Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Formula One sponsorship liveries
Formula One sponsorship liveries have been used since the late 1960s, replacing the previously used national colours. With sponsors becoming more important with the costs in Formula One. The liveries are usually changed for every season in the sport, many teams keep some consistency over the years however, like the red colour of Ferrari, which has its origin in a shade of red known as rosso corsa being the national racing colour of Italy. At historical events, cars are allowed to use the livery which was used when the car was actively competing, automobiles Gonfaronnaises Sportives were founded in Gonfaron, France, in the late 1960s, but only entered Formula One in 1986. Alfa Romeo was a Formula One constructor between 1950 and 1951, and again between 1979 and 1985, in 1950-1951 and 1979 the team used the rosso corsa national color of Italy. In 1980 they switched to a livery sponsorsored by Phillip Morris Marlboro cigarette brand, in 1984 the Italian clothing brand Benetton took over Alfa Romeos livery sponsorship, which they held until the withdrawal of Alfa Romeo from Formula One at the end of 1985.
Benetton Formula Ltd. commonly referred to simply as Benetton, was a Formula One constructor that participated from 1986 to 2001, the team was owned by the Benetton family who run a worldwide chain of clothing stores of the same name. In 2000 the team was purchased by Renault, but competed as Benetton for the 2001 season, in 2002 the team became Renault F1. From the 1991 to 1993, Camel sponsored the Benetton team, after having been an engine supplier in the 1980s and again since 2000, BMW entered Formula One with a works team of its own in 2006 after buying the Swiss Formula One constructor Sauber. Although the cars had many sponsorship logos on them, the pattern was based on the traditional BMW Motorsport team colours of white with light blue, dark blue. White is the national racing colour of Germany, while white and blue are the colours of Bavaria. On 27 November 2009, BMW agreed to sell the back to its original founder, Peter Sauber. The 2010 Formula One season marked Saubers return as an independent constructor, prior to sponsorships, Brabham raced in turquoise with a gold band running across the car.
This changed to green and gold, the colours of Australia. In 1975 and 1976, Brabham received sponsorship from Martini, in 1976 the color changed from white to red. Brabham changed from red to white and received sponsorship from the Parmalat until 1984, One year later, they switched to Olivetti, a scheme retained until 1989. In 1989, Brabham signed with Bioptron, a brand of Zepter International, since then, it was sponsored by many Japanese companies like Garage Italiya, a company that imports Italian cars in Japan, Nippon Shinpan, and Mitsukoshi. Prior the swansong of Brabham in 1992, the team raced in blue, after Honda pulled out of F1 at the end of 2008, team boss Ross Brawn struggled to find a buyer to save the team, eventually buying it himself
1953 Formula One season
The 1953 Formula One season was the seventh season of the FIAs Formula One racing. It consisted only of a number of motor races. As in 1952, the FIA chose to limit all Grand Prix races counting towards the World Championship of Drivers to cars complying with Formula Two regulations rather than with Formula One. The 4th FIA World Championship of Drivers, which commenced on 18 January and ended on 13 September after nine races, was won by Alberto Ascari, Ascari became the first driver to successfully defend his title. In addition to the non-championship Formula One races and the World Championship Formula Two races, the 1953 championship was the first truly global World Championship of Drivers, with a championship event being stage outside of Europe or the United States for the first time. That race, the 1953 Argentine Grand Prix, was marred by an accident involving the Ferrari of Giuseppe Farina, the 1953 World Championship of Drivers was contested over a nine race series. The Spanish Grand Prix, scheduled to be staged on 26 October, was cancelled, the following teams and drivers competed in the 1953 FIA World Championship of Drivers.
Championship points were awarded to first five finishers in each race on an 8,6,4,3,2 basis, points for shared drives were divided equally between the drivers, regardless of the number of laps driven by each. 1 point was awarded for the fastest lap in each race. The point was shared equally between drivers sharing the fastest lap, only the best four results from the nine races counted towards a drivers total points in the World Championship. Numbers without parentheses are retained championship points and numbers within parentheses are total points scored, * Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between more drivers of the same car ‡ Several cars were shared in this race. See the race page for details, the following Formula One/Formula Two races, which did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers, were held during 1953
Dottore Giuseppe Antonio “Nino” Farina, was an Italian racing driver and was the first official Formula One World Champion, gaining the title in 1950. He was the Italian Champion in 1937,1938 and 1939, during his thirty-year racing career he suffered a series of accidents. Born in Turin, Farina was the son of Giovanni Carlo Farina who founded the Stabilimenti Farina coachbuilder, Giuseppe began driving a two-cylinder Temperino, at the age of just nine. He became a Doctor of Political Science, he excelled at skiing, football. He cut short a career as an officer with the Italian army to fulfil a different ambition. While still at university Farina purchased his first car, a second-hand Alfa Romeo, while trying to beat his father, he crashed, breaking his shoulder and receiving facial cuts, establishing a trend that continued throughout his crash-prone career. It was Nuvolari who to some extent, guided Farina’s early career, in 1935, he raced for the factory Maserati team, showing enough promise to impress Enzo Ferrari, who recruited him to drive for Scuderia Ferrari, the team that ran the works-supported Alfa Romeos.
It was in an Alfa Romeo 8C that he finished second in the Mille Miglia and he made mistakes aplenty, but kept coming back for more and became a Grand Prix winner, when he won the 1937 Grand Prix of Naples. Although he was noted for his style and intelligence, he had a petulant streak. He was involved in two fatal accidents, the first was during the 1936 Grand Prix de Deauville, when he tried to pass Marcel Lehoux for second. Farina’s Alfa Romeo 8C collided with Lehoux’s ERA, causing the ERA to overturn, Lehoux was thrown out, received a fractured skull and died in hospital, while Farina escaped with minor injuries. Two seasons later, during the 1938 Gran Premio di Tripoli, the cars to collided and overturned. Farina survived without injuries, but Hartmann died the following day. In 1938, the official Alfa Romeo team, Alfa Corse, returned to motor sport and Farina was a member. Driving the new Alfa Romeo 158 Voiturette in 1939, he won the Grand Prix d’Anvers, Coppa Ciano, the following year, he won the Tripoli Grand Prix and finished second in the Mille Miglia for the third time.
After World War II, Farina returned to Alfa Corse to drive their 158 and he won the 1946 Grand Prix des Nations. However, he left Alfa Corse after a disagreement over team leadership and he came back to the sport in 1948 with a privately entered Maserati and a works Ferrari. During this period, he got married to Elsa Giaretto, in her opinion motor sport was a silly and dangerous activity, and she tried to persuade Farina to stop
John Surtees, CBE was an English Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver. He founded the Surtees Racing Organisation team that competed as a constructor in Formula One, Formula 2 and he was the ambassador of the Racing Steps Foundation. Surtees was the son of a south London motorcycle dealer and he had his first professional outing, which they won, in the sidecar of his fathers Vincent. However, when officials discovered Surteess age, they were disqualified. He entered his first race at 15 in a grasstrack competition, in 1950, at the age of 16, he went to work for the Vincent factory as an apprentice. He made his first headlines in 1951 when he gave Norton star Geoff Duke a strong challenge in an ACU race at the Thruxton Circuit, in 1955, Norton race chief Joe Craig gave Surtees his first factory sponsored ride aboard the Nortons. He finished the year by beating reigning world champion Duke at Silverstone, in 1956 Surtees won the 500cc world championship, MV Agustas first in the senior class.
In this Surtees was assisted by the FIMs decision to ban the defending champion, Geoff Duke, in the 1957 season, the MV Agustas were no match for the Gileras and Surtees battled to a third-place finish aboard a 1957 MV Agusta 500 Quattro. When Gilera and Moto Guzzi pulled out of Grand Prix racing at the end of 1957, Surtees and MV Agusta went on to dominate the competition in the two larger displacement classes. In 1958,1959 and 1960, he won 32 out of 39 races, in 1960, at the age of 26, Surtees switched from motorcycles to cars full-time, making his Formula 1 debut racing in the 1960 BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone for Team Lotus. On 25 September 1965, Surtees had an accident at the Mosport Circuit while practising in a Lola T70 sports racing car. A front upright casting had broken, baime in his book Go Like Hell says Surtees came out of the crash with one side of his body four inches shorter than the other. Doctors set most of the breaks nonsurgically, in part by physically stretching his body until the right-left discrepancy was under an inch –.
The 1966 season saw the introduction of new, larger 3-litre engines to Formula One, Surteess debut with Ferraris new F1 car was at the 1966 BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone, where he qualified and finished a close second behind Jack Brabhams 3-litre Brabham BT19. A few weeks later, Surtees led the Monaco Grand Prix, pulling away from Jackie Stewarts 2-litre BRM on the straights, a fortnight Surtees survived the first lap rainstorm which eliminated half the field and won the Belgian Grand Prix. Due to perennial strikes in Italy, Ferrari could afford to enter two cars for the 196624 Hours of Le Mans instead of its usual entry of three prototypes. Under Le Mans rules in 1966 each car was allowed only two drivers, Surtees was omitted from the line-up and one team Ferrari was to be driven by Mike Parkes and Ludovico Scarfiotti and the other by Jean Guichet and Lorenzo Bandini. This excuse was deeply upsetting to Surtees, and he quit the team
Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a racer who completed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. Back to back World titles in 1952 and 1953 sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952, Ascari won the legendary Mille Miglia in 1954. When Alberto was a child, his father, who was a racing driver. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza and he was preparing for the Supercortemaggiore 1000 kilometre race that he was to have run with his protégé Eugenio Castellotti on the weekend that followed the accident. The son of one of Italys great pre-war drivers, Alberto Ascari went on to one of Formula One racings most dominant. His unexplained fatal accident – at the age as his fathers, on the same day of the month. Born in Milan, Ascari was the son of Antonio Ascari, such was his passion to become a racing driver like his father, twice he ran away from school.
He raced motorcycles in his earlier years, at the age of just 19, Ascari was signed to ride for the Bianchi team. He married a girl the same year. When Italy entered World War II, the garage, now run by Alberto, was conscripted to service. It was during this period, he established a transport business. His partner in the enterprise was a racing driver, Luigi Villoresi. The pair did survive being capsized in Tripoli harbour along with a shipment of lorries, as their business supported the Italian war effort, it made them exempt from being called up during the war. Following the end of World War II Alberto Ascari began racing in Grands Prix with Maserati 4CLT and his teammate was Villoresi, who would become a mentor and friend to Ascari. The pair were successful on the circuits in the North of Italy, soon he was bestowed with the nickname Ciccio, meaning Tubby. Formula One regulations were introduced by the FIA in 1946, with the aim of replacing the pre-war Grand Prix structure
Michael Schumacher is a German retired racing driver. He is a seven-time Formula One World Champion and is regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time. He was named Laureus World Sportsman of the Year twice and he won two titles with Benetton in 1994 and 1995 before moving to Ferrari where he drove for eleven years. His time with Ferrari yielded five consecutive titles between 2000 and 2004, Schumacher holds many of Formula Ones driver records, including most championships, race victories, fastest laps, pole positions and races won in a single season –13 in 2004. In 2002, he became the driver in Formula One history to finish in the top three in every race of a season and also broke the record for most consecutive podium finishes. According to the official Formula One website, he is statistically the greatest driver the sport has ever seen, after beginning in karting, Schumacher won the German drivers championships in Formula König and Formula Three before joining Mercedes in the World Sportscar Championship.
In 1991, his Mercedes-funded race debut for the Jordan Formula One team resulted in Schumacher being signed by Benetton Formula One team as their driver for the rest of that season. Establishing himself as a top driver, finishing third in 1992 and fourth in 1993, in 1995 he repeated the success, this time with a greater margin. Schumacher moved to Ferrari in 1996, Schumacher came close to winning the 1997 and 1998 titles, before breaking his leg at the 1999 British Grand Prix, ending another title run. Things came good for Schumacher who won five consecutive drivers titles from 2000 to 2004. Schumacher retired from Formula One driving in 2006 staying with Ferrari as an advisor and he came close to an eighth title that year, but due to technical problems in the final two races he fell short to Fernando Alonso. Schumacher agreed to return for Ferrari part-way through 2009, as cover for the badly injured Felipe Massa, Schumacher returned to Formula One on a permanent basis from 2010 with the Mercedes team before retiring for a second time at the conclusion of the 2012 season.
Off the track, Schumacher is an ambassador for UNESCO and a spokesman for driver safety and he has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts throughout his life and donated tens of millions of dollars to charity. In December 2013, Schumacher suffered a head injury while skiing. He was airlifted to a hospital and placed in an induced coma. He was in the coma for six months from 29 December 2013 until 16 June 2014 and he left the hospital in Grenoble for further rehabilitation at the University Hospital in Lausanne. On 9 September 2014, Schumacher was relocated to his home where he continues to receive medical treatment, Schumacher was born in Hürth, North Rhine-Westphalia, to Rolf Schumacher, a bricklayer, and his wife Elisabeth. When Schumacher was four, his father modified his pedal kart by adding a small motorcycle engine, when Schumacher crashed it into a lamp post in Kerpen, his parents took him to the karting track at Kerpen-Horrem, where he became the youngest member of the karting club
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition