margin. In 1996, Schumacher moved to Ferrari, who had last won the Drivers' Championship in 1979, helped them transform into the most successful team in Formula One history, as he came close to winning the 1997 and 1998 titles, before breaking his leg at the 1999 British Grand Prix, ending another title run. Schumacher won five consecutive drivers' titles from 2000 to 2004, including an unprecedented sixth and seventh title. In 2002, Schumacher won the title with a record six races remaining and finished on the podium in every race. In 2004, Schumacher won twelve out of the first thirteen races and went on to win a record 13 times as he won his final title. Schumacher retired from Formula One after finishing runner-up to Renault's Fernando Alonso. Schumacher returned to Formula One in 2010 with Mercedes.
He produced the fastest qualifying time at the 2012 Monaco Grand Prix, achieved his only podium on his return at the 2012 European Grand Prix, where he finished third. In October 2012, Schumacher announced, his career was controversial, as he was twice involved in collisions in the final race of a season that determined the outcome of the World Championship, with Damon Hill in 1994 in Adelaide, with Jacques Villeneuve in 1997 in Jerez. Schumacher is an ambassador for UNESCO and has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts throughout his life, donating tens of millions of dollars to charity. Schumacher and his younger brother, are the only siblings to win races in Formula One, they were the first brothers to finish 1st and 2nd in the same race, a feat they repeated in four subsequent races. On 29 December 2013, Schumacher suffered a traumatic brain injury in a skiing accident, he was placed in a medically induced coma for six months until 16 June 2014. He left the hospital in Grenoble for further rehabilitation at the University Hospital of Lausanne.
On 9 September 2014, Schumacher was relocated to his home where he continues to receive medical treatment and rehabilitation privately. As of 2016 he remained unable to stand. Schumacher was born in Hürth, North Rhine-Westphalia, to Rolf Schumacher, a bricklayer, his wife Elisabeth; when Schumacher was four, his father modified his pedal kart by adding a small motorcycle engine. When Schumacher crashed it into a lamp post in Kerpen, his parents took him to the karting track at Kerpen-Horrem, where he became the youngest member of the karting club, his father soon built him a kart from discarded parts and at the age of six Schumacher won his first club championship. To support his son's racing, Rolf Schumacher took on a second job renting and repairing karts, while his wife worked at the track's canteen; when Michael needed a new engine costing 800 DM, his parents were unable to afford it. Regulations in Germany require a driver to be at least fourteen years old to obtain a kart license. To get around this, Schumacher obtained a license in Luxembourg at the age of 12.
In 1983, he obtained his German license, a year. From 1984 on, Schumacher won many European kart championships, he joined Eurokart dealer Adolf Neubert in 1985 and by 1987 he was the German and European kart champion he quit school and began working as a mechanic. In 1988 he made his first step into single-seat car racing by participating in the German Formula Ford and Formula König series, winning the latter. In 1989, Schumacher signed with Willi Weber's WTS Formula Three team. Funded by Weber, he competed in the German Formula 3 series, winning the title in 1990, he won the Macau Grand Prix. At the end of 1990, along with his Formula 3 rivals Heinz-Harald Frentzen and Karl Wendlinger, he joined the Mercedes junior racing programme in the World Sports-Prototype Championship; this was unusual for a young driver: most of Schumacher's contemporaries would compete in Formula 3000 on the way to Formula One. However, Weber advised Schumacher that being exposed to professional press conferences and driving powerful cars in long distance races would help his career.
In the 1990 World Sportscar Championship season, Schumacher won the season finale at the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez in a Sauber–Mercedes C11, finished fifth in the drivers' championship despite only driving
History of Formula One
Formula One automobile racing has its roots in the European Grand Prix championships of the 1920s and 1930s, though the foundation of the modern Formula One began in 1946 with the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's standardisation of rules, followed by a World Championship of Drivers in 1950. The sport's history parallels the evolution of its technical regulations. In addition to the world championship series, non-championship Formula One races were held for many years, the last held in 1983 due to the rising cost of competition. National championships existed in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and 1970s. Formula One was first defined in 1946 by the Commission Sportive Internationale of the FIA, forerunner of FISA, as the premier single seater racing category in worldwide motorsport to become effective in 1947; this new "International Formula" was known variously as Formula A, Formula I, or Formula 1 with the corresponding "Voiturette" formula being titled Formula B, Formula II, or Formula 2.
When the 500c formula was internationally recognised as Formula 3 in 1950 it was never titled as "Formula C" so the three International Formulae were "officially" titled Formula 1, Formula 2 and Formula 3. In the beginning, the formula was based on pre-World War II regulations defined by engine capacity; the regulation expected to bring a new balance between supercharged and aspirated cars. Non-supercharged 4.5-litre pre-war Grand Prix cars were allowed to race against the pre-war 1.5-litre supercharged'voiturettes', while pre-war supercharged 3-litre Grand Prix cars were banned. The first race under the new regulations was the 1946 Turin Grand Prix held on 1 September, the race being won by Achille Varzi in an Alfa Romeo 158 Alfetta. Championships for drivers or constructors were not introduced immediately. In the early years there were around 20 races held from late Spring to early Autumn in Europe, although not all of these were considered significant. Most competitive cars came from Italy Alfa Romeo.
Races saw pre-war heroes like Rudolf Caracciola, Manfred Von Brauchitsch and Tazio Nuvolari end their careers, while drivers like Alberto Ascari and Juan Manuel Fangio rose to the front. See 1950 season, 1951 season, 1952 season, 1953 season, 1954 season, 1955 season, 1956 season and 1957 season; the Motorcycle World Championships was introduced in 1949. In 1950, the FIA responded with the first official World Championship for Drivers; the championship series, to be held across six of the'major' Grands Prix of Europe plus the Indianapolis 500, was in effect a formalization of what had been developing in Grand Prix racing during the previous years. Italian teams of Alfa Romeo and Maserati were best positioned to dominate the early years. Other national manufacturers – such as the French manufacturer Talbot or the British BRM – competed, although less successfully. A number of private cars took part in local races; the Italian and German factory teams in those days employed 2 to 3 drivers whose nationality was the same as the team's and at least 1 foreign driver.
Alfa Romeo dominated all before them in the 1950 season, winning every race bar one in the championship with the pre-war "Alfetta" 158s. The sole exception was the Indianapolis 500, part of the championship, although not run to Formula One regulations and contested by the European teams; the race would never be important for Formula One and was no longer part of the championship after 1960. Nino Farina won the inaugural championship, Juan Manuel Fangio taking it in 1951 with the Alfa-Romeo 159, an evolution of the 158; the Alfetta's engines were powerful for their capacity: In 1951 the 159 engine was producing around 420 bhp but this was at the price of a fuel consumption of 125 to 175 litres per 100 km. Enzo Ferrari, who had raced the Alfettas before the war, his engine designer Aurelio Lampredi, were the first to understand that the 1.5-litre supercharged engine was a dead end: Any increase in power meant more fuel to carry or more time lost in the pits for refuelling, For the last races of 1950 Ferrari sent his 1.5-litre supercharged 125s to the museum, fielded the new V12 4.5-litre aspirated 375s.
With a fuel consumption of around 35 litres per 100 kilometres the 375s offered fierce opposition to the Alfettas towards the end of the 1951 season. Alfa Romeo, a state-owned company, decided to withdraw after a refusal of the Italian government to fund the expensive design of a new car. Alfa Romeo involvement in racing was made with a thin budget, using pre-war technology and material during the two seasons. For instance the team won two championships using only nine pre-war built engine blocks. No Alfa Romeo, a supporting cast of privateer Lago-Talbot entries and an undriveable, unreliable BRM would make Ferrari invincible; the FIA was in an embarrassing position as it had announced that current Formula One regulations would last until 1954 before switching to 2.5-litre atmospheric engines. Major manufacturers were working to develop cars for the future regulation and it was obvious that nobody would develop a new car for only two years; the promoters of the World Championship Grands Prix, mindful of the lack of serious competition for the Alfettas all adopted Formula Two regulations for two years.
However, Ferrari's dominance went on with the light 4-cylinder powered 500s, bringing Italian Alberto Ascari his two championships in the 1952 and 1953 seasons
2019 Formula One World Championship
The 2019 FIA Formula One World Championship is an ongoing motor racing championship for Formula One cars which marks the 70th running of the Formula One World Championship. It is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Starting in March and ending in December, the championship is being contested over 21 Grands Prix. Drivers are competing for the title of World Drivers' Champion, teams for the World Constructors' Champion; the 2019 championship is scheduled to see the running of the 1000th World Championship race, in China. Lewis Hamilton is the defending World Drivers' Champion, after winning his fifth championship title in the previous season, Mercedes are the defending World Constructors' Champions, after winning their fifth consecutive championship. Ten teams, with two drivers each, are competing in the championship in 2019. Red Bull Racing switched to Honda engines.
In doing so, Red Bull Racing joined sister team Scuderia Toro Rosso in using Honda power after Scuderia Toro Rosso joined the Japanese manufacturer in 2018. Neither team will be recognised as Honda's official factory team under the terms of the agreement. Racing Point F1 Team completed their transition from the Racing Point Force India identity that they used after their purchase of the assets of Sahara Force India in August 2018. Sauber was renamed Alfa Romeo Racing in an extension of the sponsorship deal that began in 2018; the Sauber name will disappear from the Formula One grid, but will still be used in the Formula 2 and Formula 3 support categories. The lead up to the 2019 championship saw several driver changes. Daniel Ricciardo moved to Renault after five years with Red Bull Racing, replacing Carlos Sainz Jr.. Ricciardo's drive at Red Bull Racing has been taken by Pierre Gasly, promoted from Scuderia Toro Rosso, the team with whom he made his first Formula One start in 2017. Daniil Kvyat rejoined Toro Rosso after last racing for the team in 2017.
He was partnered with Formula 2 driver Alexander Albon. Albon subsequently became only the second Thai driver to race in Formula One after Prince Bira. Sainz, on loan to Renault in 2018, did not have his deal with Red Bull renewed and subsequently moved to McLaren to replace two-time World Drivers' Champion Fernando Alonso, who had earlier announced that he would not compete in Formula One in 2019. Sainz was partnered with 2017 European Formula 3 champion Lando Norris. Stoffel Vandoorne left McLaren after the 2018 season to race in Formula E with the Mercedes-affiliated HWA Team. Charles Leclerc left Sauber after one year with the team, joining Ferrari where he took the place of Kimi Räikkönen. Räikkönen returned to Sauber, now renamed Alfa Romeo, with whom he had started his career in 2001, he was partnered with Antonio Giovinazzi, who made two starts for the team when he replaced the injured Pascal Wehrlein in 2017. Marcus Ericsson will race in the IndyCar Series in 2019 with Schmidt Peterson Motorsports but will remain at Alfa Romeo as third driver and brand ambassador.
Reigning Formula 2 champion George Russell joined Williams. Robert Kubica made his return to Formula 1. Kubica's return comes after an eight-year absence brought on by a near-fatal rally car crash in 2011 that left him with serious arm injuries. Esteban Ocon joined Mercedes as reserve driver. Ocon will share the role of simulator driver with Stoffel Vandoorne. Ocon has been replaced at Racing Point by Lance Stroll; the following twenty-one Grands Prix are due to be run as part of the 2019 World Championship. Each race is run over a minimum number of laps; the Mexican and United States Grands Prix swapped places on the calendar so that the United States round follows the Mexican Grand Prix. Race Director and Technical Delegate Charlie Whiting died unexpectedly just days before the opening race of the season in Australia. Deputy Race Director Michael Masi was named as his temporary successor. In a bid to improve overtaking, teams agreed to a series of aerodynamic changes that affect the profile of the front and rear wings.
The front wing endplates were reshaped to alter the airflow across the car and reduce the effects of aerodynamic turbulence, winglets above the main plane of the front wing have been banned. The slot in the rear wing was widened; the agreed-upon changes were drawn from the findings of a working group set up to investigate potential changes to the technical regulations in preparation for the 2021 championship. Parts of the technical regulations governing bodywork were rewritten in a bid to promote sponsorship opportunities for teams; the agreed changes are to mandate smaller bargeboards and limit aerodynamic development of the rear wing endplates to create more space for sponsor logos. The changes were introduced as a response to falling revenues amid teams and the struggles of smaller teams to secure new sponsors; the mandated maximum fuel levels were raised from 105 kg to 110 kg so as to minimise the need for drivers to conserve fuel during a race. Driver weights are no longer considered; this change was agreed to following concerns that drivers were being forced to lose dangerous amounts of weight in order to offset the additional weight of the post-2014 generation of turbo-hybrid engines.
Drivers who weigh less than 80 kg will have to make up this weight with ballast, loc