Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilizes sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be related to road-going models. A type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, over pure speed. Longer races involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes; as a result, sports car racing is seen more as a team endeavor than an individual sport, with team managers such as John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest becoming as famous as some of their drivers. The prestige of storied marques such as Porsche, Corvette, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, BMW is built in part upon success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship.
These makers' top road cars have been similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the'exotic' nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars; the 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing. Driver Ken Miles would have been the only to win all three in the same year but for an error in the Ford GT40's team orders at Le Mans in 1966 that cost him the win in spite of finishing first. According to historian Richard Hough, "It is impossible to distinguish between the designers of sports cars and Grand Prix machines during the pre-1914 period; the late Georges Faroux always contended that sports-car racing was not born until the first 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1923, while as a joint-creator of that race he may have been prejudiced in his opinion, it is true that sports-car racing as it was known after 1919 did not exist before the First World War."
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car; the legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s. During the 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto-Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars – marques such as Delahaye and the Bugattis were locally prominent. Through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers and sports cars, whether descended from roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia. In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there.
As Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category came to be known as Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Sportscar Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers. Top Grand Prix drivers competed in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3-litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage. In the US, imported Italian and British cars battled local hybrids, with very distinct East and West Coast scenes; the US scene tended to featu
2019 Formula One World Championship
The 2019 FIA Formula One World Championship is an ongoing motor racing championship for Formula One cars which marks the 70th running of the Formula One World Championship. It is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Starting in March and ending in December, the championship is being contested over 21 Grands Prix. Drivers are competing for the title of World Drivers' Champion, teams for the World Constructors' Champion; the 2019 championship is scheduled to see the running of the 1000th World Championship race, in China. Lewis Hamilton is the defending World Drivers' Champion, after winning his fifth championship title in the previous season, Mercedes are the defending World Constructors' Champions, after winning their fifth consecutive championship. Ten teams, with two drivers each, are competing in the championship in 2019. Red Bull Racing switched to Honda engines.
In doing so, Red Bull Racing joined sister team Scuderia Toro Rosso in using Honda power after Scuderia Toro Rosso joined the Japanese manufacturer in 2018. Neither team will be recognised as Honda's official factory team under the terms of the agreement. Racing Point F1 Team completed their transition from the Racing Point Force India identity that they used after their purchase of the assets of Sahara Force India in August 2018. Sauber was renamed Alfa Romeo Racing in an extension of the sponsorship deal that began in 2018; the Sauber name will disappear from the Formula One grid, but will still be used in the Formula 2 and Formula 3 support categories. The lead up to the 2019 championship saw several driver changes. Daniel Ricciardo moved to Renault after five years with Red Bull Racing, replacing Carlos Sainz Jr.. Ricciardo's drive at Red Bull Racing has been taken by Pierre Gasly, promoted from Scuderia Toro Rosso, the team with whom he made his first Formula One start in 2017. Daniil Kvyat rejoined Toro Rosso after last racing for the team in 2017.
He was partnered with Formula 2 driver Alexander Albon. Albon subsequently became only the second Thai driver to race in Formula One after Prince Bira. Sainz, on loan to Renault in 2018, did not have his deal with Red Bull renewed and subsequently moved to McLaren to replace two-time World Drivers' Champion Fernando Alonso, who had earlier announced that he would not compete in Formula One in 2019. Sainz was partnered with 2017 European Formula 3 champion Lando Norris. Stoffel Vandoorne left McLaren after the 2018 season to race in Formula E with the Mercedes-affiliated HWA Team. Charles Leclerc left Sauber after one year with the team, joining Ferrari where he took the place of Kimi Räikkönen. Räikkönen returned to Sauber, now renamed Alfa Romeo, with whom he had started his career in 2001, he was partnered with Antonio Giovinazzi, who made two starts for the team when he replaced the injured Pascal Wehrlein in 2017. Marcus Ericsson will race in the IndyCar Series in 2019 with Schmidt Peterson Motorsports but will remain at Alfa Romeo as third driver and brand ambassador.
Reigning Formula 2 champion George Russell joined Williams. Robert Kubica made his return to Formula 1. Kubica's return comes after an eight-year absence brought on by a near-fatal rally car crash in 2011 that left him with serious arm injuries. Esteban Ocon joined Mercedes as reserve driver. Ocon will share the role of simulator driver with Stoffel Vandoorne. Ocon has been replaced at Racing Point by Lance Stroll; the following twenty-one Grands Prix are due to be run as part of the 2019 World Championship. Each race is run over a minimum number of laps; the Mexican and United States Grands Prix swapped places on the calendar so that the United States round follows the Mexican Grand Prix. Race Director and Technical Delegate Charlie Whiting died unexpectedly just days before the opening race of the season in Australia. Deputy Race Director Michael Masi was named as his temporary successor. In a bid to improve overtaking, teams agreed to a series of aerodynamic changes that affect the profile of the front and rear wings.
The front wing endplates were reshaped to alter the airflow across the car and reduce the effects of aerodynamic turbulence, winglets above the main plane of the front wing have been banned. The slot in the rear wing was widened; the agreed-upon changes were drawn from the findings of a working group set up to investigate potential changes to the technical regulations in preparation for the 2021 championship. Parts of the technical regulations governing bodywork were rewritten in a bid to promote sponsorship opportunities for teams; the agreed changes are to mandate smaller bargeboards and limit aerodynamic development of the rear wing endplates to create more space for sponsor logos. The changes were introduced as a response to falling revenues amid teams and the struggles of smaller teams to secure new sponsors; the mandated maximum fuel levels were raised from 105 kg to 110 kg so as to minimise the need for drivers to conserve fuel during a race. Driver weights are no longer considered; this change was agreed to following concerns that drivers were being forced to lose dangerous amounts of weight in order to offset the additional weight of the post-2014 generation of turbo-hybrid engines.
Drivers who weigh less than 80 kg will have to make up this weight with ballast, loc
Formula One engines
Since its inception in 1947, Formula One has used a variety of engine regulations. "Formulas" limiting engine capacity had been used in Grand Prix racing on a regular basis since after World War I. The engine formulae are divided according to era. Formula One uses 1.6 litre four-stroke turbocharged 90 degree V6 reciprocating engines. The power a Formula One engine produces is generated by operating at a high rotational speed, up to 15,000 revolutions per minute; this contrasts with road car engines of a similar size which operate at less than 6,000 rpm. The basic configuration of a aspirated Formula One engine had not been modified since the 1967 Cosworth DFV and the mean effective pressure had stayed at around 14 bar MEP; until the mid-1980s Formula One engines were limited to around 12,000 rpm due to the traditional metal valve springs used to close the valves. The speed required to operate the engine valves at a higher rpm called for stiffer springs, which increased the power loss to drive the camshaft and the valves to the point where the loss nearly offset the power gain through the increase in rpm.
They were replaced by pneumatic valve springs introduced by Renault, which inherently have a rising rate that allowed them to have high spring rate at larger valve strokes without much increasing the driving power requirements at smaller strokes, thus lowering the overall power loss. Since the 1990s, all Formula One engine manufacturers used pneumatic valve springs with the pressurised air allowing engines to reach speeds of over 20,000 rpm. Formula One cars use short stroke engines. To operate at high engine speeds, the stroke must be short to prevent catastrophic failure from the connecting rod, under large stresses at these speeds. Having a short stroke means a large bore is required to reach a 1.6 litre displacement. This results in a less efficient combustion stroke at lower rpm; the stroke of a Formula One engine is 39.7 mm, less than half the 80 mm bore diameter, what is known as an over-square configuration. In addition to the use of pneumatic valve springs a Formula One engine's high rpm output has been made possible due to advances in metallurgy and design, allowing lighter pistons and connecting rods to withstand the accelerations necessary to attain such high speeds.
Improved design allows narrower connecting rod ends and so narrower main bearings. This permits higher rpm with less bearing-damaging heat build-up. For each stroke, the piston goes from a virtual stop to twice the mean speed back to zero; this occurs once for each of the four strokes in the cycle: one Intake, one Compression, one Power, one Exhaust. Maximum piston acceleration occurs at top dead center and is in the region of 95,000 m/s2, about 10,000 times standard gravity. Formula One engines have come through a variety of regulations and configurations through the years; this era used pre-war voiturette engine regulations, with 4.5 L atmospheric and 1.5 L supercharged engines. The Indianapolis 500 used pre-war Grand Prix regulations, with 4.5 L atmospheric and 3.0 L supercharged engines. The power range was up to 425 hp, though the BRM Type 15 of 1953 achieved 600 hp with a 1.5 L supercharged engine. In 1952 and 1953, the World Drivers' Championship was run to Formula 2 regulations, but the existing Formula One regulations remained in force and a number of Formula One races were still held in those years.
Naturally-aspirated engine size was reduced to 2.5 L and supercharged cars were limited to 750 cc. No constructor built a supercharged engine for the World Championship; the Indianapolis 500 continued to use old pre-war regulations. The power range was up to 290 hp. Introduced in 1961 amidst some criticism, the new reduced engine 1.5 L formula took control of F1 just as every team and manufacturer switched from front to mid-engined cars. Although these were underpowered, five years average power had increased by nearly 50% and lap times were better than in 1960; the old 2.5 L formula had been retained for International Formula racing, but this didn't achieve much success until the introduction of the Tasman Series in Australia and New Zealand during the winter season, leaving the 1.5 L cars as the fastest single seaters in Europe during this time. The power range was between 150 225 hp. In 1966, with sports cars capable of outrunning Formula 1 cars thanks to much larger and more powerful engines, the FIA increased engine capacity to 3.0 L atmospheric and 1.5 L compressed engines.
Although a few manufacturers had been clamouring for bigger engines, the transition wasn't smooth and 1966 was a transitional year, with 2.0 L versions of the BRM and Coventry-Climax V8 engines being used by several entrants. The appearance of the standard-produced Cosworth DFV in 1967 made it possible for small manufacturers to join the series with a chassis designed in-house. Compression devices were allowed for the first time since 1960, but it wasn't until 1977 that a company had the finance and interest of building one, when Renault debuted their new Gordini V6 Turbo at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone that year. In 1980 Renault proved that turbocharging was the way to go in order to stay competitive in Formula One. Following this, Ferrari introduced their all-new turbocha
1979 Formula One season
The 1979 Formula One season was the 33rd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1979 International Cup for F1 Constructors which were contested concurrently over a fifteen-round series which commenced on 21 January 1979, ended on 7 October; the season included three non-championship Formula One races. Jody Scheckter of Scuderia Ferrari won the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers while Scuderia Ferrari won 1979 International Cup for F1 Constructors. Gilles Villeneuve made it a 1–2 for Ferrari in the championship, concluding a successful second half of the 1970s for Ferrari. Alan Jones finished the season for Williams, finishing third in the championship and with teammate Clay Regazzoni scoring Williams's first Grand Prix win as a constructor. Scheckter's title was Ferrari's last drivers' title for 21 years, before Michael Schumacher won five consecutive titles for the team between 2000 and 2004; as of 2018, this is the only season the championship was won by a driver not from Europe, America, or Oceania countries.
The following drivers and constructors contested the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1979 International Cup for F1 Constructors. Several high-profile changes happened among the leading teams for this season, as the death of Swedish driver Ronnie Peterson the previous September precipitated a merry-go-round of some of the most regarded drivers on the grid; the dominant Lotus team signed Carlos Reutemann from Ferrari to replace Peterson. Ferrari took on Jody Scheckter to fill the gap, the Wolf team hired James Hunt in his place. McLaren replaced Hunt with fellow British contender John Watson, whose place at Brabham was taken by the regarded but inexperienced Nelson Piquet, who had competed at the last race of the previous season in Canada. Like in previous years, the opening race of the season was in Argentina at the Buenos Aires circuit located on the outskirts of the capital city. Most people expected the Lotus cars driven by defending champion Mario Andretti, his new teammate Carlos Reutemann to dominate but, to many people's surprise, it was the Ligier team that dominated qualifying, with Jacques Laffite on pole ahead of Patrick Depailler, leaving home favorite Reutemann to qualify third.
Laffite led at the start with Depailler following, but the two men starting on the third row, John Watson in the McLaren collided with Jody Scheckter's Ferrari at the fast first 2 corners, creating chaos behind. Four other cars were collected and the race was red-flagged, aside from Piquet's injury, no one else was injured; the race restarted after the mess was cleared, this time Depailler set off into the lead with Jean-Pierre Jarier's Tyrrell and Watson following him. But soon Laffite was up to second, a few laps he took the lead from Depailler; the Ligiers drove away, whereas Jarier struggled and dropped down the order with engine troubles, leaving Watson third before he was passed by a recovering Reutemann. Laffite went on and won comfortably, but teammate Depailler suffered a misfire and dropped to fourth, leaving Reutemann second and Watson third; the drivers stayed in South America for the second round, held in Brazil, returning to the 5-mile Interlagos circuit in São Paulo. The Ligiers were in top form again, Laffite taking pole comfortably with Depailler alongside, with the Lotuses led by Reutemann on the second row.
This time, Laffite was able to lead right from the first corner with Reutemann taking second from Depailler, but Depailler regained the place soon after and Andretti passed his teammate to take third. Andretti however soon retired with a misfire, so Reutemann was back in third. Laffite dominated as he had in Buenos Aires, completing his clean sweep of the South American segment of this Formula One season, although he was pushed by Depailler all the way – Depailler finished 2nd to Laffite to complete a 1–2 for Ligier and Reutemann completing the podium. There was a four-week break between South African GPs. At the high-altitude Kyalami circuit between Johannesburg and Pretoria, Ferrari debuted their new ground-effect 312T4 to replace the 312T3 at this race, used for the South American rounds. Jean-Pierre Jabouille took pole in the turbocharged Renault and home hero Jody Scheckter put his Ferrari second on grid, just in front of teammate Gilles Villeneuve, the Ligiers were only on the third row.
Jabouille led at the start with Villeneuve and Scheckter following, but Villeneuve took the lead on second lap before the race was stopped by a rainshower. When the race restarted, most drivers were on wets. Villeneuve led at the restart and built up a gap, but the track dried and he had to pit for slicks along with most of the field; this left Scheckter leading comfortably, he looked well set for a home win until he had to pit for new tyres, handing the lead back to Villeneuve and in behind, Patrick Tambay ran third in his McLaren, until he was passed by Jarier. It was Villeneuve who won the race with Scheckter close behind, Jarier taking the final spot on the podium. Five weeks after the South African race, the field went to the United States to compete at the gruelling Long Beach street circuit near Los Angeles, California. Qualifying saw Villeneuve taking his first career pole position with Reutemann alongside him on the front row ahead of Scheckter. Before the race started, Reutemann
1990 Formula One World Championship
The 1990 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 44th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1990 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1990 Formula One World Championship for Constructors, which were contested concurrently over a sixteen-race series that commenced on 11 March and ended on 4 November. Ayrton Senna won the Drivers' Championship for the second time, McLaren-Honda won their third consecutive Constructors' Championship; the championship featured a dramatic battle between Senna and former teammate Alain Prost, who had made the switch to Ferrari. Prost mounted Ferrari's first title challenge for several years, led the championship after three consecutive mid-season wins. Senna fought back and went into the penultimate round at the Suzuka circuit in Japan with a nine-point lead over Prost. There, Senna took pole position only for Prost to beat him off the line; this was the second year in succession. Senna admitted the following year that the collision was deliberate, as he was furious that Prost had been able to start on the clean side of the grid and had decided that he was not going to allow the Frenchman to'make the corner' should he lose the start.
The following teams and drivers competed in the 1990 FIA Formula One World Championship. McLaren retained 1988 champion Ayrton Senna, now partnered by Gerhard Berger. Ferrari signed reigning World Champion Alain Prost, Senna's great rival and former teammate, to partner Nigel Mansell; the other main team, retained their 1989 pairing of Thierry Boutsen and Riccardo Patrese. Benetton retained Alessandro Nannini, now in his third year with the team, signed triple world champion Nelson Piquet, who had had two disappointing years at Lotus in 1988 and 1989. Piquet's contract turned out to be incentive-based: he would be paid US$100,000 for every point scored, though he was paid a season retainer. With experienced Japanese driver Satoru Nakajima having left Lotus for Tyrrell, the Hethel-based team signed Derek Warwick and young Northern Irish driver Martin Donnelly; the cars would be powered by the Lamborghini V12 engine, as would the Lola cars used by the French Larrousse team. Tyrrell retained Jean Alesi for his first full season of Formula One, whilst Nakajima replaced the retired Jonathan Palmer.
Brabham kept Italian Stefano Modena, but Martin Brundle left F1 to return to the World Sportscar Championship with TWR, his place taken first by Swiss driver Gregor Foitek and by David Brabham, the youngest son of team founder and triple world champion Sir Jack Brabham. Foitek moved to the Onyx team, now part-owned by his father Karl Foitek. Arrows boss Jackie Oliver had sold the majority of the team to the Japanese Footwork company, while Italians Michele Alboreto and Alex Caffi replaced Warwick and Eddie Cheever, who returned home to America to embark on a successful career in IndyCar racing. During the off-season, German teams Zakspeed and Rial pulled out of Formula One. Zakspeed had withdrawn after five unsuccessful seasons and returned to sports car racing, while Rial had folded after just two seasons. New Italian team Life appeared on the grid, their car powered by their own unconventional W12 engine design. David Brabham's older brother Gary piloted the car in the first two rounds before pulling out and being replaced by Bruno Giacomelli, returning to F1 for the first time since the end of 1983.
In all, there were 19 teams and 35 cars at the start of 1990, meaning that nine cars from six teams would be required to pre-qualify during the first half of the season. The teams were Larrousse, AGS, EuroBrun, Osella and Life; the first race of the year was held on an angular street circuit in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Unexpected rain in qualifying led to a grid with Gerhard Berger on pole position with Pierluigi Martini second in the Minardi, Andrea de Cesaris third in the Dallara, Jean Alesi fourth in the Tyrrell, Ayrton Senna down in fifth and Nelson Piquet sixth. Alesi took the lead at the start ahead of Berger, de Cesaris, Senna and Piquet. Alesi pulled away and Berger was dropping back. Senna passed de Berger hit a wall on lap 9, forcing him to pit, he retired with clutch problems. Alesi was 8.2 seconds ahead but Senna started to reel him in. Senna attacked on lap 34 but Alesi defended and kept the lead. Senna did the job properly one lap and pulled away to win. Behind, Thierry Boutsen passed Piquet to take third with Stefano Modena's Brabham and Satoru Nakajima's Tyrrell getting the final points.
The Brazilian Grand Prix had returned to the Interlagos Autodrome in São Paulo for the first time since 1980, having been at the Jacarepagua Riocentro Autodrome in Rio de Janeiro for 9 previous seasons consecutively, 1978. The circuit had been shortened from 4.9 mi to 2.6 mi. During qualifying and Berger were 1–2 with Boutsen and Patrese 3–4 and the Ferraris of Nigel Mansell and Alain Prost behind them. At the start, Senna led Berger, Prost and Mansell. Boutsen could not keep up with Senna. At the stops, Boutsen ran into a tyre and had to change his nose cone, dropping back to 11th and some good work from the Ferrari crew got Prost ahead of Berger and Mansell ahead of Patrese. Senna was ahead of Prost, Mansell, Patrese an
Rob Walker Racing Team
Rob Walker Racing Team was a privateer team in Formula One during the 1950s and 1960s. Founded by Johnnie Walker heir Rob Walker in 1953, the team became F1's most successful privateer in history, being the first and only entrant to win a World Championship Formula One Grand Prix without building their own car. Born in 1917, the 35-year-old Rob Walker founded his team in 1953, debuting in the Lavant Cup Formula 2 race, entering a Connaught for driver Tony Rolt, where he achieved a third place; the next race, at Snetterton, Eric Thompson was the first winner with a Rob Walker car. Between Rolt and Thompson, the Rob Walker Racing Team had an auspicious debut season, with eight wins in British club racing series, their international debut was at the Rouen Grand Prix, a mixed F1/F2 race, with Stirling Moss's Cooper-Alta, who managed to take 4th place among the F2 cars. The 1953 British Grand Prix was Walker's first World Championship outing, but Rolt's Connaught did not last the full distance. Walker, who entered his cars in Scottish national colours, continued to race in British club events in the following years.
From 1954 to 1956, Walker made a few scattered appearances, only winning a Formula 2 race at Brands Hatch in 1956 with Tony Brooks. Walker returned full-time in 1957 with an F2 Cooper-Climax. Tony Brooks, who shared driving duties during the season with Jack Brabham and Noel Cunningham-Reid, won the Lavant Cup, but the team failed to finish most of its races. In 1958, Rob Walker concentrated only on the large international events. Pre-WWII veteran Maurice Trintignant was signed full-time, with Moss and Brooks racing when they were free from their Vanwall commitments; the season started well enough for the team, with Moss and Trintignant winning at Argentina and Monaco, the first wins for a Cooper chassis. Those would be the only World Championship victories, but Trintignant triumphed at Pau and Auvergne, while Moss took the victory at the BARC 200, Caen Grand Prix and Kentish 100. Moss and Trintignant remained with the team for 1959, with the British driver winning at the Glover Trophy in Goodwood, but for the French and British GP races, he left Walker for his father's British Racing Partnership outfit, where he failed to score.
Moss returned in the German Grand Prix, where he retired, but returned to winning form in Portugal and International Gold Cup. Trintignant's best score was second place at the US Grand Prix. Walker decided to concentrate on Moss and switched to a Lotus in 1960, starting from Monaco, which Moss won, the first time a Lotus won a Formula 1 race. Moss would triumph only at the non-championship International Gold Cup in Oulton Park and the US GP at Riverside, but still managed to finish the season in third place overall, as had happened the previous year. After the end of the season, in December, Walker took Moss to two South African races. In 1961, F1 adopted the new 1.5 L engine regulations, Walker flirted with the idea of building his own chassis, but retained the Lotus 18 for the season. Moss won the non-championship races at Goodwood in the 2.5 L Intercontinental Formula and Vienna, as well as the Monaco and German Grands Prix. At the 1961 British Grand Prix, Rob Walker Racing became the first team to enter a four-wheel drive car for a World Championship Grand Prix, when they entered the Ferguson P99 on behalf of Ferguson Research.
Moss won that season's Oulton Park International Gold Cup race in the same car. The 1962 season started well enough, with the returning Trintignant winning at Pau, but Walker's plans were shaken when Moss had an accident at the Goodwood Glover Trophy meeting driving a BRP-entered Lotus, finishing his career. Walker had planned to enter a Ferrari for the British driver in the World Championship, but was forced to retain Trintignant, the elder French driver becoming uncompetitive, not scoring a single championship point; the year's misfortunes continued in Mexico and South Africa, where Walker saw drivers Ricardo Rodriguez and Gary Hocking die at the wheel of his cars. Rob Walker changed strategy for 1963, employing Jo Bonnier and returning to the Cooper chassis, but once more results were sparse and mechanical failures frequent. Still, the team beefed up its operations for 1964, first with a new Cooper and with a Brabham-BRM, with Bonnier and other guest drivers driving at several World Championship events.
From the Italian GP, Walker had decided to run two cars, a BT11 chassis with BRM power, a BT7 chassis with Climax power. In 1965, Jo Siffert partnered Bonnier, although the more experienced Swede was fastest, it was the Swiss who managed to score 5 championship points. With constant mechanical failure plaguing him, Bonnier's best result was a third place at the non-championship Race of Champions. With the new 3.0 L regulations starting in 1966, Bonnier left Walker to restart Ecurie Bonnier, Siffert remained alone with Walker, with the Maserati-engined Cooper T81. The car was uncompetitive in 1967, in 1968 Walker, now partnered with entrepreneur Jack Durlacher, purchased a Cosworth-powered Lotus 49; that year, Siffert won the British Grand Prix through attrition, after the works Lotuses retired, Siffert overpowered Chris Amon to take what would be Rob Walker's final win. Siffert left the team at the end of 1969, after finishing the year in 9th place, Rob Walker Racing Team competed for the last time in 1970, entering a Lotus 72 for driver Graham Hill, now 40 years old
Formula One tyres
Formula One tyres play a significant role in the performance of a Formula One car. The tyres have undergone major changes throughout the history of Formula One, with different manufacturers and specifications used in the sport. Formula One tyres bear only a superficial resemblance to a normal road tyre. Whereas the latter has a useful life of up to 80,000 km, the tyres used in Formula One are built to last less than one race distance; the purpose of the tyre determines the compound of the rubber to be used. In wet weather, such as that seen in the 2007 European Grand Prix, the F1 cars are unable to keep up with the safety car in deep standing water due to the risk of aquaplaning. In wet races such as the 2011 Canadian Grand Prix, the tyres are unable to provide a safe race due to the amount of water, so the race can be red flagged; the race is either stopped permanently, or suspended for any period of time until the cars can race safely again. During the 1950s and 1960s, Formula One tyres were supplied by Dunlop, Firestone and Goodyear.
In 1958, Dunlop introduced its R5 racing tyre, replacing the cotton fabric of the earlier R1 through R4 tyres with nylon fabric, allowing for a reported 12 lb reduction in tyre weight. During the 1960s, Dunlop introduced improved nylon casings, reduced aspect ratio increased tyre width, the use of synthetic rubber. Slick tyres were introduced to Formula One by Firestone at the 1971 Spanish Grand Prix. During the turbo era and until 1992, Goodyear supplied white sidewall marked Eagle tyres with the sizes of 25.0"x10.0"-13" in the front and 26.0"x15.0"-13" in the rear. For the 1993 season, the maximum section width of the rear tyres was reduced from 18" to 15", prompting Goodyear to change to yellow sidewall markings to correspond to the new, narrower tyres. For the 1997 F1 season, Bridgestone joined Goodyear in supplying tyres to F1 competitors, creating a competition between the two manufacturers. In 1998 grooved tyres were introduced with three grooves in the front tyres and four grooves in the rear tyres.
Between 1999 and 2008, regulations required the tyres to feature a minimum of four grooves in them, with the intention of slowing the cars down. They could be no wider than 355 mm at the front and 380 mm at the rear, the maximum diameter was 660 mm, or 670 mm for wet tyres. In 2005, tyre changes were disallowed in Formula One, therefore the compounds were harder as the tyres had to last the full race distance of around 300 km. Tyre changes were re-instated in 2006, following the dramatic and political 2005 United States Grand Prix. For 2007, Bridgestone became the sole tyre supplier in Formula One with the withdrawal of Michelin, introduced four compounds of tyre, two of which are made available at each race; the harder tyre is more durable but gives less grip, the softer tyre gives more grip but is less durable. Both compounds have to be used by each car during a race and the softer tyre had a painted white stripe in the second groove to distinguish between compounds; this was introduced after the first race of the season when confusion occurred because a small dot was put on the sidewall of the tyre, instead of the white stripe.
Upon the reintroduction of slicks in 2009, the sidewalls of the softer tyres were painted green to indicate the difference in compound, as there were no longer any grooves in tyres. Each team must use each specification during the race, unless wet or intermediate tyres are used during the race, in which case this rule no longer applies. Slick tyres were reintroduced at the beginning of 2009, along with aerodynamic changes intended to shift the balance towards mechanical grip in an attempt to increase overtaking. On 2 November 2009, Bridgestone announced their withdrawal from Formula One at the end of the 2010 season. Michelin, Cooper Avon and Pirelli showed interest in taking over the role of tyre supplier. In June 2010, it was announced that Pirelli would be the sole tyre supplier for 2011 and would receive a three-year contract. During August 2010, Pirelli commenced its test programme with the Toyota TF109 at the Mugello Circuit with Nick Heidfeld as the test driver. From 2011, the feeder GP2 Series would use identical Pirelli tyres as in F1.
With the sole tyre supplier having been changed from Bridgestone to Pirelli, the rules were the same as the 2010 season rules concerning the tyres. All teams still were required to use each type of dry tyre compound supplied in the race, drivers that made it through to Q3 still had to use the same tyres they used to set their fastest qualifying time with to start the race. However, the way of denoting different tyre specifications was changed. Rather than a green stripe denoting a softer compound, for each tyre specification, the lettering on the tyre would have a specific colour; the hard compound would have silver lettering, the medium compound would have white lettering, the soft tyres would have yellow lettering and the super-soft tyres would have red lettering. For the wet tyres, the intermediate tyres would have light blue lettering and the full wet tyres would have orange lettering. At the 2011 Malaysian Grand Prix, Pirelli introduced a coloured band around the outside of the tyre on the softer of the two dry compounds.
This was due to confusion during the first round of the season. This measure was said to be a stop gap, with a permanent solution due to be implemented at the first European race of the season; the coloured line featured at the Chinese Grand Prix too. From the Turkish Grand Prix, the permanent solution was implemented; the option tyre